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Chapter 9-12 - APUSH

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The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
American naval officer; managed a fleet on the shores of Lake Erie in 1813; captured a British fleet on Lake Erie, his victory slogan "We have met the enemy and they are ours" brought new life and inspiration to the American troops, he was a hero during the war.(pg.202).
He was a shawnee indian twin brother to the Prophet. They made a stand against western moving settlers by uniting other tribes. He died in the Battle of Thames while fighting for the British. He was one of the most gifted and noble indian leaders in American history.
Poet that wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" in 1814 during the War of 1812. Written while watching Americans defend Fort McHenry. The poem has become an important part of American identity.
Who: The twin brother of the Shawnee Indian Tecumseh Where and When: Banded together many of the tribes along the Mississippi River in 1811 to stop the white settlers from pushing farther into the western wilderness. The groups of braves forswore firewater in order to be fit for the last-ditch battle with the whites. Significance: The war hawk Congress sent General William H. Harrison to repel a surprise attack at Tippecanoe and burn the settlement. The war hawks began to feel that the only way to remove Indian menace was to wipe out their Canadian base
Andrew Jackson the seventh president of the United States was born on March 15, 1767 in New lancaster County, South Carolina. He became a general in 1812 and was the leader in the Battle of New Orleans. Two weeks after he had won the battle, the diplomats that returned from Britain came back with a treaty, thus the americans had believed that the British had once again surrendered and a new era of nationalism came. As president he introduced the spoils system.
General-Indian fighter-president--hero of Battle of Tippecanoe&Battle fo the Thames in the War of 1812--major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay, redcoats from massacre's,and gaining/clearing land in West
John Quincy Adams was the puritan son of President John Adams. He led five American peace-makers to Ghent to draw up a treaty between America and Britain to end the War of 1812. The treaty was signed by both sides on Christmas Eve in 1814. Adams was also Monroe's Secretary of State and the real author of Monroe's Doctrine which established isolationism.
Sectionalism is a narrow-minded concern for a devotion to the interests of one section of the country. This began to occur in 1796. This caused the development of two political parties. Washington disagreed with sectionalism. The country split politically and the North voted for Adams and the South voted for Jefferson.
an American warship, nicknamed "Old Ironsides," in 1812 the Americans created the superfrigate which had thicker sides, heavier fire power, and a larger crew than the original British frigate, was a notable ship in the war of 1812 against the British Navy
The Battle of Thames was fought at the River Thames in Canada on October 13, 1813. In this battle, the redcoats were overtaken by General Harrison and his army after they had withdrawn from Fort Malden. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, fought for the British and lost his life. With his death came the death of his confederacy.
It was an agreement signed by the Americans and the British that agreed to stop fighting which potentally led to the end of the War of 1812. It was signed before the Battle of New Orleans, but Americans did not learn of the treaty until after the victory at New Orleans. Americans assumed the "victory" for the war. The British signed quickly because they were more concerned with European affairs.
In 1814 a regional secret convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut due to the Federalist discontent because of the lessened voting weight of New England in Congress and Electoral College due to adding states to the Union and also they were not happy with the War of 1812. They were meeting to discuss their minority status in the Union and some Federalist even suggested secession. These Federalists were seen as traitors by the public. Led to the downfall of their party. they met to secure assistance from Washington, due to the blokading British squadrons on the shores fo New England. Proposed Constitutional Amendments, one to eliminate the 3/5 clause and in turn lessen the Souths voting power. When delegates arrived in Washington to present the proposals, they found that the capital was celebrating Jackson's victory at New Orleans and the treaty of peace.
1783-1859, first American to win international recognition as an author, example of the post war nationalism from the revolution and war of 1812
1. The President of the United States of America during the Era of Good Feeling. He delivered a speech to congres named the Monroe Docterine. The docterines' two main points were; 1) There would be no colonization of the western hemisphere. 2) Nonintervention from the rest of the world in the western hemisphere. 2. Around 1824 3. Monroe showed a strong sence of nationalism, creating national pride. He also helped establish America as a world power.
one of the nation's first writers of importance; attained recognition in the 1820's; changed the mood of national literature, started textbooks in America being written by Americans, two pieces of his literature include THE SPY and THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS, American themes-example of the nationalism after the Revolution and War of 1812. (pg. 212-213).
