These AP Biology outlines correspond to Campbell's Biology, 7th Edition. These outlines, along with the AP Biology Slides, will help you prepare for the AP Biology Exam.
Chapter 1 Exploring Life
Overview: Biology’s Most Exciting Era
Concept 1.1 Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale
Organisms interact continuously with their environment.
Cells are an organism’s basic unit of structure and function.
Concept 1.2 Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts
Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living systems.
Concept 1.3 Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species
Living things show diversity and unity.
Concept 1.4 Evolution accounts for life’s unity and diversity
Concept 1.5 Biologists use various forms of inquiry to explore life
We can explore the scientific method.
Let’s look at the nature of science.
Science and technology are functions of society.
Concept 1.6 A set of themes connects the concepts of biology
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 1-1
Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life
Overview: Chemical Foundations of Biology
Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds
25 chemical elements are essential to life.
Concept 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms
Electron configuration influences the chemical behavior of an atom.
Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms
Weak chemical bonds play important roles in the chemistry of life.
A molecule’s biological function is related to its shape.
Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 2-1
Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment
Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life
Concept 3.1 The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding
Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s fitness for life
Organisms depend on the cohesion of water molecules.
Water moderates temperatures on Earth.
Oceans and lakes don’t freeze solid because ice floats.
Water is the solvent of life.
Concept 3.3 Dissociation of water molecules leads to acidic and basic conditions that affect living organisms
Organisms are sensitive to changes in pH.
Acid precipitation threatens the fitness of the environment.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 3-1
Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Overview: Carbon – The Backbone of Biological Molecules
Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds
Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms
Variation in carbon skeletons contributes to the diversity of organic molecules.
Concept 4.3 Functional groups are the parts of molecules involved in chemical reactions
These are the chemical elements of life.
Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Overview: The Molecules of Life
Concept 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers.
Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel and a source of carbon.
Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles.
Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
Fats store large amounts of energy.
Phospholipids are major components of cell membranes.
Steroids include cholesterol and certain hormones.
Concept 5.4 Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions
Amino acids are the monomers from which proteins are constructed.
The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide can be determined.
Protein conformation determines protein function.
Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information
There are two types of nucleic acids: RNA and DNA.
A nucleic acid strand is a polymer of nucleotides.
Inheritance is based on replication of the DNA double helix.
We can use DNA and proteins as tape measures of evolution.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 5-1
Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell
Overview: The Importance of Cells
Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry
Cell biologists can isolate organelles to study their functions.
Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity.
Internal membranes compartmentalize the functions of a eukaryotic cell.
Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
Ribosomes build a cell’s proteins.
Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
The endoplasmic reticulum manufactures membranes and performs many other biosynthetic functions.
The Golgi apparatus is the shipping and receiving center for cell products.
Lysosomes are digestive compartments.
Vacuoles have diverse functions in cell maintenance.
Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another
Peroxisomes generate and degrade H2O2 in performing various metabolic functions.
Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
The cytoskeleton provides support, motility, and regulation.
Concept 6.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities
Plant cells are encased by cell walls.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells functions in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation.
Intercellular junctions help integrate cells into higher levels of structure and function.
A cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 6-1
Chapter 7 Membrane Structure and Function
Overview: Life at the Edge
Concept 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins
Membrane models have evolved to fit new data.
Membranes are fluid.
Membranes are mosaics of structure and function.
Membrane carbohydrates are important for cell-cell recognition.
Membranes have distinctive inside and outside faces.
Concept 7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability
Concept 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment
Osmosis is the passive transport of water.
Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake and loss.
Specific proteins facilitate passive transport of water and selected solutes.
Concept 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients
Some ion pumps generate voltage across membranes.
In cotransport, a membrane protein couples the transport of two solutes.
Concept 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 7-1
Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism
Overview: The Energy of Life
Concept 8.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics
The chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways.
Organisms transform energy.
The energy transformations of life are subject to two laws of thermodynamics.
Concept 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether the reaction occurs spontaneously
Concept 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions
Concept 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers
Enzymes are substrate specific.
The active site is an enzyme’s catalytic center.
A cell’s physical and chemical environment affects enzyme activity.
Concept 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism
Metabolic control often depends on allosteric regulation.
The localization of enzymes within a cell helps order metabolism.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1
Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
Overview: Life Is Work
Concept 9.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels
Redox reactions release energy when electrons move closer to electronegative atoms.
The “fall” of electrons during respiration is stepwise, via NAD+ and an electron transport chain.
These are the stages of cellular respiration: a preview.
Concept 9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
Concept 9.3 The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules
Concept 9.4 During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis
The inner mitochondrial membrane couples electron transport to ATP synthesis.
