AP World History

This course can help prepare students who wish to continue their social studies education after high school, as well as students who wish to perform exceptionally well on the SAT exam. The level of aptitude in this subject will assist students wishing to excel on the SAT and in college courses.

While there is no prerequisite for AP World History, students should make sure that they are prepared for the course load associated with an Advanced Placement History course.  Most social studies classes include extensive readings of both textbooks and case studies.  Students should be prepared to both read and analyze what they read in order to apply it to the class.  They should also be somewhat familiar with general world history and geography so as not to fall behind when discussing deeper subject matter and current political problems around the world.

The purpose of the AP World History course is to develop greater understanding of the evolution of global processes and contacts, in interaction with deifferent types of human socities. This understanding is advanced through a combination of selective factual knowledge and appropriate analytical skills. AP World History highlights the nature of changes in international frameworks and their causes and consequences, as well as comparisons among major societies. AP World World History emphasizes relevant factual knowledge used in conjunction with leading interpretive issues and types of historical evidence. The course builds on an understanding of cultural, institutional and technological precedents that, along with geography, set the human stage. Periodization, explicatity discussed, forms an organizing principle for dealing with change and continuity throughout the course, along with consistent attention to contacts among societies that form the core of world history as a field of study.

According to the College Board’s website, AP World History focuses primarily on developing the four History Thinking Skills, and teaching students to analyze history form there. From taking AP World History, students will be able to:

  • Craft Historical Arguments from Historical Evidence- developing the ability to make inferences based on different information and crafting arguments about of that information.
  • Use Chronological Reasoning- understanding that sequences of events play a key role in understanding and analyzing history.  Students will be able to differentiate between long term effects and isolated incidents, and the different impacts of the two.
  • Use Comparison and Contextualization- Comparison and contextualization are useful to more than just World History. Learning hose to do both will help students to solve problems in their everyday life as well as in an academic setting.
  • Conduct Historical Interpretation and Synthesis- developing the ability to describe, analyze, and evaluate interpretations of the past as revealed through primary and secondary sources.

Student will also study four separate themes of world history:

  • Theme 1: Interaction between Humans and Environment. Students will learn about diseases and the demographics the affect, the migration of humans across time, patterns of settlement around the world, and the importance of technology in developing civilizations.
  • Theme 2: Development and Interaction of Cultures. Students will develop an understanding of religions, belief systems, science and technologies effect on government, and the arts and architecture’s effect on the general population.
  • Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict. Students will learn about political structures and their forms of governance, empires, nationalism, and revolutions across different types of government.
  • Theme 4: Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems. Students will gain an appreciation for agricultural and pastoral production, trade and commerce patterns, labor systems, and industrialization.

Students will also learn to use study notes and various other study techniques in conjunction with such textbooks as World Civilization, Traditions and Encounters, and The Earth and its Peoples.

Students considering taking AP World History or any other Advanced Placement course should remember how much time and energy they require. Students that commit themselves to AP classes will see a dramatic improvements in their SAT scores as well as their college preparedness.

Students that wish to get accepted into more selective schools should definitely look into taking AP courses, since they not only look great on students’ transcripts, but they can also give students the jumpstart their high school and college educations need. They can also earn college credit while still in high school, saving valuable time and money in the process. AP courses will also help students develop the skills they need to succeed in the sometimes rigorous college atmosphere and give students valuable knowledge that they can use in college and beyond. 

Here you will find AP World History outlines, vocabulary terms, unit notes, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms. We are always adding more AP World History resources so if you have any requests, please use the Contact Us form to let us know what we can do to help.

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Premium Content

  • Chapter 1: Nature, Humanity, and History: The First Four Million Years

  • The Earth and Its Peoples
    3rd edition

    Chapter 4
    The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000-500 B.C.E.
    Cover Slide
    Copyright ? Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Chapter 1 From the Origins of Agriculture to the first Early River Valley Civilizations
    Before Civilization
    Stone Age- 2 million to 4 thousand years ago
    Stone age is subdivided into the Paleolithic age (old stone age to 10,000 years ago) and the Neolithic Age (New Stone Age)
    Stone tools are developed in the Paleolithic Age

  • AP World: Chapter 31 Comment by Jolie Stallone: this thing takes so freaking long OOMG Comment by Michelle Chau: dramby should give us extra credit for doing the packet like this amazingly Comment by Anonymous: imagine last time how i did all this work and still failed????????. Comment by Michelle Chau: oh yeah....