Chief Justice(1801-1835); represented the Federalist belief for a strong central government; turned the Judicial branch from weak to strong while popularizing Judicial Review; set the standard for future Chief Justices.(p.221-222)
John C. Calhoun was part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
was in power 1810-1825; he forcibly informed Spain of their violation of the Appoint-American Treaty of 1795. This led to the ceding of Florida to the U.S. He was also responsible for keeping the U.S. from signing the Canning Proposal, which would have hindered American expansion. He then drafted the Monroe Doctrine which established the U.S. as the protector of the Western Hemisphere.
Black Dan" was a warhawk in Congress in 1816 and was a strong spokesman for New England. He opposed the Tariff of 1816, because it was not in the interest of the shippers that were the majority and that he represented, but was in the interest of manufacturers.
Andrew Jackson was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. In the eyes of many people he helped end the War of 1812. He also was a well known indian fighter. He took military control of Sp[anish Fla. this encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.
Clay was a Political Scientist during the 1820's. He was also a Congressman from Kentucky. He developed the American System which US adopted after the War of 1812. The American System created a protective tariff to American Markets. It also used the tariff to build road and canel for better transportation. (The American System started a cycle to trading for US market)
British foreign secretary circa 1823 He wanted America to join Britain in a declaration - wanted the protection of the Latin America states. Keep other European countries out of the western Hemisphere. John Adams thought it was best the U.S. make the declaration. It became the Monroe Doctrine.
Nationalism is a popular sentiment that places the existence and well being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalties. It's significance lies in it's role of supplying the ties that bond the nation. An important and impressive result of post Revolutionary and 1812 wars, it was growing rapidly and began to cause a national unity the United States had not seen until this point. Citizens began calling themselves Americans over citizens of their states. Nationalism helped further stabilize our newly formed nation on all accounts, including financially.
Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty.
It was a tariff imposing 8% on the value of dutiable imports. It was passed by the first Congress. Revenue was the main goal. It was also designed to protect small industries just getting started. Hamilton wanted more protection for the well-to-do manufacturing groups. Congress still had agriculture and commericial interest dominating. This was part of Hamilton's economic plan to support the industrialists.
Noncolonization is part of the Monroe Doctrine that was written in 1823. Noncolonization said that America was closed to anymore colonization. A colonization attempt by anyone would be deemed a threat to the United States. It was created by the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere.
Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. These improvements would be the construction of better roads and canals. This would allow industrialization to prosper since the raw materials of the South and West could easily and inexpensively get to the North and East to be manufactured. The manufactured goods could then be shipped back out to the South and West.
Nonintervention was one of the two features located in the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe declared a new policy on foreign intervention. The policy decalred that the United States would not become involved in European affairs. Europe would stay out of the Western Hemisphere 1823 as well.
The last four of the Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This "dynasty" ended in 1824.
Isolationism deals woth the Americans trying to separate themselves from foreign affairs. Isolationism takes place on North America and the oceans around it. Washington tries to separate the Americans from all British and foreign continents. Washington displays this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and Washington' s Farewell Address in 1796.
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.
Trial during chief Justice John Marchalls reign; involving the state of Maryland& their right to tax the federal bank--sets precident for the "loose clause"--increased power of Fed, government.
caused by British cutting prices below cost in an effort to strangle the American war-baby factories in the cradle. Americans saw British seeking to crush Yankee factories. Nationalist Congress passed the Tariff(1816)- created taxes on imports to protect nation, while at the same time promote welfare. It was the first tariff in American history with aims that were primarily protective to merchants. It was abold beginning to adequate safeguards. A strong protective trend was started that stimulated the appetites of the protected for more protection. This Tariff hurt farmers, especially southerners. It was part of Clay's American System.
The Cohens were a Virginia family accused of selling lottery tickets illegally. The Virginia Supreme Court found the Cohens guilty, so they appealed to the Supreme Court in 1821. Virginia won in having the Cohens convicted. Virginia lost in that Judge Marshal made it so that the federal Supreme Court had the right to review any decision involving powers of the federal government. This was a major blow on states' rights.
A plan proposed by Henry Clay, in 1824, to work on economic reform. Henry Clay wanted to help stablize the country and begin the pursuit for workd recognation. The plan called for a protective tariff to be put in place for the manufacturers, a new Federal Bank to be put in place, and to begin work on many internal improvements.
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Securing funding for roads and canals was hard. This bill was passed by Congress to give states $1.5 million for internal improvements, but it was immediately vetoed by Pres. Madison. In his opinion, he believed states should pay for their own improvements.