Here is an accounting of ATP production by cellular respiration.
Concept 9.5 Fermentation enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen
Concept 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways
Feedback mechanisms control cellular respiration.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 9-1
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
Overview: Life Without a Backbone
Concept 33.1 Sponges are sessile and have a porous body and choanocytes
Concept 33.2 Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes
Concept 33.3 Most animals have bilateral symmetry
Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms are acoelomates with gastrovascular cavities.
Phylum Rotifera: Rotifers are pseudocoelomates with jaws, crowns of cilia, and complete digestive tracts.
The lophophorate phyla: ectoprocts, phoronids, and brachiopods are coelomates with ciliated tentacles around their mouths.
Phylum Nemertea: Proboscis worms are named for their prey-capturing apparatus.
Concept 33.4 Molluscs have a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle
Concept 33.5 Annelids are segmented worms
Concept 33.6 Nematodes are nonsegmented pseudocoelomates covered by a tough cuticle
Concept 33.7 Arthropods are segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages
Concept 33.8 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes
Phylum Echinodermata: Echinoderms have a water vascular system and secondary radial symmetry.
Phylum Chordata: The chordates include two invertebrate subphyla and all vertebrates.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 33-1
Chapter 34 Vertebrates
Overview: Half a Billion Years of Backbones
Concept 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Four derived characters define the phylum Chordata.
Invertebrate chordates provide clues to the origin of vertebrates.
Concept 34.2 Craniates are chordates that have a head
Living craniates have a set of derived characters.
Cambrian fossils provide clues to craniate origins.
Class Myxini: Hagfishes are the least derived craniate lineage.
Concept 34.3 Vertebrates are craniates that have a backbone
Class Cephalaspidomorphi: Lampreys are the oldest living lineage of vertebrates.
Many vertebrate lineages emerged early.
Concept 34.4 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws
Gnathostomes have a number of shared, derived characters.
Class Chondrichthyes: Sharks and rays have cartilaginous skeletons.
Osteichthyes: The extant classes of bony fishes are the ray-finned fishes, the lobe-finned fishes, and the lungfishes.
Concept 34.5 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs and feet
Class Amphibia: Salamanders, frogs, and caecilians are the three extant amphibian orders.
Concept 34.6 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg
The reptile clade includes birds.
Birds evolved as feathered dinosaurs.
Concept 34.7 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk
Mammals diversified extensively in the wake of the Cretaceous extinctions.
Concept 34.8 Humans are bipedal hominoids with a large brain
Primate evolution provides a context for understanding human origins.
Humans are bipedal hominoids.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 34-1
Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
Overview: No Two Plants Are Alike
Concept 35.1 The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells
Vascular plants have three basic organs: roots, stems, and leaves.
Plant organs are composed of three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground.
Plant tissues are composed of three basic cell types: parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
Concept 35.2 Meristems generate cells for new organs
Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
Concept 35.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants
Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant body
Molecular biology is revolutionizing the study of plants.
Growth involves both cell division and cell expansion.
Morphogenesis depends on pattern formation.
Cellular differentiation depends on the control of gene expression.
Clonal analysis of the shoot apex emphasizes the importance of a cell’s location in its developmental fate.
Phase changes mark major shifts in development.
Genes controlling transcription play key roles in a meristem’s change from a vegetative to a floral phase.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 35-1
Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere
Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere.
Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
Evidence that chloroplasts split water molecules enabled researchers to track atoms through photosynthesis.
Here is a preview of the two stages of photosynthesis.
Concept 10.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
Concept 10.3 The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar
Phase 1: Carbon fixation
Phase 2: Reduction
Phase 3: Regeneration
Concept 10.4 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates
Here is a review of the importance of photosynthesis.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 10-1
Chapter 11 Cell Communication
Overview: The Cellular Internet
Concept 11.1 External signals are converted into responses within the cell
Cell signaling evolved early in the history of life.
Communicating cells may be close together or far apart.
The three stages of cell signaling are reception, transduction, and response.
Concept 11.2 Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape
Some receptor proteins are intracellular.
Most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins.
Concept 11.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell
Pathways relay signals from receptors to cellular responses.
Protein phosphorylation, a common mode of regulation in cells, is a major mechanism of signal transduction.
Certain signal molecules and ions are key components of signaling pathways (second messengers).
Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of cytoplasmic activities or transcription
Elaborate pathways amplify and specify the cell’s response to signals.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 11-1
Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle
Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division
Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair.
Concept 12.1 Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle
The mitotic spindle distributes chromosomes to daughter cells: a closer look.
Cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm: a closer look.
Mitosis in eukaryotes may have evolved from binary fission in bacteria.
Concept 12.3 The cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system
Cytoplasmic signals drive the cell cycle.
Internal and external cues help regulate the cell cycle.
Cancer cells have escaped from cell cycle controls.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 12-1
Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation
Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
Like begets like, more or less: a comparison of asexual and sexual reproduction.
Concept 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
Human cells contain sets of chromosomes.
Let’s discuss the role of meiosis in the human life cycle.
Organisms display a variety of sexual life cycles.
Concept 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
Telophase I and cytokinesis
There are key differences between mitosis and meiosis.
Concept 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution
Sexual life cycles produce genetic variation among offspring.
Evolutionary adaptation depends on a population’s genetic variation.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 13-1
Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea
Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes
Concept 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
By the law of segregation, the two alleles for a character are separated during the formation of gametes.
By the law of independent assortment, each pair of alleles segregates independently into gametes.
Concept 14.2 The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review.
Concept 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
Concept 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance.
Many human disorders follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance.
Technology is providing new tools for genetic testing and counseling.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 14-1
Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Overview: Locating Genes on Chromosomes
Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes
Morgan traced a gene to a specific chromosome.
Concept 15.2 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome
Independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over produce genetic recombinants.
Geneticists can use recombination data to map a chromosome’s genetic loci.
Concept 15.3 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism.
Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance.
Concept 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders
Human disorders are due to chromosome alterations.
Concept 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to the standard chromosome theory
The phenotypic effects of some mammalian genes depend on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father.
Extranuclear genes exhibit a non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 15-1
Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Overview: Life’s Operating Instructions
Concept 16.1 DNA is the genetic material
The search for genetic material led to DNA.
Watson and Crick discovered the double helix by building models to conform to X-ray data.
Concept 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
During DNA replication, base pairing enables existing DNA strands to serve as templates for new complementary strands.
A large team of enzymes and other proteins carries out DNA replication.
Enzymes proofread DNA during its replication and repair damage in existing DNA.
The ends of DNA molecules are replicated by a special mechanism.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 16-1
Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein
Overview: The Flow of Genetic Information
Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes specify proteins.
Transcription and translation are the two main processes linking gene to protein.
In the genetic code, nucleotide triplets specify amino acids.
The genetic code must have evolved very early in the history of life.
Concept 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look
Concept 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
Concept 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look
Signal peptides target some eukaryotic polypeptides to specific destinations in the cell.
Concept 17.5 RNA plays multiple roles in the cell: a review
Concept 17.6 Comparing gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes reveals key differences
Concept 17.7 Point mutations can affect protein structure and function
What is a gene? We revisit the question.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 17-1
Chapter 18 The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria
Overview: Microbial Model Systems
Concept 18.1 A virus has a genome but can reproduce only within a host cell
Researchers discovered viruses by studying a plant disease.
A virus is a genome enclosed in a protective coat.
Viruses can reproduce only within a host cell.
Phages reproduce using lytic or lysogenic cycles.
Animal viruses are diverse in their modes of infection and replication.
Viruses may have evolved from other mobile genetic elements.
Concept 18.2 Viruses, viroids, and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants
New viral diseases are emerging.
Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests.
Viroids and prions are the simplest infectious agents.
Concept 18.3 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination contribute to the genetic diversity of bacteria
Genetic recombination produces new bacterial strains.
Concept 18.4 Individual bacteria respond to environmental change by regulating their gene expression
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 18-1
Chapter 19 Eukaryotic Genomes
Overview: How Eukaryotic Genomes Work and Evolve
Concept 19.1 Chromatin structure is based on successive levels of DNA packing
Concept 19.2 Gene expression can be regulated at any stage, but the key step is transcription
Chromatin modifications affect the availability of genes for transcription.
Transcription initiation is controlled by proteins that interact with DNA and with each other.
Post-transcriptional mechanisms play supporting roles in the control of gene expression.
Concept 19.3 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control
Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins interfere with normal signaling pathways.
Multiple mutations underlie the development of cancer.
Concept 19.4 Eukaryotic genomes can have many noncoding DNA sequences in addition to genes
Gene families have evolved by duplication of ancestral genes.
Concept 19.5 Duplications, rearrangements, and mutations of DNA contribute to genome evolution
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 19-1
Chapter 20 DNA Technology and Genomics
Overview: Understanding and Manipulating Genomes
Concept 20.1 DNA cloning permits production of multiple copies of a specific gene or other DNA segment
Restriction enzymes are used to make recombinant DNA.
Eukaryotic genes can be cloned in bacterial plasmids.