  • India?s People & Economy
    Chapter 29.2
    Religious Life
    Majority practice Hinduism (an ancient, polytheistic religion that teaches the unity of all life)
    Hindus believe that every living thing has a spirit
    Creator= Brahma
    Hindus treat animals with respect because they are believed to have a soul
    Cows are Sacred

  • The Emergence of Modern China~ Ch. 31.1
    First civilization along the Huang He in Northern China (3000 BC)
    Always been deeply rooted in agriculture
    Guided by Confucianism, emperors of China act like fathers; main responsibly= make sure needs are met & act fairly

  • The Koraeas: A Divided Peninsula~Ch. 32.3
    Extends off E. coast of Asia
    Divided into N. and S. Korea
    N.= Democratic People?s Republic of Korea (communist)
    S.=Republic of Korea (non-communist)
    Despite differences, they share common history/culture

  • Cause

    Military Unpreparedness

    Economic Weakness

    Imperial Pressures


    Taiping Rebellion

    Directions: Read textbook pages 717 ? 724 ; fill out the chart and answer the questions in complete sentences.
    Why were the British adamant on their right to trade opium with China?


  • F I VE P I L L A R S O F I S L A M

    Muslims must acknowledge Allah as the only god and Muhammad as his prophet.

    They must pray to Allah daily while facing Mecca.

    They must observe a fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan

    They must contribute alms for the relief of the weak and poor.

  • CHAPTER 35
    Power, Politics, and Conflict in World History, 1990?2010

  • Outline

  • Angelly Miane Change Over Time 2008 April 29, 2014

  • If you choose to do an outline please follow the format below (including the use of Roman Numerals and indentation as used below). You do not need to turn in a hard copy of the outline but you DO need to submit your outline to Turnitin.com. - be sure to select the right class and assignment.

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Here you find AP World History outlines for multiple textbooks. These outlines, along with the World History vocabulary terms, unit notes, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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The Earth and Its Peoples, 4th Edition Outlines

Unfortunately, we were forced to the remove the outlines for The Earth and Its Peoples, 4th Edition textbook by the publisher. However, if any users have outlines they can share, please post them to the World History Premium Section

Update: I see someone has added outlines for the textbook to the World History premium section. Thanks to whoever did that!

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World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 4th Edition Outlines

These World History outlines are from the World Civilizations: The Global Experience 4th Edition textbook

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Chapter 01– From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

AP World History - Stearns
Chapter 1 – From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

