|141063103||mamluks||Egyptian slave soldiers|
|141063104||Muhammad Ali||Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.|
|141063105||Janissaries||opponents of Ottoman reform|
|141063106||Serbian independence||The Ottoman province in the Balkans that rose up against Janissary control in the early 1800s. After World War II the central province of Yugoslavia. Serb leaders struggled to maintain dominance as the Yugoslav federation dissolved in the 1990s.|
|141063107||Ulama||Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)|
|141063108||War for Greek Independence||War against Ottomans for independence|
|141063109||Mahmud II||Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents|
|141063110||Tanzimat Proclamations||Restructuring reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient.|
|141063111||Ottoman reforms||Ottoman military reform efforts follow the empire's transformation to become a modern country. Managed to develop modern army.|
|141063112||Crimean War||Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.|
|141063113||Fez||a felt cap (usually red) for a man|
AP World History Chapter 24 Flashcards
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