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APUSH Ch. 35

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55547348London Conference 1933International economic conference on stabilizing currency to solve Great Depression
55547349Philippinesnation to which the US promised independence in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934
555473507th Pan-American Conference 1933FDR's repudiation of TR's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, stating good neighbor policy towards L. American countries
55547351Neutrality Acts of 1935,1937prohibited sale of arms to belligerents in a war; banned loans to belligerents; citizens cannot travel to countries at war or travel on armed ships; passed to prevent American involvement in future overseas wars
55547352Spanish Civil War 1936-1939conflict between the revel Fascist forces of Gen. Franco and the Loyalist gov't; severely tested US neutrality; Mussolini and Hitler helped in order to use SP as testing ground for bombs
55547353Quarantine SpeechRoosevelt's speech 1937 that proposed strong US measures against overseas aggressors (Japan)
55547354Munich Conference 1938European diplomatic conf where GB and FR appease Hitler's demands for Sudentenland in Czechoslovakia
55547355Sudetenlandpiece of land south Czechoslovakia; betrayed by GB and FR to appease Hitler in 1938 Munich Conference
55547356appeasementterm for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands
55547357Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Alliesgroup advocating US support for GB in the fight against Hitler
55547358America First Committeeheaded by Charles Lindbergh; isolationist group advocating that US focus on continental defense and non-involvement with WWII
55547359Lend-Lease Act 1941law that made the US the "arsenal for democracy" by providing supposedly temorary military material assistance to GB
55547360Soviet Unioncommunist nation invaded by Hitler in June 1941 that was also aided by American lend-lease
55547361Atlantic Charter 1941US.-GB agreement of Aug 1941 to promote democracy and intentions for improvement post WWII; created by Winston Churchill and FDR in a secret conference
55547362self-determination, disarmament, freedom of seas, peace of security, League of Nations5 specific points of the Atlantic Charter
55547363USS KearnyUS destroyer sunk by German U-boats off the coast of iceland in Oct 1941
55547364Pearl Harbormajor American naval base devastated in a surpise attack in Dec 1941
55547365Cordell HullFDR's Sec'ry of State who promoted Reciprocal Trade Agreement, low tariffs, and Good Neighbor policy
55547366Adolf HitlerFascist leader of Germany; started WWII under the "big lie"- belief that GER was stabbed in the back by Jews in WWI
55547367Benito MussoliniFascist dictator of Italy; sought to recreate a Roman empire; allied with Hitler in Roman-Berlin Axis; invaded Ethiopia; "Benevolent Dictator"
55547368Gerald Nyeinstigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated WWI munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"
55547369Gen. FrancoFascist rebel leader against Spanish Loyalist gov't; helped by Hitler and Mussolini to become dictator of Spain
55547370EthiopiaAfrican nation invaded by Mussolini in 1935
55547371CzechoslovakiaDemocratic nation betrayed at Munich Conference
55547372Polandinvaded Sept 1939 by Hitler; set off WWII
55547373Franceseized by Hitler in 1940; pushed the US closer to direct aid to GB
55547374Charles Lindberghleader of America First Committee; chief spokesman for US isolationism
55547375Wendell Willkiedark horse Rep Presidential nominee in 1940; lost against FDR; attacked FDR for the third term attempt
55547376Winston Churchillcourageous prime minister who led GB's lonely resistance to Hitler; involved with the secret Atlantic Conference
55547377Joseph StalinRussian dictator who first helped HItler destroy Poland before becoming victim of Nazi aggression in 1941; transformed RUS into a military power in 15 years
55547378Icelandnation near whose waters US destroyers, namely USS Kearny, came under Nazi submarine attack
55547379Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934put Philippines on the road to independence
55547380Reciprocal Trade Agreements 1934designed by Cordell Hull to increase American exports; reversed Hawley-Smoot Tariff by decreasing the tariff
55547381Rome-Berlin Axisalliance of Hitler and Mussolini
55547382Japannation that acted against the Washington Naval Treaty in 1934 and walked out of London Conference
55547383Johnson Debt Default Act 1934forbade any country that still owed US money from borrowing any more cash
55547384Veterans of Future Warsformed 1936 by a group of Princton U students; anti-war group that mocked the early payment of bonuses to WWI veterans
55547385Nye Committee 1934formed to investigate whether or not munitions manufacturers and bankers were pro-war in WWI soley to make profit; increased anti-war atmosphere and push to pass Neutrality Acts
55547386PanayAmerican gunboat bombed and sunk by Japanese in 1937; Japan apologized and sent $ to victims' families; unwilling to go to war, US forgave easily
55547387Rhinelandstrip of land demilitarized according to Versailles Treaty; invaded by Hitler
55547388cash-and-carry policyaka Neutrality Act of 1939; Euro nations (Allies) can buy war materials from US only if they provide transportation and pay in cash
55547389Havana Conferencemeeting where US warned Germany that it could not take over orphan colonies in the Americas
56451724Conscription law 1940first peacetime draft; trained 1.2 million troops
56451725Taft, Deweytwo leading Republican presidential candidate aspirants
56451726Robin Moorunarmed US merchant ship torpedoed and destroyed by a German U-boat outside war zone; May 1941
56451727Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact; 10-year peace treaty; Russia can keep 1/3 of Poland when Hitler attacks it
56451728phony warterm dubbed to the early phase of WWII; period of silence and inactivity in Europe after Hitler moved his forces from Poland and eventually attacked Norway and Denmark
56451729Good Neighbor Policyestablished and reinforced by FDR to create good relations with L. America; nullied Roosevelt Corollary
56452883Kulaksindependent farmers; Stalin ordered Collective Farming (crops go to Russian gov't)
56452884xenophobicanti-foreign; Japan until the 1840s
56452885Weimar Repubicname of democratic govt of GER 1919-1933
56452886Beer Hall PutschNazi party failed attempt to seize Munich govt 1923; Hitler emerges as a national hero when jailed
56452887Blitzkreig"lightning war"; German military warfare tactic
56452888Norway, Denark, Belgium, Luxembourg, Hollandfive "weaker" countries Hitler attacked before France (after phoney war)
56452889maginot lineFrance's wall of defense that only faced Germany and stopped at the Ardennes
56452890Ardennesthick forest on the border of France and Germany
56452891Retreat of DunkirkBritish retreat after Ger attacks France
56452892burning house analogyused by FDR in one of his fireside chats to persuade Americans to support Lend Lease Policy
56452893Battle of BritainJuly 1940-Dec 1941; air war between GER and GB
56452894radarinitially invented by GB to detect aircraft in the air; eventually used by all belligerent countries in WWII
56452895luftwaffegerman airforce
56452896RAFbritish airforce
56452897scorch and burnRussian tactic; used against GER after GER attack June 1941; allowed Ger to conquer land to separate them from supply line and fall in trap of the brutal winter
56452898YamamotoJapanese admiral who planned Pearl Harbor Attack; Japan stealthily came in from the North
56452899Dec 7, 1941Pearl harbor attack; holiday time, Sunday morning
56452900Bases for Destroyers dealSept. 1940- British gives US 8 base sites from Newfoundland to S. America; US trades destroyers;

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