  1. Introduction
    1. Human origin – 2.5 million years ago
      1. 1/4000 of earth’s existence – 24 hour day – last 5 minutes
    2. Human negatives and positives
      1. Aggressiveness, long baby time, back problems, death fears
      2. Grip, high/regular sex drive, omnivores, facial expressions, speech
    3. Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age –
    4. 5 million to 12000 BCE
      1. Simple tools – increase in size, brain capacity – Homo erectus
  2. Late Paleolithic Developments
    1. Homo sapiens sapiens – 120,000 years ago – killed off others?
      1. Population growth required change – 1 square mile to hunt/gather for 2 people
        1. Long breast feeding – limit fertility
        2. Relative gender equality – women harder, but both contributed
      2. Rituals for death, explain environment, rules for social behavior
      3. Greatest achievement – spread over earth
        1. Fire/animal skin
        2. 14,000 Great ice age ended
      4. Tools – sharpen animal bones, rafts
      5. Domesticated animals
      6. Conflicts w/ others – bone breaks/skull fractures
    2. Knowledge based on cave paintings, tool remains, burial sites
  3. Neolithic (New Stone) Age Revolution
    1. Agriculture changed everything – could support more people
      1. Settle one spot – focus on economic, political, religious goals
      2. 14,000-10,000 BCE – 6 million to 100 million people
    2. Causes of Agriculture
      1. Population increase – better climate
      2. Big game animals decreasing – hunting yield declined
      3. Gradual change – harvesting wild grains to planting seeds
    3. New animals domesticated – pigs, sheep, goats, cattle
      1. Meat, skins, dairy
      2. Advantage to Europe?
    4. Why Middle East?
      1. Water source, fertile area, not forested, lacked animals
    5. “Revolution” gradual – many combined changes w/ hunting gathering – 1000 years
    6. Effects
      1. Longer work week – labor intensive
      2. Build houses, villages
      3. Varied clothing
    7. Resistance – too complicated, boring, difficult
      1. Disease – those in villages developed immunity – nomads died off/joined
      2. Some isolated societies still avoid
        1. Harsh climate, no exchange of knowledge
        2. Tough, nomadic invaders
      3. Nomads – not that influential accept for interaction
    8. Changes
      1. Specialization
      2. Technology – control of nature – storage facilities, pottery
      3. Metal tools – Bronze Age 3000 – Iron Age 1500 BCE
  4. Civilization
    1. Hunter/gatherer – no bigger than 60 – food runs out
      1. Other options – slash and burn
      2. Tribal bands – strong kinship – relatively small
    2. Benefits of settling
      1. Houses, wells, improvements used by future, irrigation
      2. Irrigation/defense required work together – organization from above
    3. Catal Huyuk – Turkey – 7000 BCE civilization studied
      1. Rooftop activity – broken bones
      2. Religious responsibilities/fertility gods – images
      3. Trade w/others for peace
    4. Definition – societies economic surplus > division of labor/social hierarchy
      1. Formal political organizations – no relation to family unit
      2. City benefits – wealth, exchange of ideas, artistic/intellectual expression, manufacturing/trade specialization
    5. Writing
      1. First - Cuneiform – wedge shaped Middle East
      2. Tax efficiently
      3. Contracts/treaties
      4. Build on past wisdom
      5. People look at world as something to be understood rationally
      6. Not all peoples literate, each civilization only a minority
    6. Greek term - Barbarians – civilization vs. nomads – wanderers
    7. Negatives of civilization
      1. Class/caste distinctions - slavery
      2. Separation between rulers/ruled
      3. Warlike
      4. Gender inequality – patriarchal – men get manufacturing, political, religious leaders
    8. Benefits of nomadic living
      1. More regulations – word of mouth
      2. Respect of elders/children
      3. Herding economies
      4. Technological improvements – stirrup, weaponry
    9. Impact on Environment
      1. Deforestation
      2. Erosion, flooding
  5. In Depth: The Idea of Civilization in World History Perspective
    1. Differences between civilized and barbaric/savages long held
      1. Chinese – cultural, not biological or racial – could adapt
      2. American Indians – feared Chichimecs – sons of the dog
    2. Related to fear of invasion/outsiders common
    3. Civilis – of the citizens – Latin
      1. Rome – urban dwellers vs. forest/desert dwellers
      2. Greece – bar, bar – barbarians
    4. Historians initially – cultural differences, then 19th century racial differences
      1. Some races more inventive, moral, courageous, artistic
        1. Savage to civilized – white,yellow, red, brown, black
        2. Social Darwinism – historiography
