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AP Psychology Chapter 3

These terms are matched to Myers 8th edition of Psychology chapter 3.

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3213977adaptationAn inherited characteristic that increases in a population because it provides a survival or reproductive advantage.
3213978aggressionphysical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or harm someone.
3213979behavior geneticsthe study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior.
3213980Charles Darwinrenowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection
3213981chromosomesthreadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
3213982collectivismsense of "we". priorities are given to a certain group. One's identity is defined accordingly
3213983culturethe enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
3213984DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
3213985environmentrefers to every nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits and behaviors.
3213986evolutionary psychologythe study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
3213987fraternal twinsdevelop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperrn and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
3213988genderthe biologically and socially influenced characteristic by which people define male and female.
3213989gender identityone's personal sense of being male or female.
3213990gender rolea culturally prescribed set of behaviors for males and females.
3213991gender schema theorychildren acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
3213992gender-typingthe acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role.
3213993genesthe biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; they are segments of the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a protein.
3213994genomethe complete instructions for making an organism - consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
3213995heritabilitythe proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The ___________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
3213996identical twinsdevelop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and therefore are genetically identical.
3213997individualismGiving priority to one's own goals over group and defining one's identity in terms of personal sttributes rather than group identification.
3213998interactionoccurs when the effects of one factor (such as heredity) depends on another factor (such as environment).
3213999memesvariations in ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from one person to another that cause rapid cultural mutations.
3214000molecular geneticsthe subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
3214001mutationa process in which the genetic material of a person, a plant or an animal changes in structure when it is passed on to children, causing different phycical characteristics to develop.
3214002natural selectionthe principle that among the range of inherited trait variations - those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
3214003normsunderstood social prescriptions, or rules, for accepted and expected behavior.
3214004nucleotides.biochemical units that make up DNA and genes.
3214005personal spacepersonal space-the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
3214006role.a culturally prescribed set of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
3214007social learning theorypeople learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
3214008temperamenta person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
3214009testosteronethe principal male sex hormone. During prenatal development, it stimulates the development of the external male sex organs.
3214010X Chromosomethe sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these chromosomes; males have one. One of these chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
3214011Y chromosomethe sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

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