Fletcher v. Peck was a court case from 1810. The georgia legislature, swayed by a bribe, gave 35 million acres of Mississippi land to private speculators. The next legislature cancelled the original ruling. Then the Supreme Court decided the grant was a contract and state law cannot impair contracts. This is one of the first court cases to illustrate the power of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws conflicting with the federal Constitution. Their decision protected the peoples' rights against popular pressures.
the years of Monroe's presidency, during 1817-1825 people had good feelings caused by the nationalistic pride after the Battle of New Orleans and second war for Independence with British, only one political party was present, on the surface everything looked fine, but underneath it all everything was troubled, conflict over slavery was appearing and sectionalism was inevitable, Missouri Compromise had a very dampaning effect on those good feelings
A negotiated treaty between the Monroe administration and England. This treaty came after the War of 1812 to settle disputes between Britian and U.S. It permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries w/ the Canadians, and fixed the vague northern limits of Louisiana from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. It also provided for a 10-year joint occupation of untamed Oregon country. Surprisingly, neither Britain or America had to surrender rights or claims for this to occur.
The Land Act of 1820 was an act replacing the Land Act of 1800. It was a result of the depression, bank failures, bankruptcies, soup kitchens, unemployment, etc. of 1819. The original Land Act allowed Americans to buy 160 acres of land (minimum) at $2.00 an acre over a period of four years. The Land Act of 1820 offered less acreage, but it also cost less. It allowed Americans to buy 80 acres at $1.25 an acre. This helped to calm the westerners when they demanded cheaper land.
What: an expression of the post-1812 nationalism energizing the U.S. Proved to be the most famous of the long-lived offspring of that nationalism. Might have been called the Self-Defense Doctrine. Where & When: Incorporated into President Monroe's annual message to Congress in 1823. Its two basic features were:(1) Non-Colonization (2) Non-Intervention. Colonization's era had ended and England and other foreign powers needed to keep their monarchial systems out of the U.S. Old World powers could not gain anymore settlements. The U.S. would not intervene in the Greeks war for independence, and the U.S. does not need help from other countries. Significance: Gave vent to patriotism, but deepened the illusion of isolationism. Many Americans falsely concluded that the Republic was isolated from the European dangers because it wanted to be. Monroe, it seemed, had warned the Old Powers to stay away
Thomas Jefferson was a Republican who believed that the future of the U.S. would lie in the hands of farmers. "Long Tom" Jefferson was inaugurated to the presidency in the swampy village of Washington on March 4, 1801. While Jefferson was president, the Louisiana Purchase was made, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly aquired land, the Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. While all of Jefferson's presidential acts were not always successful, he always put the country ahead of himself. His patriotism and loyalty to the U.S. helped make it into the great country that it is today.
James Monroe was sent to Paris in 1803 to buy New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east for a maximum of ten million dollars. Monroe and Robert Livingston arranged the of all of Louisiana for fifteen million dollars. Monroe later became James Madison's Secretary of State.
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchaced Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration. p. 188
Albert Gallatin was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the "Watchdog of the Treasury," and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.
Robert Livingston bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal.
A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land. He has set up the portal to allow ppeople to migrate toward west.(A paragon - First example to move into the Louisiana territory) P.188
Appointed by John Adams ( 1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. ( served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court. In the Marbury v. Madison case Marshall inserted the keystone into the arch that supports the tremendous power of the Supreme Court. Marshall's decision regarding Marbury spuried the Jeffersonians to lay rough hands on the Supreme Court through impeachment. Jefferson's ill advised attempt of " Judge Breaking" was a reasuring victory for the independence of the juiciary and the separation of powers among the three branches.
Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and aquitted for treason involving a plan to seperate the US and combine with Spain.
(1801) President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place. (Marbury vs. Madison)
L' Overture skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo. The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. The inability of the French to regain possession of the island caused Napoleon to cede the Louisiana territory to the United States for 15 million dollars. Thus, Toussaint L' Overture's military vigor indirectly provoked Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana to the Americans.
Samuel Chase was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by proffesion, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials. The senate, however, in a decision that indicated reluctance to remove judges for purely political reasons, did not convict him, and he remained on the court until his death.
Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The expedition was one of the main explorations of the West. The area explored was: The Missouri River through the Rockie Mountains.
Patronage is like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered patronage. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when he was elected in 1801.