        3. Justified European expansion – White Man’s Burden
        4. Ethnocentrism
    5. Other approach – civilization just one form of social organization
      1. All societies produce cultures, though might lack food surplus/specialization
      2. All peoples capable – but lack resources, historical circumstances, desire
  6. Tigris-Euphrates Civilization
    1. Precedents
      1. Writing
      2. Law codes
      3. City planning/architecture
      4. Trade institutions & money
    2. Mesopotamia – land between two rivers
      1. One of 3 civilizations from scratch – Central America, China, Mesopotamia
      2. Farming required irrigation
      3. Sumerians 3500 BCE
        1. Cuneiform – scribes
        2. Sumerian art – frescoes for temples
        3. Science – astronomy – calendar/forecasts – aided agriculture
          1. Charts of constellations
        4. Ziggurats – first monumental architecture
        5. Role of geography
          1. Swift and unpredictable floods – religious
          2. Polytheism – punishment of humans through floods – Noah
          3. Gloomy – punishment in afterlife – hell
          4. Easy to invade – constant war
        6. City-states – king w/ divine authority
          1. Regulate religion
          2. Court system for justice
          3. Land worked by slaves – warfare created labor surplus
        7. Inventions – wheeled carts, fertilizer, silver money
      4. Babylonians
        1. Hammurabi – first codified law
          1. Procedure for courts
          2. Property rights
          3. Harsh punishments
      5. Indo-European invasions from North
        1. Adopted culture
    3. Egyptian Civilization
      1. Benefited from trade/technology of Mesopotamia
      2. Geographic factors
        1. Difficult to invade
        2. Regular flooding cycle
      3. Economy – government directed vs. Mesopotamia – freedom
      4. Pharoahs – godlike – tombs – pyramids
      5. Interactions with Kush to the South
      6. Egyptian art – lively, cheerful, colorful – positive afterlife – surrounded by beauty
      7. Architecture influenced later Mediterranean
    4. Indian and Chinese River Valley Civilizations
      1. Indus River – Harappa/Mohenjo Daro
        1. Unique alphabet/art
          1. Harappan alphabet not deciphered
        2. Invasion plus invasion by Indo-Europeans – difficult to understand culture
      2. Huanghe (Yellow River)
        1. Isolated, little overland trading
        2. History part fact/fiction
        3. State organized irrigation
        4. Elaborate intellectual life
          1. Writing – knotted ropes, scratches of lines, ideographic symbols
          2. Delicate art, musical interest
          3. Limited materials – basic housing
    5. Heritage of the River Valley Civilizations
      1. Accomplishments
        1. Monuments
        2. Wheel
        3. Taming of horse
        4. Square roots
        5. Monarchies/bureaucracies
        6. Calendars/time
        7. Major alphabets
      2. How much are these civilizations “origin” of today
        1. Except for China, all have a break from past
        2. Roman empire – god-like king
        3. Slavery
        4. Scientific achievements – Greeks studied Egyptians
      3. East vs. West
        1. Mesopotamians – gap between humankind and nature
        2. China – basic harmony all live together
        3. Temple building, art, architecture – Mesopotamia to Middle East/Greece
        4. Mesopotamia – regional cultures created that could survive invasion
          1. Phoenicians – 22 letter alphabet
            1. Colonized – simplified number system
          2. Jews – morally/ethically based monotheistic religion
            1. Semitic people – small, relatively weak – only autonomous when region was in chaos
            2. Believed god- Jehovah – guided destinies of people
              1. Orderly, just – not whimsical
            3. Created moral code
            4. Religion basis for Christianity/Islam
            5. God’s compact with Jews
              1. Little conversion
              2. Minority position in Middle East
        5. The First Civilizations
          1. Clear division between river valley civilizations and classical civilizations
            1. Invasion/natural calamities – India
            2. Invasion/political decline – Egypt
            3. Mesopotamia – break but bridges – smaller cultures
              1. Values and institutions spread
          2. Theme emerges – “Steadily proliferating contacts against a background of often fierce local identity”
          3. Integrating force
            1. Local autonomy lessens – priests/kings increase power
          4. Four centers of civilization started
          5. Close neighbors – Egypt/Mesopotamia – different politics, art, beliefs on death
          6. Diversity and civilization worked together
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Chapter 02 – Classical Civilization: China

