AP Psychology Outline
Chapter 10: Motivation & Emotion
Red – Definition
Blue - Important Points
Green - Important People & Contributions
- Motivational Theories & Concepts
- Motivation – Involves Goal-Directed Behavior
- Drive Theories
i. Homeostasis – A State of Physiological Equilibrium or Stability.
ii. Drive – An Internal State of Tension that Motivates an Organism to Engage in Activities that should Reduce this Tension.
1. When you Experience Discomfort, An Internal Drive motivates you to Establish Homeostasis again.
iii. Drive Theories Don’t Explain All Motivation.
- Incentive Theory
i. Incentive – An External Goal that has the Capacity to Motivate Behavior.
ii. Incentive Theory revolves around External Stimuli, Not Internal like Drive Theory.
- Evolutionary Theory
i. Motivation comes from Natural Selection.
- Range & Diversity of Human Motives
i. Biological Motives – Motives pertaining to Homeostasis. (Food, Drink, Sex)
ii. Social Motives – Motives Pertaining to Social Experiences. (Achievement, Dominance, etc.)
iii. People all have Same Biological Motives, but all have Different Social Motives.
- Motivation of Hunger & Eating
- Hunger is Controlled in Brain by the Hypothalamus.
- Glucose – Simple Sugar that is an Important Source of Energy.
i. Most Food taken into Body is Converted into Glucose.
- Glucostats – Neurons Sensitive to Glucose in the Surrounding Fluid.
i. Glucostats modulate some eating Habits.
- Insulin Secretions play a Role in the Fluctuations of Hunger.
i. Leptin Hormone plays role between Stomach and Hypothalamus.
- Environmental Factors & Hunger
- Availability of Food – If Food is Available, People are more likely to Eat.
- Learned Habits – If People develop Food Habits, they will stick to those Habits.
- Stress – With More Stress, Comes More Eating.
- The Roots of Obesity
- Obesity – The Condition of Being Overweight.
- Body Mass Index (BMI) – Weight/Height (Squared).
- Some People have Mild Genetic Predispositions to Eat More.
- Set Point Theory – The Body Monitors Fat Cell Levels to keep them (And Weight) Fairly Stable.
i. Explains how People usually put back on Weight after they lose it.
- Settling-Point Theory – Weight Tends to Drift around the Level at Which the Constellation of Factors that Determine Food Consumption and Energy Expenditure achieves an Equilibrium.
- Dietary Restraint – People are Constantly thinking about Food While Dieting, so Overindulge More.
- Sexual Motivation & Behavior
- Estrogens – The Principal Class of Gonadal Hormones in Females.
- Androgens – The Principal Class of Gonadal Hormones in Males.
- Erotic Material – Men are More aroused by Erotic Material than Women.
- Pornography alters attitudes towards Women and Aggressive Pornography could Lead to more Sexual Assaults.
- Coolidge Effect - New Partners Excite New Sexual Urges.
- Evolutionary Analysis of Human Sexual Behavior
- Parental Investment Theory – Robert Triver – Refers to what Each Sex has to Invest, In Terms of Time, Energy, Survival Risk, and Forgone Opportunities, to Produce and Nurture Offspring.
- Men with More advantages will Be More attractive to Women.
- Males are usually More Competitive for Mating, Females are usually More Choosing.
- Men are supposed to Spread their “Seed” Over as Many women as Possible.
- Men are More Into Sex than Women are.
- Men Want Women who are more Youthful (More Fertile Years) and More Attractive (Healthy).
- Women want Reliable Man, Men want Attractive Women. Sex is the Bargaining Tool.
- David Buss
i. Men Place More Inference on Women Attractiveness.
ii. Women Place More Interest on Money, Strength, Ability of Men.
- Sexual Orientation
- Sexual Orientation – A Person’s Preference for Emotional and Sexual Relationships with Individuals of the Same Sex, the Opposite Sex, or Either Sex.
- Hetero-Sexual – Seek Relationship with Members of Opposite Sex.
- Bi-Sexual – Seek Relationship with Member of either Sex.
- Homo-Sexual – Seek Relationship with members of Same Sex.
i. 5%-8% of Population is probably Homo-Sexual.
- Freud Argues Homo-Sexuality Results from Being Raised by Over-Protective Mother and Detached Poor Weak Father.
- 75%-90% of Highly Feminine Young Boys Turn out to Be Gay When Older. Same for Highly Masculine Young Girls Being Lesbian when Older.
- Roots of Homosexuality are More Biological than Environmental. Showed by Twin Study.
- Women Gay Attitudes Change more then Men’s do.
- Human Sexual Response
- Excitement Phase – Sexual Arousal Rises, and Vasocongestion Occurs.
i. Vasocongestion – Engorgement of Blood Vessels. (Erection)
- Plateau Phase – Arousal Builds at Slower Pace. (Pre-Cum)
- Orgasm Phase – Sexual Arousal Reaches Peak & Discharges. (Ejaculation)
- Resolution Phase – A Refractory Period in Men is Experienced, Women are More likely to Experience Multiple Orgasms.
i. Refractory Period – A Time Following an Orgasm During Which Males are Largely Unresponsive to Further Stimulation.
- Achievement: In Search of Excellence
- Achievement Motive – Need to Master Difficult Challenges, To Outperform Others, and to Meet High Standards of Excellence.
i. Involves Desire to Excel, Especially in Competition with Others.
- Individual Differences in Need for Achievement
i. Personal Competitiveness with Others is Strong in those who Aspire to be Successful.
ii. High Achievers Prefer a Moderate Degree of Challenging.
iii. David McClelland – People with a High Need for Achievement are not Gamblers, They are Challenged to Win by Personal Effort, Not Luck.
- Situational Determinants of Achievement Behavior
i. John Atkinson
1. Motivation to Achieve Success.
2. Personal Estimate of Probability of Success at Hand.
3. Incentive Value of Success.
a. All 3 Are Interconnected.
ii. Emotions can Cause Motivation, and Motivation cans Cause Emotion.
- Elements of Emotional Experience
- Emotion – Involves A Subjective Conscious Experience (Cognitive), accompanied by Bodily Arousal (Physiological), and By Characteristic Overt Expressions (Behavioral).
- Subjective Feelings
i. Emotions are Automatic Reactions that are Hard to Regulate.
- Bodily Arousal
i. Emotions are usually Accompanied by Physiological Effects.
ii. Autonomic Nervous System Responds to Emotions
iii. Galvanic Skin Response – An Increase in the Electrical Conductivity of the Skin that Occurs when Sweat Glands Increase their Activity.
iv. Polygraph – Lie Detector Test that Records Autonomic Fluctuations while a Subject is Questioned.
v. Joseph LeDoux
1. Amygdala responds to Emotions quickly to protect against Danger.
- Overt Expressions
i. Body Language – Non-Verbal Behavior that express Emotions.
ii. 6 Fundamental Emotions: Happiness, Sadness, Anger, Fear, Surprise, & Disgust.
- Culture & Elements of Emotion
i. Different Cultures View Different Body Language Differently.
ii. Display Rules – Norms that Regulate the Appropriate Expression of Emotions.
- Theories of Emotion
- James-Lange Theory – The Conscious Experience of Emotion Results from One’s Perception of Autonomic Arousal.
- Cannon-Bard Theory – Emotion Occurs when the Thalamus sends Signals Simultaneously to the Cortex and Autonomic System.
- Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory – Emotion Depends on Autonomic Arousal and Cognitive Interpretation of that Arousal.
- Evolutionary Theory of Emotion – Emotion is Response to Stimuli that has Evolved through Natural Selection.
i. People are Equipped with “Primal” Emotions.