AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more!

Campbell Biology 9th Edition - Chapter 5 Flashcards

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Terms : Hide Images
422024001macromoleculesfour main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
422024002polymerlarge molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
422024003monomera simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
422024004enzymesproteins that act as biological catalysts
422024005dehydration reactionA chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
422024006hydrolysisa chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water
423143107carbohydratescompound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
423143108aldosea monosaccharide sugar that contains the aldehyde group or is hemiacetal
423143109ketoseany monosaccharide sugar that contains a ketone group or its hemiacetal
423143110disaccharidea sugar formed from two monosaccharides
423143111glycosidic linkagea covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
423143112polysaccharideany of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
423143113starcha complex carbohydrate found chiefly in plants
423143114amyloseunbranched form of starch, connected by alpha 1-4 linkages
423143115amylopectinbranched form of starch, connected by alpha 1-6 linkages
423143116glycogenan extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
423143117cellulosepolysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls, never branched and has beta linkages
423143118chitincomplex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
423143119lipidsenergy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, hydrophobic
423143120fatconstructed from glycerol and fatty acids
423143121fatty acidsunbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
423143122triglycerideA type of lipid in which the macromolecule is composed of three molecules of fatty acids joined to a glycerol molecule
423159564trans fatthe fat that results when unsaturated fats are synthetically converted to saturated fats to prevent the separation of lipids (margarine and peanut butter are examples); this process produces saturated fats and unsaturated fats with trans double bonds
423159565phospholipidsA molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
423159566steroidslipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
423159567cholesterolA steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, synthesized in the liver and obtained from diet
423159568catalystssubstance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
423159569proteinscontains carbon, hydrogen, oxyge, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
423159570polypeptidespolymers of amino acids
423159571amino acidsbuilding blocks of proteins
423159572peptide bondthe chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
423159573primary structureThe level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
423159574secondary structureRegions stabilized by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone, alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
423159575tertiary structurethe overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the side chains
423159576quaternary structureAssociation of multiple polypeptides, forming a functional protein
423159577disulfide bridgesStrong covalent bonds formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
423159578collagenA protein fiber with a unique triple-helix that gives it great strength. e.g. bone, tendons, ligaments, etc.
423159579sickle cell anemiaA human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
423159580chaperoninsprotein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
423159581genea segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
423159582nucleic acidmacromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
423159583DNAdouble stranded and shaped like a double helix, stores hereditary information
423159584RNAsingle-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose, various functions during gene expression, including carrying instructions from DNA to ribosomes
423159585nucleotidesBasic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
423159586pyrimidinea nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
423159587purinenitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine, a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine

Need Help?

We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you.

For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.

If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form.

Need Notes?

While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you!