AP World History - Stearns
Chapter 2 – Classical Civilization: China

  1. Introduction – longest-lived civilization in history
    1. Isolated
      1. Couldn’t learn from other cultures
      2. Rare invasions
      3. Distinctive identity
      4. Relatively little internal chaos w/ decline of Shang dynasty
        1. Greatest links to classical society
    2. Intellectual theory
      1. Harmony of nature – yin and yang – balance
      2. Seek Dao – the way
        1. Avoid excess
        2. Appreciate balance of opposites
        3. Humans part of world, not on outside – like Mediterranean

    Thesis: China emerged with an unusually well-integrated system in which government, philosophy, economic incentives, the family, and the individual were intended to blend into a harmonious whole.

  2. Patterns in Classical China
    1. Pattern of rule
      1. Dynasty, family of kings – create strong politics, economy
      2. Dynasty grew weak, taxes declined
      3. Social divisions increased
      4. Invasion or internal rebellion
      5. Another dynasty emerged – general, invader, peasant rebel
    2. Zhou Dynasty – 1029-258 BCE
      1. Started decline in 700 BCE
      2. Ruled w/ local princes – alliance system
        1. Successful in agricultural communities – ie manor system Europe
        2. Princes received land for troops/tax
      3. Eventually local leaders ignored central gov’t
      4. Contributions
        1. Extended territory to “Middle Kingdom” – wheat north, rice south
          1. Transportation/communication difficult – hard to govern
        2. Mandate of Heaven – Sons of Heaven – emperors live affluent life
        3. Greater cultural unity
          1. Banned human sacrifice
          2. Standardized language – Mandarin – most people speaking same
        4. Confucius – wrote on political ethics
      5. 402-201 BCE Era of the Warring States
    3. Qin Dynasty – China’s namesake
      1. Xin Shi Huangdi – first emperor – brutal leader
        1. Undid power of regional leaders
        2. Nobles brought to emperor’s home
        3. Officials selected from nonaristocratic groups – allegiance
        4. Extended territory south
        5. Built Great Wall – 3000 miles
        6. Burned books, attacked culture – hurts his autocratic rule
      2. Innovations
        1. National census – tax and labor service
        2. Standardized coins, weights, measures
        3. Uniform written language
        4. Irrigation projects
        5. Promoted manufacturing – silk
      3. Downfall – unpopular
        1. high taxes, attacks on intellectuals
        2. killed men, punished brutally
        3. Died in 210 BCE – revolts broke out
    4. Han Dynasty – 202 BCE-220 CE
      1. Kept centralized power of Qin, but reduced repression
      2. Extended borders – opened trade to India, Mediterranean
      3. Wu Ti – period of peace – like Pax Romana
      4. Advancements
        1. Formal training
        2. Supported Confucianism
          1. Shrines built to worship Confucius as god
      5. Invasions – Huns – led to decline
      6. 220 – 589 CE China in chaos
  3. Political Institutions
    1. Strong central government
      1. Qin stressed unquestioned central authority
      2. Han – expanded bureaucracy
    2. Political framework
      1. Strong local units remained, but power diminished
        1. Relied on patriarchal families
        2. Ancestor worship linked families
        3. Village leaders helped coordinate farming/harvesting
      2. Single law code
      3. Universal tax system
      4. Central authority appointments – not based on local government nominations
      5. Delegation done to emperor’s ministers
    3. Huge bureaucracy – 130,000 bureaucrats
      1. Civil Service tests
      2. Scholar bureaucrat
      3. Not exclusively upper class rule - occasionally lower class recruited
      4. Rulers often could be controlled by bureaucrats – didn’t do crazy stuff of Rome
    4. Most tightly governed people
      1. Rules administered by trained scholars
      2. Father unquestioned power – passed down from ancestors
      3. Harsh punishments to put down rebellion
    5. Government traditions
      1. Not heavily militaristic – not huge need
      2. Promoted intellectual life – not Qin
      3. Active in economy
        1. Organized production of iron/salt
        2. Han tried storing grain for bad harvests
        3. Sponsored public works – canals/irrigation
    6. Technology made it difficult to control, but…
      1. Torture and execution used to keep obedience
      2. Taxed
      3. Annual labor
    7. Invaders – Huns – couldn’t create better system for governing – kept bureaucrats
  4. Religion and Culture – people not united by religion – no political threat