Until 1803, the case of Marbury vs. Madison took place this year, there was controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constituion, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. Jefferson tried to give the rights to the states in the Kentucky resolutions, but his cousin, John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. "Judicial review" was accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison, and John Marshall succeeded in giving increased power to the Supreme Court officials.
Impeachment is to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Although there were enough votes in the House of Representatives, the Senate did not have enough. Since this attempt in 1804, there has been no serious attempt to impeach members of the Supreme Court.
the forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years. At this time the London authorities claimed the right to impress only British subjects on their own soil, harbor, or merchant ships. However, many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen and between 1808 and 1811 alone some six thousand United States citizens were impressed by the "piratical man-stealers" of England. This was one of the major causes of the war of 1812.
The English navy stole American sailors from 1806 until 1811 angering Jefferson and the country. Jefferson, however, did not wish to engage in war with England because of the countries weak navy and army.So he came up with the idea of using economic coercion to force Britan to come to Jefferson, and agree to his terms. He came up with the Embargo Act which cut off all trade with Engalnd and everyone else. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.
Midnight Judges a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed by the Federalist congress where the old capital was located. It was one of the last laws passed by the federalist congress. This law allowed the president, then President Adams, would stay up until midnight signing in new federal judges across the nation. It allowed the Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in congress. This act brought bitterness between the two parties. These judges that were passed during the last day of President Adams were called "midnight Judges".
The Orders in Council was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793. It was when the British were fighting the French. The british closed off all port vessels that France went through so they counldn't get supplies. American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy. This lead to the War of 1812.
An incident that happened on June 22, 1807. The Chesapeake, a US frigate, was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The Chesapeake was not fully armed. The British seized four alleged deserters (the commander of the Chesapeake was later court martialed for not taking any action). This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.
Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams' "Midnight Judges" appointments. The appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up contorversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This is judicial review.
The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britian and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and siezing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so Pres. Jefferson hoped to weaken Brittian and France by stopping trade. The Embargo Act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. The Embargo Act helped to revive the Federalists. It caused New England's industry to grow. It eventually led to the War of 1812.
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass streched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.
Formaly reopened trade with all nations except England and Franceon March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Repeblican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.
Under the executive branch of the new constitution, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new national bank, Jefferson adamantly spoke against it. He felt it would violate states rights by causing a huge competitor for the state banks, then causing a federal monopoly. Jefferson's argument was that since the Constitution did not say Congress could create a bank they should not be given that power. This is the philosophy of strict construction. Thomas Jefferson's beliefs led to the creation of the political party, Democratic Republicans. They believed in an extremely weak central government, no special privileges for special classes, especially manufacturers, and did not believe in letting every white male the ability to vote, only those intelligent enough to make wise decisions.
Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assupmtion of state debts which went into affect in 1790, an excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt--a. fund debt at face value, b. assumption of state debts, c. creation of National Bank, D. taxes (tariffs and excises)--plan was a success in dealing with the national debt; founded the Federalist Party.
was the first secretary of war; came to power in 1789; was the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy
Chief Justice of the United States; in 1794 George Washington sent him to negotiate a treaty with England; The Jay Treaty was a failure because it didn't mention British impressment and America had to pay Pre-Revolutionary debts. It did prevent a war with England and helped in the signing of the Pinckney Treaty with Spain.
an economic plan plan devised in 1790 by Hamilton in order to "bolster the nation's credit" and strengthen the central govrenment. It was a plan to exchange old bonds for new bonds at face value. This would take on the dents of all the states and reinforce faith in the government bonds. (168)
Jefferson and his states' right disciples believed the Constitution should be interpreted "literally" or "strictly". The reason why was to protect individual rights. Jefferson did not want the Bank of the United States,Hamilton thought it would not only be proper, but also necessary. Jefferson thought it was up to the states and Hamilton thought it was up to Congress. The Bank was created by Congress in 1791. Having a strong central government made people fear that theeir rights would be taken away from them.
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Implied powers refers to the powers of the government found in the constitution in unwritten forms. Although some situations, such as the creation of the National Bank, are not specifically referred to in the constitution through the elastic clause they are not illegal or unconstitutional. After Hamilton was appointed head of treasury in 1789, debates began between his interpretation of the constitution and Jefferson's views. Eventually this became an issue contributing to the formation of political parties.
Means having to do with agriculture. The agrarian society were the farmers and plantation owners of the south. This was the society that jefferson wanted to see become the future of America. He appreicated the many virtous and benefical characteristics.
a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers.This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. The cabinet is extremly important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.
