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AP Euro Postwar Europe Flashcards

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787518788Atlantic CharterRoosevelt puts this forward to advocate for esablishment of international organization to replace League of Nations --> UN
787518789United Nationsformed as a result of Atlantic Charter, based in NY to ensure US participation
787518790Revanchismrevenge, Fascism discredited --> no longer stated policy of national governments (partly due to expulsion of ethnic Germans)
787518791democratic governmentsthese emerge & improve economic conditions in Europe
787518792social contractclass conflict replaced by this, workers receive full employment, living wages & social welfare
787518793Traditionalistsbelieve Soviet Union was fundamentally responsible for Cold War
787518794Revisionistsbelieve US w/ postwar economic downturn was seeking to make world safe for American trade rather than democracy during Cold War
787518795Post-Revisionistsmiddle ground, believe Soviet Union bore grunt of responsibility for Cold War, but US was more active than Traditionalists think
787518796Yalta ConferenceBig Three agreed to temporary division of Germany --> divided into 4 zones (France also receives zone), each occupying power would collect reparations on their own --> Western Allies fear this would leave German economy helpless w/ Britain & US paying bills --> Western Allies end collection of reparations --> goods stop flowing to Soviet Union
787518797Allied Control Councilmakes joint decisions regarding temporary division of Germany --> Soviet Union obviously transforms zone differently than other Western Allies
787518798IranSoviets & British jointly divided/occupied this, agreement to both leave at end of war --> Soviets refuse to leave & demand oil concessions --> Britain sends warships into Persian Gulf --> Stalin removes troops
787518799TurkeyStalin tries to intimidate this neutral nation into granting Soviets naval bases --> massed troops along common border --> realizes US would fight to protect & backs down
788060995ContainmentSoviets viewed US as ideological enemy & would never seek to find means for coexistence --> this policy --> first tested in Greece w/ Communist-led insurgency against new government, GB lacked resources to continue supporting Greek government (major Soviet opportunity) --> Truman Doctrine
788061002Truman Doctrineasks for money to be given to Greek & Turkish governments
788061013North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)US establishes this, permanent alliances w/ foreign powers
788061016iron curtainSoviet dominance over Eastern Europe
788061021Percentages AgreementChurchill meets w/ Stalin to discuss this, divides nations of Europe into spheres of influences based on percentages
788061024Declaration of Liberated Europein Axis/liberated countries, governments were to be formed as democratic & free elections should be held ASAP, British & Americans get Soviets to accept this at Yalta
788061026Katyn forestsrole of Soviets revealed in murder of Polish officers here at start of war --> hatred towards Communist control in Poland grows worse
788061028"People's Democracies"go-slow program, not yet full-fledged Communist system, Soviets viewed as liberators in comparison to horrors of German dominance
788061030Marshall Planoffer of money from this to all nations of Europe --> Stalin views as Western threat to informal Soviet control --> asserts more direct control
788061031"salami" tacticsused in Hungary, intimidation/false plots against non-Communist leaders sliced away from body politic
788061034Abdul NassarEgyptian President, nationalizes British controlled Suez Canal --> Britain/France/Israel plan surprise attack --> back off when Americans & Soviets demand withdrawal
788061035Ghanafirst to declare independence in sub-Saharan Africa, easier to declare independence in nations w/ less British settlers
788061036IsraelJewish state founded --> attacked by Arab neighbors --> pushes back enemies
788061040PalestineBritish withdraws from here --> UN to determine fate
788061042IndiaUS didn't want Britain to maintain imperial empire & Britain dependent on American loans --> Britain concedes & this nation declares independence
788061044IndonesiaDutch recognize this nation's independence
788061046VietnamNationalist movement led by Ho Chi Minh --> France divides this nation into 2 states - northern Communist-led, & southern US republic
788061049Ho Chi Minhleads Nationalist movement in Vietnam
788061051AlgeriaFrance wants to hold on to this nation to restore its national honor --> de Gaulle takes helm of government & grants independence
788061053Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)handled money provided by US through Marshall Plan, lowered tariffs, eliminated trade barriers
788061055European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)combined/administered steel/coal resources of member states --> war between member states becomes materially impossible
788061057European Parliamentestablished to guide ECSC
788061059Treaty of Romesigned by members of ECSC --> European Economic Community/Common Market
788061061European Economic Community/Common Marketlifted almost all trade restrictions among member states
788061063European Single Actfree movement of capital, labor, banking & insurance
788061065Maastricht Treatyestablishment of common currency (Euro), increased cooperation in defense, justice & environmental affairs --> EEC becomes European Union (EU)