    1. Religion – relation to politics
      1. earthly life/obedience more important than speculating about God
      2. harmonious earthly life – prevent excess
      3. traditions
        1. Ancestor ceremonies
        2. Special meals
        3. Politeness at meals – tea ceremonies/chopsticks
    2. Confucius - Analects
      1. Political virtue and good government
        1. secular views, not religious
      2. Respect for superiors- even if bad
      3. Respect for tradition
      4. Leaders should behave modestly without excess
        1. Work hard as a leader and lesser people will serve superiors
        2. “When the ruler does right, all men will imitate his self-control”
        3. Rulers not just punish – be humble and sincere
      5. Satisfied upper class distaste for mystery, and interest in learning/manners
      6. Gov’t used to maintain order
      7. 7. Careful socialization of children
      8. 8. Lacks spiritual side
    3. Legalism – pragmatism
      1. Better gov’t is one that rules by force
      2. Human nature evil – needs restraint
      3. Confucian façade + legalist strong arm tactics
    4. Polytheistic beliefs – appealed to peasants
      1. Spirits of nature
      2. Ancestors
      3. Dragons – fear plus playful respect
    5. Daoism – first to upper class who wanted spirituality
      1. Nature has divine impulse that directs life
      2. Understanding comes from withdrawing and thinking of “way of nature”
      3. Espoused humility and frugal living
    6. Intellectual
      1. Five Classics – speeches, songs, poems, etiquette, political materials
        1. Poetry mark of an educated person
      2. Art form
        1. Calligraphy
        2. Chinese artists, pottery, carved jade
        3. No monumental buildings – except palaces/Great Wall
          1. No singular religion
          2. Confucianism against temples soaring to heaven
      3. Science – practical work – not imaginative theorizing
        1. Calculated motion of planets 1500 years before Copernicus
        2. Medicine – anatomical research – proper hygiene for longer life
  5. Economy and Society
    1. Class – social status passed from one generation to the next
      1. Upper class literate, wealth, culture denied peasants
        1. Mandarins – educated bureaucrats + landowning aristocracy
      2. Land owners 2%, peasantry the rest
        1. “mean” people – lowest status – like India’s untouchables
      3. Property owned communally
    2. Trade
      1. Luxury items – silk, jewelry, leather goods, furniture – Silk Road
        1. Carried by merchants
      2. Merchants not highly important – Confucius prioritized learning/political service
    3. Technological Advance – practical usage – remained agricultural
      1. Ox-drawn plow/collar for animals
      2. Iron mining – pulleys and winding gear
      3. Production methods advanced – water powered mills
      4. Paper invented – needed for bureaucracy
    4. Family life – father unquestioned leader
      1. “There are no wrongdoing parents”
        1. law courts don’t punish parents
      2. Strict control of emotions
        1. Home training ground for personality
      3. Women gained power through sons/mother-in-laws to women brought in
      4. Power to oldest son, boys over girls
  6. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together – Chinese wholeness – not a divided society
    1. “China’s politics and culture meshed readily, especially around the emergence of a Confucian bureaucracy.”
    2. Theme of isolation – surrounded by barbarians – can’t learn anything from outsiders
      1. Buddhism – rare foreign concept embraced by population
    3. Common culture provided unity
      1. Elaborate bureaucracy
      2. Confucianism – trained group w/ common ideals
      3. Appreciation of distinctive art, poetry and literature
      4. Relative political stability
      5. Stable family – clear hierarchy
      6. Private and public not separated – extensions
      7. Views on etiquette
      8. Language
    4. Daoists and Confucianists tolerated
      1. But…Confucianists saw Daoists as superstitious
      2. Sometimes divine attacks on gov’t
    5. Justice – tight control - Arrested – presumed guilty – tortured
      1. Mixed torture w/ benevolence – good cop/bad coop
    6. Precarious balance – sometimes violent
  7. Global connections – Heavy influence on the world
    1. 1/5 of population supported by peasants
    2. Created technologies shared w/ world
      1. Power – water mill, porcelain (China), paper, compass
    3. Views affected region “Middle Kingdom” basis for most of Asia
      1. 2000 year reign
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Chapter 03 – Classical Civilization: India

