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AP World History Unit 1 Test Flashcards

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88356660RomansThe Seleucids were finally defeated in 83 B.C.E. by the88356660
88356661victory of Cyrus over LydiaThe major early turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was the88356661
88356662Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, SasanidsWhich of the following lists of the Persian empires is correct chronologically?88356662
88356663as a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyedZarathustra viewed the material world88356663
88356664Angra MainyuZarathustra talked about the battle between the "wise lord" Ahurda Mazda and the evil spirit88356664
88356665ParthianWhich Iranian state followed the Achaemenids and rivaled the Seleucids in greatness?88356665
88356666Arab warriorsThe Sasanids were deafeted in 651 B.C.E. by88356666
88356667DariusThe greatest of the Achaemenid emperors was88356667
88356668Persian administrative unitsSatrapies were88356668
88356669PersepolisThe magnificent capital of the Persian Empire constructed by Darius was88356669
88356670CroesusThe leader of the Lydians who fell to Cyrus was88356670
88356671the view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignoredWhich of the following basic tenets of Zoroastrianism did not influence later religions?88356671
88356672Seleucid EmpireThe empire, comprising most of the old Achaemenid state, that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the88356672
88356673DariusThe Persian king who regularized tax levies and standardized laws was88356673
88356674Mithradates IThe greatest Parthian ruler was88356674
88356675MesopotamiansIn organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the88356675
88356676CyrusThe founder of the Achaemenid Empire was88356676
88356677a Persian lossThe battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E. proved to be88356677
88356678allowed to spread through its own meritsZoroastrianism was88356678
88356679XerxesThe king who failed to follow the normal Persian governing policy of toleration was88356679
88356680Zarathustra's compositionsThe Gathas were88356680
88356681the Royal RoadThe center of the Persian communications networks was88356681
88356682went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unityThe Qin and Han dynasties88356682
88356683Qin ShihuangdiThe Chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was88356683
88356684the gap between the rich and the poor grew dangerously largeAs the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy88356684
88356685Wang Mangcarried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the "socialist emperor"88356685
88356686clear and strict lawsShang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China's subjects by88356686
88356687DaoismThe philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life of reflection and introspection88356687
88356688human nature is essentially goodAt the heart of Mencius's philosophy was the belief that88356688
88356689Sima Qianthe first great Chinese historian88356689
88356690arose from the proper ordering of human relationshipsConfucius believed that political and social harmony88356690
88356691junziConfucian "superior individuals" who took an active role in public affairs88356691
88356692xiaothe Chinese concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure88356692
88356693became core texts of traditional Chinese educationThrough the efforts of Confucius, the literary works of the Zhou period88356693
88356694wuweidisengagement from the affairs of the world88356694
88356695DaodejingThe most important text of Daoism88356695
88356696LegalismWhat was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to China after the Period of Warring States?88356696
88356697support of traditional learningWhich one of the following was not one of Qin Shihuangdi's policies?88356697
88356698a continuation of Qin policies of centralizationThe Han philosophy of rule was88356698
88356699establishing an imperial universityIn 124 B.C.E. Han Wudi transformed China by88356699
88356700established the principle of collective responsibilityIn an effort to bring about effective government control, the Legalists88356700
88356701daoChinese philosophers often spoke of the following term, which means "the way"88356701
88356702li-passionWhich of the following Confucian terms and its translations is NOT correct?88356702
88356703Alexander of MacedonIn 327 BCE India was thrown into political chaos by the invasion of88356703
88356704MagadhaThe kingdom that played a leading role in Indian unification, after the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon, was88356704
88356705BrahminsAncient Indian religion revolved around ritual sacrifices offered by whom?88356705
88356706the fact that they did not recognize social hierarchies based on casteThe greatest contribution of the Jains was88356706
88356707ahismaThe Jains adhered to the principle of nonviolence to other living things or souls, which is expressed in the word88356707
88356708Bhagavad GitaThe Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna, is the88356708
88356709reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian societyThe beliefs of the Charvakas88356709
88356710that the gods were figments of the imaginationThe Charvaka sect believed88356710
88356711PersiansThe Indians political scene changed dramatically in 520 BCE when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the88356711
88356712KalingaThe Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, fought his bloodiest battle against88356712
88356713returned to a series of regional kingdomsAfter the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, India88356713
88356714Chandra GuptaThe year 320 CE saw the creation of the Gupta dynasty by88356714