The first ten amendments of the Constitution, the bill of rights was added in 1791 when it was addopted by the necessary number of states. It garuntees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religon. Written by James Madison.
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange". Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
The amendment states that the enumeration in the constitution shall not be construed to deny or desparage others retained by the people. It was written by James Madison in 1791 to stop the possibilty that enumerating such rights might possibly lead to the assumption that the rights were the only ones protected.
The Tenth Amendment is the last Amendment in the Bill of Rights which was created to protect American citizens natural rights. The Tenth Amendment states that the "powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people." This allows for a strong central government but it does not allow it to become all powerful by still allowing states and people rights.
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
1. He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution. 2. He landed in Charleston SC around 1793 after the outbreak of war between France and Britian. 3. The actions of Citizen Genet the new government was exposed as being vaunerable. It also showed how the government was maturing.
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the xyz Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".
French foreign minister; In 1797, Adams sent a diplomatic commission to France to settle matters about the upset of the Jay Treaty of 1794. The French thought that America was siding with the English violating the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. The commission was sent to talk to Talleyrand about the seizing of American ships by the French. Communication between the commission and Talleyrand existed between three go betweeners (XYZ) because talking to Talleyrand in person would cost a quarter of a million dollars. Americans soon negotiated and this act subtly started an undeclared war with France.
The Compact theory was popular amoung the English political philosophers in the eighteenth century. In America, it was supported by Jefferson and Madison. It meant that the thirteen states, by creating the federal government, had entered into a contract about its jurisdiction. The national government was the agent of the states. This meant that the individual states were the final judges of the national government's actions. The theory was the basis for the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions passed in 1798. The compact theory was used to try to stop the Federalist abuses like the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The federalist party had passed the alien and sedition acts to regulate the strong oppions of the republicans. These laws violated the freedoms of the first amendment granted to the people, and prosecuted them for speaking out. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison protested the laws by writing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which asked the states to declare the laws null. They thought that "nullification was the rightful remedy". Virginia and Kentucky were the only states that voted for this nullification, which is to make a law invalid.
The French Revolution began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclomation, which made America neutral. This led to arguments between Americans and French. After fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800. The French Revolution was not a war within a country, but a war that affected the world.
a treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners especially, were angry and rioted and called John Jay the "Damn'd Archtraitor." (176)
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish. Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) Jay Treaty- helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Oleans.
Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
1793, issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy,proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
Contains four parts: 1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2. Alien Act-gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3. Alien Enemies Act-permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to.-No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act. 4. The Sedition Act-key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration. The Sedition Act's purpose was to silence Republican opposition to Adam's administration. Many people were fined and jailed under the Sedition Act. Jefferson and Madison believed the acts were violations of the First Amendment. Expired March 1801.
An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians.
The Farewell Address was a document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but was printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. The document was rejected by the jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
The Virginia and kentucky Resolutions were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These resolutions were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws took away freedom of speech and press guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. These resolutions also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
Abigail Adams was the wife of second president John Adams. She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence.
Captain Daniel Shays was a radical veteran of the Revolution. He led a rebellion, fittingly named Shays Rebellion. He felt he was fighting against a tyranny. The rebellion was composed of debtors demanding cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and suspension of mortgage foreclosures. He was sentenced to death but was later pardoned. The rebellion in 1786 helped lead to the Constitution and Shay somewhat became one of the Founding Fathers.
High Political leader-1786- 32 year old New Yorker who saved the convention from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report. It called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with commerce alone but to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. Congress, because of Hamilton's influence, issued the call for a convention "for the sole and express purpose of revising" the Articles of Confederation. (1787) Hamilton was present as an advocate of super-powerful central government. He gave a five hour speech that did not reach anyone but himself. One of the youngest and most brilliant founding fathers. Hamilton helped whip up support for the anti-federalists, even though he favored a strong central government. Hamilton joined John Jay and James Madison in penning a masterly series of articles for the New York newspaper. There essays are the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution.
Nicknamed "the Father of the Constitution"; talented politician sent to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787; his notable contributions to the Constitution helped to convince the public to ratify it.
An English law in colonial times that said only the eldest son of the parents could inherit a landed estate. This left the wealthy but landless younger sons to seek their fortune elsewhere. Many of the younger sons went to the New World, and they included Gilbert, Raleigh, and Drake.