AP World History - Stearns
Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization: India

  1. Introduction – difference vs. China
    1. China focus on politics/related philosophies vs. India focus on religion/social structure
    2. Less cohesive political structure
    3. Both were agricultural societies, localist flavor, male ownership, patriarchal, trade
  2. The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative Period
    1. Closer to other civilizations
      1. Influenced by Middle East/Mediterranean
      2. Persian Empires spilled over/Alexander also
      3. Forced to react and adapt
    2. Topography
      1. Passes through Himalayas linked India
      2. Somewhat set apart
      3. Political unity difficult – greater diversity than middle kingdom
    3. River civilizations – Indus and Ganges
    4. Mountainous north – herding society
    5. Separate regions contributed to:
      1. economic diversity
      2. racial differences
      3. language differences
    6. Unstable, monsoon climate – but helped with agriculture
      1. Harvest two crops in a year, help support large population
    7. Formative period – Vedic and Epic ages – Aryan migrants – hunting and herding peoples
      1. Knowledge passed down through epics written in Sanskrit – Vedas
        1. Mahabharata
        2. Ramayana
        3. Upanishads
      2. Aryans settled, made tight-knit villages
        1. Families patriarchal, connected across generation
        2. Aryans created social classes
          1. Warrior/governing – Kshatriyas
          2. Priests – Brahmins
          3. Traders/farmers – Vaisyas
          4. Common laborers – Sudras
          5. Untouchables – refuse, transporting dead bodies, other lovely jobs
        3. Social groups became hereditary
          1. Can’t marry between castes – punishable by death
          2. Broken into smaller subgroups
        4. Aryans brought polytheistic religion – similar to Greek myth, Scandinavians
          1. One of few polytheistic religions to survive
            1. Hymns/sacrifice
        5. Upanishads – epic poems
          1. Sacred animals – monkeys/cattle
          2. Rituals and sacrifice
          3. Brahmin class enforced rituals
          4. Unifying divine force, seek union with this force
  3. Patterns in Classical India – end of 600 BCE – formative phase
    1. 16 major states existed – some monarchies, some republics – dominated by warriors/priests
    2. Eras often created as reaction to invaders
    3. Mauryan Dynasty – Chandragupta Mauryan 322BCE – unified subcontinent
      1. maintained large armies
      2. developed bureaucracy
      3. highly autocratic – rely on ruler’s power
      4. style of govt
        1. autocratic – based on ruler’s personal/military power
      5. Ashoka – grandson – lavish lifestyle
        1. influenced by nature/spiritualism
        2. but…bloodthirsty methods of expansion
        3. converted to Buddhism – think Constantine
          1. spread Buddhism throughout empire, honored Hinduism – precedent
        4. improved trade/ road network
      6. Kushans – outside invaders – converted to Buddhism
        1. but…bad for Buddhism – connected to outsiders
    4. Guptas – 320 CE
      1. no powerful individual rulers, but greater impact
      2. negotiate w/ local princes
        1. expanded influence w/out fighting – diff. than above
      3. two generations of political stability – think Pax Romana
    5. Shifted between empires and network of smaller kingdoms
  4. Political Institutions
    1. Regionalism – diversity
      1. Autocratic kings once in awhile, but also aristocratic assemblies
    2. How did they maintain power?
      1. Mauryan – military power
      2. Gupta
        1. negotiation
        2. appointed by gods
        3. allowed local rulers to have autonomy – think Rome
          1. no single language imposed – promoted Sanskrit, but…
        4. Golden Age
          1. spread laws
          2. supported university, arts, literature
    3. However…not an elaborate political culture
      1. little political theory, not like Greeks
      2. Kautilya – how to maintain power – like Legalism in China
      3. political service not valued as important
      4. Buddhist leaders not interested in political affairs
    4. Why the limitations?
      1. local governments
      2. caste system already regulated life – social behavior – political laws unnecessary
        1. subcastes, hereditary – can’t marry outside
          1. but…marry below, or lower job and you could lose caste
          2. rarely move up in caste – did well economically
        2. most rigid social structure of all classic civilizations
          1. method of conquerors and conquered to live together in peace
          2. not necessary to totally blend cultures
          3. promoted tolerance
          4. slavery avoided – untouchables not owned
    5. Qualities of civilization based on cultural values
