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Brinkley Chapter 4 Terms Flashcards

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219945058salutary neglectAn English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
219945059townshend dutiesPopularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.
219945060Representation virtual vs direct(Virtual); was the British argument that the American colonies were represented in parliament, since the members of parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire. (Direct); a system of choosing delegates to a representative assembly in which citizens vote directly for the delegates who will represent them
219945061Franklin's Albany Plana plan by which Parliament would set up in America "one general government" for all the colonies. Each colony would retain its present constitution but would grant the new general gov such powers as the authority to govern all relations w/ Indians. The central gov would have a president general and a legislature.
219945062Internal and External TaxationInternal taxations were taxations on personal goods and property, while external taxations dealt with taxing goods that were being imported (Townshend Acts).
219945063Nature of SovereigntyAmericans believed that powers should be divided between leading governing force and smaller forces while the British believed that all governing power should be under one single leader and the parliament.
219945064French and Indian WarWas a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
219945065Boston MassacreThe first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
219945066General BraddockBritish commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
219945067Iroquois ConfederacyAn alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
219945068Gaspee AffairThe colonists thought that there was a conspiracy against them. Seizing their opportunity to destroy the hated vessel (HMS Gaspee), a group of colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the British crew ashore and then set fire to the ship.
219945069Ohio ValleyThe land area that sparked the French and Indian War. Both the French and British claimed it. They wanted the area because the rivers allowed for transportation.
219945070Tea Act (1773)Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
219945071William PittThe Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war. He ended the Seven Years War.
220184685Fort DuquesneFrench fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
220184686Paxton BoysThey were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
220184687Boston Tea Partydemonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
220184688Women in resistance activitieswomen led efforts to boycott tea after Tea Act happened, wrote anti-British pieces of literature, and created daughters of liberty to protest British actions.
220184689Battle of Quebeca battle won by the British over the French, and the turning point in the French and Indian War
220184690Peace of Parisaka Treaty of Paris. This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
220184691Proclamation of 1763A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
220184692Stamp Act CrisisTax on stamps and printed materials in colonies to pay for keeping troops there and paying off war debts angered many colonists because of taxation without representation and led to protesting and violence; often by the Sons of Liberty. (1765)
220184693Coercive/Intolerable ActsActs passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
220184694Sugar Act 1764An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
220184695Patrick Henry, Virginia ResolvesThere were 7 solutions to Stamp Act that he came up with. These started "conservative" but by 6 & 7 became very radical & the last two weren't published
223781966Quebec ActSigned in 1774, intended to reorganize the way these British territories were governed
223781967Taxation-Indirect and DirectIndirect-from out of state taxation direct-in state taxation
223781968Stamp Act Congressgroup of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent
223781969First Continental CongressSeptember 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
223781970Samuel AdamsAmerican Revolutionary leader and patriot
223781971Declaratory ActAct passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
223781972Quartering Act of 1765Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties.
223781973Suffolk ResolveDrafted by representatives of Boston area and approved by First Continental Congress; more radical statements in response to Coercive Acts; claimed they were no longer subject to British rule because they had been violated.
223781974Committees of CorrespondenceOrganization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
223781975John LockeEnglish philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
227523026Great War for EmpireAnother name for the French and Indian War

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