Cloned genes are stored in DNA libraries.
Eukaryote genes can be expressed in prokaryotic host cells.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifies DNA in vitro.
Concept 20.2 Restriction fragment analysis detects DNA differences that affect restriction sites
Restriction fragment length differences are useful as genetic markers.
Concept 20.3 Entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level
Concept 20.4 Genome sequences provide clues to important biological questions
Concept 20.5 The practical applications of DNA technology affect our lives in many ways
DNA technology is reshaping medicine and the pharmaceutical industry.
DNA technology offers forensic, environmental, and agricultural applications.
DNA technology raises important safety and ethical questions.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 20-21
Chapter 21 The Genetic Basis of Development
Overview: From Single Cell to Multicellular Organism
Concept 21.1 Embryonic development involves cell division, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis
Concept 21.2 Different cell types result from differential gene expression in cells with the same DNA
Different types of cells in an organism have the same DNA.
Different cell types make different proteins, usually as a result of transcriptional regulation.
Transcriptional regulation is directed by maternal molecules in the cytoplasm and signals from other cells.
Concept 21.3 Pattern formation in animals and plants results from similar genetic and cellular mechanisms
Drosophila development is controlled by a cascade of gene activations.
Gradients of maternal molecules in the early embryo control axis formation.
A cascade of gene activations sets up the segmentation pattern in Drosophila.
Homeotic genes direct the identity of body parts.
Neighboring cells instruct other cells to form particular structures: cell signaling and induction in the nematode.
Plant development depends on cell signaling and transcriptional regulation.
Concept 21.4 Comparative studies help explain how the evolution of development leads to morphological diversity
There are some basic similarities—and many differences—in the development of plants and animals.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 21-1
Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: Darwinian View of Life
Overview: Darwin Introduces a Revolutionary Theory
Concept 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species
Western culture resisted evolutionary views of life.
Theories of geologic gradualism prepared the path for evolutionary biologists.
Lamarck placed fossils in an evolutionary context.
Concept 22.2 In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that species change through natural selection
Field research helped Darwin frame his view of life.
The Origin of Species developed two main ideas: that evolution explains life’s unity and diversity and that natural selection is the mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Concept 22.3 Darwin’s theory explains a wide range of observations
Evidence of evolution pervades biology.
What is theoretical about the Darwinian view of life?
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 22-1
Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations
Overview: The Smallest Unit of Evolution
Concept 23.1 Population genetics provides a foundation for studying evolution
The modern evolutionary synthesis integrated Darwinian selection and Mendelian inheritance.
A population’s gene pool is defined by its allele frequencies.
The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem describes a nonevolving population.
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0
Five conditions must be met for a population to remain in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Concept 23.2 Mutation and sexual recombination produce the variation that makes evolution possible
New genes and new alleles originate only by mutation.
Sexual recombination also produces genetic variation.
Concept 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter a population’s genetic composition
Natural selection is based on differential reproductive success.
Genetic drift results from chance fluctuations in allele frequencies in small populations.
A population may lose or gain alleles by gene flow.
Concept 23.4 Natural selection is the primary mechanism of adaptive evolution
Genetic variation occurs within and between populations.
Let’s take a closer look at natural selection.
There are three modes of selection: directional, disruptive, and stabilizing.
Diploidy and balancing selection preserve genetic variation.
Sexual selection may lead to pronounced secondary differences between the sexes.
Sex is an evolutionary enigma.
Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 23-1
Chapter 24 The Origin of Species
Overview: That “Mystery of Mysteries”
Concept 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation
Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers isolate the gene pools of biological species.
The biological species concept has some major limitations.
Evolutionary biologists have proposed several alternative concepts of species.
Concept 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation
Allopatric speciation: geographic barriers can lead to the origin of species.
Sympatric speciation: a new species can originate in the geographic midst of the parent species.
Researchers study the genetics of speciation.
The tempo of speciation is important.
Concept 24.3 Macroevolutionary changes can accumulate through many speciation events
Most evolutionary novelties are modified versions of older structures.
Genes that control development play a major role in evolution.
Evolution is not goal oriented.
Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 24-1
Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics
Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life
Concept 25.1 Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence
Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils.
Morphological and molecular similarities may provide clues to phylogeny.
Concept 25.2 Phylogenetic systematics connects classification with evolutionary history
Taxonomy employs a hierarchical system of classification.
Classification and phylogeny are linked.
Concept 25.3 Phylogenetic systematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characters
The principles of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood help systematists reconstruct phylogeny.
Phylogenetic trees are hypotheses.
Concept 25.4 Much of an organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome