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Chapter 07 - The Creation of the United States

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The War for Independence
Brits had the best army and navy but underestimated Americans
No center for Brits to capture
 
The Patriot Forces
Mostly militia defended
Short terms of enlistment, undisciplined officers
However Continental army fought the big battles
War had to be won with the Continental Army
Continental army was a rallying symbol
Women played a big role (would help them get rights later)
 
The Loyalists
1/5th of the people were loyalists
Went to Canada, Britain and the Caribbean
Many slaves and Indians were loyalists
Brits freed slaves-Americans would push aggressively into Indian territory
Or conservatives who don't like upheaval
Loyalists were not united-couldn't help Brit war effort
Did fight irregular warfare in the south
 
The Campaign for New York and New Jersey
Brits tried to cut off New England but failed=boast to shattered American morale
 
The Politics of Alliances
Wanted a weak American dependent on them
Gave money but reluctant to directly support a republican revolution
Saratoga convinced France to actively support America
Would be the first to recognize America
No peace with Britain without notification of the other
Spain also enters war-gives supplies from New Orleans
Spain wanted to take British possessions in Ohio valley-French were to make sure that Spanish got there before the Americans
Spanish and French navies meant that Britain had to pull troops out from New York to protect Caribbean colonies
 
Indians and the Revolution
Iroquois joined the Brits as the Americans would more aggressively take their land
Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws also joined Britain
However one Iroquois tribe supported America=Iroquois vs. Iroquois
 
The War in the South
Most important fighting
War here begun with slave uprising
Many blacks fought for Britain
New strategy-lobsters would take control step by step and then give the land to the loyalists who would run it
Cornwallis decides to abandon the Carolinas for Yorktown, Virginia=Carolinas fall back into American control
 
Yorktown
French land 5000 troops the north
French and Americans with French fleet surround Yorktown
In England, Lord North resigns, King George wants to carryon= end of the war
 
The United States Congress Assembled
Weak central government
Americans were trying to get rid of a central government in the first place
 
The Articles of Confederation
Wanted a loose union of the states
Majority of the states was needed for a decision-but nine states were needed for a major decision
Federal Government had no power to tax
 
Financing the War
States had their own currency
Continental currency was useless
Bank of North America-run by Robert Morris-stockpiled gold backed up new currency=stability
 
Negotiating the End to the War
French were able to blunt American demands (they had a lot of influence as they financed the American war)
Americans were aware of this and signed a secret treaty with Britain without the French
Therefore Americans only got East of the Mississippi, Canadian fishing rights, instead of all of Canada
But in truth the Mississippi was in Spanish hands
Spain also got Florida back
 
The Crisis of Demobilization
The Brits were leaving (slowly)
American officers were promised life pensions at the expense of half pay if they fought for the entire war, but with the war almost over and Congress still haven't decided on the amount the officers were worried that the issue would go unresolved.  They were able to convert the amount into a bonus and five years of full pay
 
The Problem of the West
Indians were betrayed by both sides
Brits abandoned their allies and Americans still took their allies land
Once population reached 20,000 the territory would get self-government and once it reached the population of the smallest state they would be given statehood.
The Land Ordinance would provide a survey dividing up the land into squares (independent settling)
However Congress was desperate for money and sold most of the land to the Ohio Company (company settling)
The Northwest Territory would be eventually carved up into five states until then it would be ruled by a court of judges and a governor
 
Revolutionary Politics in the States
Most People were loyal to their states
 
The Broadened Base of Politics
During the pre-revolution era more people were involved in politics
South Carolina had relaxed $$ requirements and universal male suffrage
Tory party was destroyed, Whig party was balanced=new left wingers
 
The First State Constitutions
Pennsylvania was radical, Maryland was conservative, New York in the middle
In Pennsylvania once a conservative states, the Tories were all loyalists=they left
Maryland had high $$ requirements for office
 
Declarations of Rights
All states had rights based on the Virginia Declarations of Rights
16 resolutions that said people are free
People had the right to abolish an oppressive government
 
The Spirit of Reform
Revolutionary atmosphere breed reform
Female suffrages in New Jersey
Women played a big role in revolution therefore could demand more a after
Jefferson repealed the Law of Entails (land couldn't be split up after death by heirs) this was a symbol that aristocratic England was gone
Jefferson: Establishing Religious Freedom
Anglicans were loyalists so they couldn't oppose
Enlightenment=people could chose religion
Jefferson wanted to also get public education, reduce crimes for capital punishment, and free slaves
 
African Americans and the Revolution
Most slaves fought for Brits
In the north slavery was abolished
Slaves freed did increase=black schools, churches community
 
Economic Problems
Big inflation from Congress printing paper money
Food riots due to high prices
Few exports vs. lots of imports
 
State Remedies
Manufacturing states introduced tariffs, however to be effective it had to be a national effort
Farmers wanted legal tender laws=allow debts to be paid in goods, or in the state currency regardless of its worth
In Rhode Island, people could pay their debts in the state currency
 
Shay's Rebellion
When merchants forced farmers to pay off debts in hard currency which the farmers didn't have, many were sent to jail=rebellion
Gave firepower to conservatives, clip the wings of mad democracy
 

 

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