AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more!

Chapter 06 - From Empire to Independence

AttachmentSize
Chapter6.doc5.91 KB
The Seven Years War in America
Colonial leaders met to unite against France and Indians
 
The Albany Conference of 1754
Plan of Union
Indian affairs, western settlement be under authority of a grand council
 
The Colonial and Indian Interests
Ohio valley in French hands, British want valley for settlement=conflict
Indians tried to play French and Brits off
 
Frontier Warfare
George Washington forced to surrender his force to the French while trying to kick them out of the Ohio Valley=retaliation
Hard to unite the colonies to fight together=ineffective resistance
 
The Conquest of Canada
Pitt reversed the war by promising Indians to negotiate=co-operation and sending in British troops
England would pay for the war
Plains of Abraham, Montcalm vs. Wolfe=Quebec falls, Montreal follows
Treaty of Paris=Brits win
Brits get Florida and New France, French get Martinique and Guadeloupe and Spain get New Orleans from France
 
Indians and Europeans Struggle over the West
Europeans bought favor from Indian chiefs, but Brits stopped that in Ohio valley=anger
Neolim and Pontiac attack Brits to regain land
Conflict ends in stalemate=Appalachians become border for Indians
However without French to balance of the status quo Indians grow weaker and lose more land
 
The Imperial Crisis of North America
After Seven Years war Britain begins to reorganization
 
The Emergence of American Nationalism
Culture differences, British officers beat their soldiers=discipline
Colonial soldiers were lax
Mutual distrust led to American unity
Fighting in the Seven Years war allowed colonials to associate with each other=unity
Improved infrastructure=better communications
Newspapers began circulating
Peter Zenger tried for libel against the state=freedom of speech
 
Politics, Republicanism, and the Press
Influenced by Locke and others
Get rid of aristocracy
Wanted more power for assembly vs. strong state with king to keep masses in line
 
The Sugar Act
Only affected merchants
Seven Years war left Britain in debt, attempts to tax people at home were met with protests=tax the colonists!
Sugar Acts=tax on sugar
Bostonians boycotted British products
Offenders were tried at the Vice Admiralty Court in Halifax which was hated because mad no presumption of innocence and had no jury trial
 
The Stamp Act
Affected everyone unlike the sugar act
Mad no only cause of tax but because they had no say in the decision
Rich got richer and poor got poorer= tax hit the poor harder=mob unrest
Stamp Act Congress, passed a set of resolutions denying Parliaments right to tax colonists without representation
 
Repeal of the Stamp Act
Hurt by the colonial boycott, British merchants persuade Parliament to repeal the act
Parliament reserves the right to make all decisions in colonies=Declaratory Act
 
Save Your Money and Save Your Country
Stamp Act mostly affected people in the countryside but acts to come resulted everyone
 
The Townshend Revenue Acts
Import duties on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea
Again argued that Parliament had no right to tax
Didn't want salaries of royal colonial officials to be paid by Britain otherwise they would be dependent on Britain, not the colonial government
New York resisted and had its assembly suspended=anger as that was unconstitutional
 
Nonimportation" An Early Political Boycott
Boycott in many American cities
Split opinion, boycott hurt merchants but helped craftsmen=use of force to subdue merchants
Argued that no importation stopped material decadence (like Protestantism)=appealed to the countryside
 
The Massachusetts Circular Letter
Written to try to get the colonies to come up with a united response to the Townshend Act=Britain dissolves all colonial assemblies
The dissolution of the assemblies sparked new protests
British troops go into Boston
 
The Politics of Revolt and the Boston Massacre
Small riots leading to the Boston Massacre
However Townshend Act also repealed due to boycott
 
The Resistance to Rebellion
Years before the Tea Act were laid out the groundwork for rebellion
 
Intercolonial Cooperation
All royal salaries were dependent of the state legislature
Intercolonial committee to gather intelligence on Brits
Conspiracy to undermine freedom in the colonies
 
The Boston Tea Party
East India Company had to much tea=low prices
Brits tax cheap tea, price is still cheaper that normal
Americans still revolt
When the first tea ship arrives in Boston, the people vow to not allow it to be unloaded in contradiction to Hutchison=Boston Tea Party
 
The Intolerable Acts
Meetings were allowed only once a year and the agenda was set by Brits
Boston Port Bill=no commerce in harbor until Boston Tea Party was paid for
Quartering Act=Quartering for British troops
Quebec Act=Ohio valley was given to Quebec which had no elected assembly=American suspicion that they were going to have their assemblies taken away
Also favored Catholics
 
The First Continental Congress
Wished to avoid war
Imposed sanctions on Brits until Intolerable acts were repealed
Unity
 
Lexington and Concord
Brits go after an ammo depot and but start fighting
Hopes start to dim for negotiations
 
The Second Continental Congress
Georgia, dependent on Britain did not attend first congress but eventually attended second one
Canadians refuse to join so Americans take Montreal but fail to take Quebec
George Washington attends in uniform-get command of the army
Try one last time to get King George to negotiate
 
Fighting in the North and the South
Battle of Bunker Hill lead King George to refuse to negotiate (large casualties at Bunker Hill)
Cannon bombard Boston from forcing Brits to evacuate
Brits are driven from the south
 
No Turning Back
Second Continental Congress was now government
Negotiated aid from Spain and France
Thomas Paine-Common Sense-attacked aristocracy and British traditions
 
The Declaration of Independence
Jefferson write it
Slavery allowed
New York boycotts
 
Subject: 
Subject X2: 

Need Help?

We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you.

For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.

If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form.

Need Notes?

While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you!