788061066European Union (EU)formerly EEC, addd nations that were previously members of Warsaw Pact & Soviet Union, Turkey entered into negotiations (controversial b/c doubt that it could meet economic targets, questionable commitment to human rights, Muslim state w/ large population)
788061069European Constitutiondesire to make EU work more efficiently w/ expansion, all EU members must approve, France votes "no"
788061071Clement Attlee & Labour Partyreplaces Churchill & Conservative Party in Great Britain
788061073Sir William Beveridgerecommended all adults pay weekly contribution in return for benefits paid to sick, unemployed, retired & widowed
788061075National Health Service (NHS)comprehensive health system of free health care, Labour Party establishes this w/ social welfare program
788061077Bank of Englandgovernment takes control of this & railroads, electric/iron/steel industries
788061079"Age of Austerity"Great Britain a major debtor to US from Nazi onslaught while remaining committed to military expenditures
788061081"Politics of Consensus"general agreement on need to provide social services & government should pay large role in management of economy, Labour Party exhausted from pace of change = opportunity for Churchill's Conservatives
788061083Bloody Sundaysurge of violence by Irish Republican Army in opposition to British presence in Northern Ireland
788061086Margaret ThatcherLabour government unable to deal w/ wave of strikes --> opportunity for Conservative Party led by this person
788061088"winter of discontent"wave of strikes in Great Britain
788061090Thatcherismtight control over money supply to reduce inflation, sharp cuts in public spending & cuts in taxes, esp. for higher earners, reduced power of trade unions & put economy under control of government
788061092John MajorThatcher's failed attempts to introduce market principles into running of NHS/education system & hostility toward further European integration --> resignation, replaced by this person who was more pro-European & signed Maastricht Treaty
788061095Tony Blairled Labour Party to triumph w/ "New Labour"
788061097"New Labour"focused on improving social services, reforming House of Lords & transferring power from Westminster toward regional parliaments in Wales/Scotland
788061099Jacques ChiracFrench President finally addresses role in deportation of Jews to Germany after difficult Vichy years propagating myths
788061102Charles de Gaulleexiled leader of French government, returns to politics to establish Fifth Republic, vetoes Britain's attempt to enter Common Market, refuses to sign Limited Test Ban, explodes first hydrogen bomb, independent foreign policy w/ withdrawal from NATO & recognition of communist government in China
788061108Monnet PlanFrance implements this economic plan --> establishes Commissaritat General du Plan (CGP)
788061110Commissaritat General du Plan (CGP)nonpolitical technocrats to run economy in France
788061112Americanizationincreased foreign investment & rational central planning --> economy begins to take off w/ this idea --> more students pursue higher education --> student revolts in Paris (demand for thorough reordering of French society)
788061114Francois MitterrandSocialist, elected president of France, focuses on social reform programs & issue of unemployment
788061116Jacques ChiracGaullist mayor, replaces Mitterrand in France, committed to healing social ills (racism, labor strikes), tax cuts & job programs
788061117Nicholas SarkozyConservative, succeeds Chirac in France, controlled immigration policy & development plan to modernize
788061118Christian Democrats Partyfall of Mussolini's government in Italy --> establishment of republic led by this party
788061119Antonio Gramsciinfluences Communists as significant opposition party
788061120"economic miracle"Italy's outstanding economic progress
788061121Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI)large role played by Italian state through this - controlled shipbuilding, airlines, metallurgy & chemical industry, early commitment to Common Market
788061122"Southern question"cheap labor supply from South, addressing poverty of south from Mussolini's exile of political opponents, land reform/five-year plans helped, but significant economic gap between north & south
788099780Red Brigadepolitical terrorism from extreme left, kidnaps & murders former Prime Minister Also Moro in Italy
788099782Romano Prodifrequent changes of government & corruption in Italy, this person of Olive Tree Party succeeds conservative Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi
788099785Berlindivided into 4 occupation zones, US & Britain introduce new currency into occupation zones w/o Soviet approval --> Stalin blockades Berlin & cuts off from West
788099791Berlin AirliftUS sends supplies by air to Berlin --> Stalin lifts blockade
788099793Federal Republic of GermanyUS, Great Britain & France combine zones of Berlin to create this --> rearms & enters NATO
788099801German Democratic RepublicSoviet Union declares eastern Germany as this Communist-dominated zone
788099804Nikita KhrushchevSoviet Premier, gives ultimatum to West to stay 6 months in Berlin, then pull out troops & Berlin becomes free city w/ access controlled by East --> President Eisenhower refuses
788099806Berlin Warconcrete barrier between East & West Berlin, East deemed to be necessary b/c educated elite leaving for West, did not impact presence of Western troops, free access to city & political self-determination for West Berlin --> beneficial overall b/c acceptance by both sides of divided city
