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Acid-Base, Redox Reactions

acids - substances that ionize to form hydrogen ions

  • aka proton donors (H+ is essentially just a proton)
  • monoprotic acids - donate 1 hydrogen ion per molecule (ex. HCl, HNO3)
  • diprotic acids - donate 2 hydrogen ions per molecule (ex. H2SO4); ionization occurs in 2 steps

bases - substances that accept hydrogen ions, produce hydroxide ions in reactions

  • ex. NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
  • doesn't necessarily have to contain hydroxide ions
  • must accept hydrogen ion

strength of acids/bases

  • strong electrolyte = strong acid/base
  • weak electrolyte = weak acid/base
  • reactivity - depends on the actions of both the cation/anion, not just strength of acid/base
  • strong acids - HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HNO3, H2SO4
  • strong bases - group 1A/2A metal hydroxides
  • molecular compounds that aren't acids/bases are nonelectrolytes

neutralization reactions - mixing an acidic and base solution

  • product has none of the characteristics of the reactants
  • salt - ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acid
  • neutralization reaction between an acid and metal hydroxide produces water and a salt
  • sulfate/carbonate combine w/ hydrogen ions to form gas

oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions - involve transfer of electrons between reactants

  • oxidation - loss of electrons in a substance
  • reduction - gain of electrons in a substance
  • in reactions, 1 reactant loses an electron and another reaction gains an electron
  • oxidation/reduction come together

oxidation number - aka oxidation state; actual chargeof the atom as a monoatomic ion

  • oxidation >> increase in oxidation number
  • reduction >> decrease in oxidation number
  • equals 0 when atom is in its elemental form
  • equals charge for all monoatomic ions
  • usually negative for all nonmetals
  • sum of all oxidation numbers in a neutral compound equals 0

displacement reaction - ion in a solution gets replaced through oxidation of an element

  • A + BX >> AX + B
  • metals undergo displacement reactions w/ acids to form salts and hydrogen gas
  • net ionic reaction shows a change in oxidation states

activity series - list of metals arranged in order of decreasing oxidation

  • oxidation causes metals to be eaten away
  • active metals - metals at the top of the list; alkali/alkaline earth metals; reacts most readily to form compounds
  • noble metals - metals at the bottom of the list; 8B/1B metals
  • any metal can be oxidized by elements below it on the list
  • only metals above hydrogen in the activity series can react w/ acids to form H2
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