88356715understanding the rhythms of the monsoon windsThe success and timing of trade, through the Indian Ocean basin, largely depended on88356715
88356716the rise of guilds, which essentially served as jatiOne of the biggest transformation of the caste system during this period was88356716
88356717Hinayana BuddhismTheravada Buddhism is also known as88356717
88356718the common practice of child marriageOne of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was88356718
88356719White HunsThe eventual collapse of the Gupta states was partially caused by an invasion by the88356719
88356720debase the currencyOne of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler's decision to88356720
88356721KanishkaThe Kushans in India reached their peak under88356721
88356722AshokaThe high point of Mauryan success came during the reign of88356722
88356723Chandragupta MauryaThe first ruler to unify India was88356723
88356724a series of small kingdomsDuring the time of the Aryans the Indian political landscape was characterized by88356724
88356725MegasthenesAlthough only fragments remain, some of our best information about early Indian history comes from the book, Indika, written by88356725
88356726BuddhismThe boddhisatva is associated with what religion?88356726
88356727leading a balanced and moderate lifeThe Buddha believed that salvation came from88356727
88356728usually consisted of independent, autonomous city statesThe political structure of the ancient Greeks88356728
88356729all Athenian citizensAthenian democracy was open to88356729
88356730SpartaIn which polis did women have the most freedom?88356730
88356731PtolemaicThe wealthiest of the Hellenistic empire was the _____________ empire88356731
88356732PlatoLater Christian scholastic philosophers referred to this man as "the master of those who know"88356732
88356733EpicureansWhich of the Hellenistic philosophers viewed pleasure as the greatest good?88356733
88356734philosopher kingsIn "The Republic", Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be88356734
88356735Sapphothe most influential female Greek poet88356735
88356736SeleucusThe largest part of Alexander's conquests, essentially the former Achaemenid empire, was taken over by88356736
88356737SalamisThe decisive naval battle of the Persian War was fought at88356737
88356738TheraOf the natural disasters that plagued the Minoans, the most devastating was the volcanic eruption in 1628 BCE on the island of88356738
88356739MinoansThe Mycenaeans received early, indirect influence from the Egyptians and Phoenicians through their contact with the88356739
88356740tyrantWhich of the following words was used the by Greeks to refer to generals or politicians who, although often popular, gained power by irregular means88356740
88356741DionysusWomen were the chief devotees of the Greek god of wine, who was named88356741
88356742honorWhich of the following did Socrates believe was more important than wealth or fame?88356742
88356743PunjabThe easternmost point of Alexander's conquests was88356743
88356744Philip IIBy 338 BCE, the Greeks had fallen to88356744
88356745centralized imperial stateWhich of the following did NOT come about because of Greek colonization?88356745
88356746All of the aboveWhich of the following events occurred during the time if Pericles?88356746
88356747the Seleucid empireOf all the Hellenistic empires, Greek influence was greatest in88356747
88356748Lucius Cornelius SullaThe leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies88356748
88356749as a Roman citizen Paul had the right to appeal his case in Rome, which he didPaul's case was transferred to Rome because88356749
88356750PersiansThe Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the88356750
88356751StoicismThe most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome was88356751
88356752JewsFrom 66 to 70 AD the Romans fought a bloody battle with the88356752
88356753Twelve TablesThe Romans had a long tradition of written law stretching back to 450 BCE and the creation of the88356753
88356754the right of a patrician to transfer out of a plebeian courtAll of the following were the foundations of Roman law with the exception of88356754
88356755ActiumOctavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at88356755
88356756favored liberal policies and social reformIn regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar88356756
88356757enormous plantations worked by slavesLatifundia were88356757
88356758SicilyDuring the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was is?88356758
88356759dictatorDuring times of crisis the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a88356759
88356760EtruscansDuring its early history, Rome was dominated by the88356760
88356761consulsIn the early stages of the Roman Republic, the patricians elected two88356761
88356762CleopatraThe last of the Ptolemaic rulers was88356762
88356763stimulated the development of the local economies and statesThe Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain88356763
88356764the hearthVesta was the Roman goddess of88356764
88356765MarsZeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to88356765
88356766IslamWhich of the following religions was not popular during the Roman Empire?88356766
88356767a Jewish sect that looked for the appearance of a saviorThe Essenes were88356767
88356768ScipioWho was the Roman general during the Third Punic War?88356768
88356769Pyrinies and AlpasWhat two mountain ranges did Hannibal cross on his way to invade Rome?88356769
88356770corvusWhat naval invention helped the Romans take back their holdings in the Mediterranean in the First Punic War?88356770
88356771NumidiaWhat North African ally kingdom brought Rome into the Third Punic War?88356771
88356772eternal enemy of RomeWhat did Hannibal promise to both Rome and Carthage as a young man?88356772

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