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Gas Laws

characteristics of gas -  

  • possible for substance to coexist as solid, liquid, and gas at the same time
  • vapor - gaseous form of a substance normally existing as liquid/solid
  • expands to fill the container it’s in (gas volume = volume of container)
  • pressure added to gas >> gas gets compressed easily >> volume decreases
  • form homogeneous mixtures (regardless of type of gases involved)

pressure - force acted upon a given area

  • P = F/A
  • newton (N) - SI unit for force, kg-m/s2
  • pascal (Pa) - SI unit for pressure, N/m2
    • kPA = 1000 Pa
    • bar = 105 Pa, approximate atmospheric pressure at sea level
  • barometer - invented by Evangelista Torricelli, measures atmospheric pressure
    • manometer - used to measure pressure of liquids/gases, similar to barometer
  • standard atmospheric pressure = pressure needed to support column of mercury 760 mm high
    • atm = 760 mm Hg, 760 torr = 1.01325 x 105 Pa = 101.325 kPa
    • 1 torr = 1 mm Hg

Boyle’s Law - pressure-volume relationship

  • volume of gas (at constant temperature) inversely proportional to pressure
  • P1V1 = P2V2

Charle’s Law - temperature-volume relationship

  • volume of gas (at constant pressure) directly proportional to temperature
  • V1/T1 = V2/T2

Avogadro’s Law - quantity-volume relationship

  • law of combining volumes - at given pressure/temperature, volumes of reacting gases exist in simple ratios
  • equal volumes of gases at same temperature/pressure have equal numbers of molecules
  • volume of gas (at constant pressure/temperature) directly proportional to number of moles of gas
  • V = constant x n
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