Thomas Jefferson wanted a tightly knit federation. This involved the yielding by the states of their sovereignty to a completely new federal government. This would give the states freedom to control their local affairs.
Checks and Balances "is the principle of government under which separate branches are employed to prevent actions by the other branches and are induced to share power." The framers of the constitution for the U.S. saw the policy of checks and balances necessary for the government to run smoothly. Third principle has prevented anyone Branch from taking over the government and making all the decisions.(Having a dictatorship.)
Sovereignty is defined as supreme political power. When the Continental Congress in 1776 asked the colonies to draft new constitutions, it was asking them to become new states, whose sovereignty, according to republicanism, would rest on the peoples authority. Power in the peoples hands is the basis for democracy.
Mobocracy- To be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it. This is an example of Mobocracy.
The people of a country have to consent to be governed, otherwise they have the right to over-throw the government. This theory was coined by John Locke
The theory of Republicanism was that the government was under the authority of the people it governs. The power in the peoples hand's is the basis for Democracy. The writers of the constitution used the Republicanism theory.
The anti-federalists opposed the constitution because they thought it did not give enough power to the states. They believed that each state deserved certain rights that were not clearly defined in the constitution but were pertinent in democracy. Since these rights were not included in the original draft of the constitution there was a delay in the ratification process until the states were granted individual powers in an added clause.
Popular Sovereignty is the idea that people should have the right to rule themselves. This idea had revolutionary consequences in colonial America.
In Chapter 8 Anarchy is described as a lack of a strong centralized government. Often resulting in chaos, giving no security to landowners or upper-class people(wealthy). There is no stability, and what few laws exist are openly defied with no form of punishment. There are often problems in creating a usable and effective currency (this was a problem in inter-state relations.) In chapter 8 Anarchy it is referring to the period of time just prior to the creation of the constitution.
Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
The first "constitution" governing the Untied States after the Revolution; it was ratified in 1781 and it provided for a "firm league of friendship;" the legislative branch (Congress) had no power to regulate commerce or forcibly collect taxes and there was no national executive or judicial branch; it was an important stepping-stone towards the present constitution because without it the states would never have consented to the Constitution.
The Electoral College is a group of electors that are elected by the people to elect the President of the United States in every election year. This system was born along side the U.S. Constitution. This system is a way of speeding up Presidential elections and is still in force today. The representatives of each state must reflect the interests of the people within their respective states during each election. After the people in a state have voted, the votes are tallied. Whichever candidate has the most votes gets all of that state's votes in the Electoral College. That states votes is determined by its population.
A red letter law which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.
The three-fifths compromise was where a black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.
The Northwest Ordinance took place in 1787. They said that sections of land were similar to colonies for a while, and under the control of the Federal Government. Once a territory was inhabited by 60,000 then congress would admit it as a state. The original thirteen colonies were charters. Slavery was prohibited in these Northwest Territories. This plan worked so good it became the model for other frontier areas.
People against federalists in 1787; disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights; also did not agree with annual elections and the non-existence of God in the government.
1786- Led by Captain Daniel Shays, Revolutionary war veteran. An uprising that flared up in western Massachusetts. Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Revolutionary war veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage fore closures. Hundreds of angry agitators attempted to enforce these demands. Massachusetts authorities, supported by wealthy citizens, raised a small army under General Lincoln. The movement was smashed and Shays was condemned to death then later pardoned. The outburst struck fear in the hearts of the propertied class. The rebellion exposed the need for a stronger central government.
A United States political party consisting of the more respectable citizens of the time; Federalists lived along the eastern seaboard in the 1790's; believed in advocating a strong federal government and fought for the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1787-1788.
It was the plan purposed by Virginia to set up a bi-cameral congress based on population, giving the larger states an advantage. It was first written as a framework for the constitution.
The foundation of our country's national government; was drafted in Philadelphia in 1787; the Constitution establishes a government with direct authority over all citizens, it defines the powers of the national government, and it establishes protection for the rights of states and of every individual.
The Federalist was a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.
A confederation is a group of sovereign states, each of which is free to act independently from the others. In 1776, when America gained its independence, a loose confederation was formed among the thirteen colonies. Under this confederation, the states were united by a weak national government, which was completely lacking constitutional authority. The national government had some control over issues such as military affairs and foreign policy. The states, however, took the majority of power into their own hands, such as the power to coin money and raise armies.

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