788099808Konrad Adenaueranti-Nazi German conservative, head of Christian Democratic Union, dominated Federal Republic of Germany, feared Soviet Union --> preferred West German state tied to West rather than unified Germany w/ forced neutrality, paid compensation to Jewish victims of Holocaust & direct payments to Israel
788099814postwar economic miracleeconomic growth from influx of Germans from east --> increased wages & new luxuries
788099819Gerhard Ritterminister of economics, led postwar economic miracle
788099823Social Democratsdrop Marxist language of class struggle & win elections in Germany
788099828Willy Brandtlead Social Democrats to win elections in Germany
788099831Ostpolitiknecessary to reach out to Soviets & satellite states in Eastern Europe --> treaties w/ Soviet Union/Poland/Czechoslovakia & de facto recognition of East German state
788099836Helmut SchmidtSocial Democrat, succeeded Willy Brandt
788099839Helmut KohlCDU makes electoral comeback w/ this person, surge in conservative politics
788099844German reunification in 1990Kohl brings this & promotes Maastricht Treaty
788099845Gerhard Schroderhigh unemployment & problems lead to this Social Democrat, reforms perceived as dismantlement of welfare state
788099848Angela MerkelCDU, first female chancellor of Germany, coalition deal w/ Social Democrats
788120513Warsaw PactSoviet Union prioritizes establishment of satellite states in Eastern Europe --> creates this for military ties
788120514COMENCONSoviet Union prioritizes establishment of satellite states in Eastern Europe --> creates this to link economies
788120515Hungaryreform-minded Communists liberalize government to create a multiparty system, pull out of Warsaw Pact & reestablish as neutral nation --> Soviets threaten satellite system & crush reforms
788120516Nikita Khrushchevreplaces Stalin, reforms must stay within guidelines offered by Marxist-Leninism, tensions between US & Soviets heighten when Soviets shoot down American U-2 spy plane in Russia & place missiles in Cuba
788120517Leonid Brezhnevsucceeded Khrushchev, strengthened role of party bureaucracy/KGB & clamps down on reform in satellite states
788120518"Prague Spring"Czechoslovakia dissatisfied --> this reform movement attempts to bring out more humanistic socialism within certain limits (Soviet Bloc) --> Brezhnev views as threat to Warsaw Pact
788120519Soviet Blocmore humanistic socialism within certain limits
788120520"Brezhnev Doctrine"Soviet Union would support any Eastern communist nation experiencing internal strife --> reform movement crushed in Czechoslovakia
788120521Pope John Paul IIPolish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected this --> massive strike at Lenin shipyard in Gdansk led by Lech Walesa demands right to form independent trade union (solidarity, aided by Catholic Church) --> government forced to negotiate b/c of economy --> promise for multiparty elections --> defeat of all Communist candidates
788120522Mikhail Gorbachevreform-minded, takes charge --> opposes "Brezhnev Doctrine"
788120523glasnostopenness in debate, Gorbachev accepts need for this after disasters of Soviet invasion in Afghanistan & nuclear accident at Chernobyl (heightened desire for change)
788120524perestroikaeconomic restructuring, Gorbachev accepts need for this after disasters of Soviet invasion in Afghanistan & nuclear accident at Chernobyl (heightened desire for change)
788120525Lithuanianationalist revolts begin w/ declaration of independence by this nation b/c governments forced to allow political participation of non-Communist parties
788120526Boris Yeltsinchairman of Russian Parliament, rival to Gorbachev, lead coup by communists --> fail w/ hope of preserving Communist control --> republics leave & Soviet Union dissolves --> Gorbachev resigns
788120527Russian FederationYeltsin elected president of this
788120528"shock therapy"Yeltsin moves economy rapidly from centralized state control to free-market capitalism --> transfer of state assets to oligarchs, hyperinflation & turmoil for Russians depending on fixed state pensions
788120529Congress of People's Deputiesparliament, Yeltsin comes into conflict w/ this --> begins impeachment proceedings --> Yeltsin orders tanks to shell building where this meets & dissolves it --> new constitution w/ enhanced presidential powers & Duma
788120530Vladimir PutinYeltsin selects this person as prime minister --> elected president after Yeltsin's resignation, popular support b/c rise in worldwide oil prices (boosts Russian economy) & wanted to restore Russia to higher place on world stage w/ military & denouncing West
788120531Belsan massacreChechan terrorists seize control of school --> Putin enacts law ending popular election for governors
788120532Joseph Titoleads successful resistance force against Germany during WWII to establish Yugoslavian state w/o ties to Soviet Bloc --> Slovenia & Croatia break away
788120533Slobodan Milosevicpresident of Yugoslavia, helps in "ethnic cleansing"
788120534"ethnic cleansing"forced removal of Muslims & ethnic Bosnians in certain regions under Yugoslavian control
788120535Dayton Accordsresult of Serbs shelling Bosnian capital Sarejevo
788120536KosovoSerbs refuse to sign treaty granting this cradle of national identity greater autonomy --> NATO launches aerial bombardment on Serbia (first offensive action against sovereign nation) --> withdrawal of Serbian troops from Kosovo
788120537Vojislav KostunicaMilosevic loses elections to this person
788120538War Crimes TribunalKostunica turns Milosevic over to this in order to receive economic assistance from West

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