AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more!

AP Psychology- Chapter 8: Learning

Terms : Hide Images
41752606learninga relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
41752607associative learninglearning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
41752608classical conditioninga type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli; a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus; also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning
41752609behaviorismthe view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most research psychologists agree with the former but not the latter
41752610unconditioned response (UR)in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
41752611unconditioned stimulus (US)in classical conditioning, a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response
41752612conditioned response (CR)in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
41752613conditioned stimulus (CS)in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
41752614acquisitionthe initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
41752615extinctionthe diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
41752616spontaneous recoverythe reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
41752617generalizationthe tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
41752618discriminationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
41752619operant conditioninga type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
41752620respondent behaviorbehavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
41752621operant behaviorbehavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
41752622law of effectThorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
41752623operant chambera chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking; used in operant conditioning research
41752624shapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
41752625reinforcerin operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
41752626positive reinforcementincreasing behaviors presented by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
41752627negative reinforcementincreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
42463884primary reinforceran innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
42463885conditioned reinforcera stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
42463886continuous reinforcementreinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
42463887partial (intermittent) reinforcementreinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
42463888fixed-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
42463889variable-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
42463890fixed-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
42463891variable-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
42463892punishmentan event that decreases the behavior that it follows
42463893cognitive mapa mental representation of the layout of one's environment
42463894latent learninglearning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
42463895intrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
42463896extrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
42463897observational learninglearning by observing others
42463898modelingthe process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
42463899mirror neuronsfrontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
42463900prosocial behaviorpositive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

Need Help?

We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you.

For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.

If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form.

Need Notes?

While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you!