      1. Hindu/Buddhism clearest cement
      2. remarkable ability to survive
      3. means so many different things to so many different people
      4. can evolve
      5. Indian children can indulge imaginations
        1. imaginative links with higher power
        2. clear continuity though rarely under one political power
  5. Religion and Culture
    1. Hinduism – origins in Vedic and Epic ages
      1. Rig-Veda – Creation hymn
      2. Different – no single founder – no central holy figure
        1. Grew gradually, sometimes in reaction to other religions – Buddhism/Islam
      3. Religious approaches
        1. Ritualistic ceremonies performed by brahmans
        2. mysticism – unite humans w/ divine
        3. encouraged political and economic goals (artha) and worldly pleasures (karma)
        4. fluidity – adaptable – tolerant – many suitable paths of worship – Christianity?
      4. Brahmanism – Brahman leadership elaborate – called by scholars – dharma by Hindus
        1. gods of nature altered – represent abstract
          1. Varuna – god of the sky to guardian of right and wrong
        2. Epic poems – gentle/generous behavior
      5. Upanishads – shallowness of worldly concerns – wealth/health
      6. each person’s soul part of universe
      7. religion of rituals vs. religion of mystics
        1. mystics – gurus and Brahmas agreed to
          1. existence of divine essence – several gods – try to seek union w/ this soul
            1. Vishnu – preserved/ Shiva – destroyer
            2. takes many lifetimes – reincarnation
            3. where soul goes depends on reincarnation
      8. options for good life
        1. meditation/self-discipline – yoga
        2. others wanted rituals – cremation, prayers, sacred cows, refrain from beef
        3. some believed in lesser nature gods
        4. symbolic sacrifices might assist in reincarnation
      9. life obligations
        1. serve family
        2. earn money
        3. serve in army when necessary
      10. Bhagavad Gita – classic hymn – OK to kill family, duty, plus they’re reincarnated
      11. but…doesn’t have strict ethical codes – aka Ten Commandments
      12. Why did it spread?
        1. satisfying rules of conduct for life
        2. incorporated previous religion
        3. caste system – better time in future life
    2. Buddhism – 563 BCE – Siddhartha Gautama – Buddha – enlightened one
      1. searched for truth, found it, accepted many elements of Hinduism, but..
        1. disagreed with caste system
        2. all worldly desires hurt you
        3. if you destroy self, can reach nirvana – self-control – regulate life
        4. denied importance of rituals/priests
      2. spread by group of monks – prayer/charity/piety helped spread message
        1. Brahman opposition strong
      3. Hinduism still attractive due to mysticism
    3. Literature
      1. Political theory sparse, but wrote about human life
      2. “laws of love” – Kamasutra – male/female relationships
      3. Recorded epics – lively stories
      4. Romantic adventure – separated/returned – romantic/adventure
    4. Science
      1. Supported university – astronomy and medicine
        1. Religion prevented dissection
        2. Bone setting, plastic surgery, sterilization – reached West much later
    5. Mathematics – imported through Arabs – but Indian
      1. Concept of zero – decimal system
      2. negative numbers
      3. square roots
      4. pi
    6. Art – lively, but much perished
      1. Stupas – spherical shrines to Buddha
      2. Not realistic like Greeks, but stylized
      3. Appreciation of nature
      4. Joy of life themes + celebrate religion
    7. Tone – not rational like West, or concentration on Politics like China
  6. Economy and Society
    1. Caste system
      1. Different punishments for different crimes – Brahman killed servant – same as dog
      2. Villagers rarely had contact with higher caste
    2. Family life based on hierarchy
      1. wife worship husband as god
      2. women lost power as male power expanded – common of agricultural societies
      3. question – could woman advance spiritually if not reincarnated as man?
      4. Arranged marriages – solid economic links
      5. Emphasis on loving relations/sexual pleasure
      6. children indulged and then expected to work hard
      7. clever-strong willed women as goddesses
    3. Economy
      1. Chemistry, strongest steel – better than West until recently
      2. Textiles – cotton cloth, calico, cashmere
      3. Emphasis on trade far greater than in China
        1. Tamil traders – cotton, silks, dyes, drugs, gold, ivory
      4. Most people lived subsistence lives

    In Depth: Inequality as the Social Norm

  7. Indian Influence
    1. Indian Ocean – most active linkage point among cultures
      1. No civilization to compete w/ India – but not empire builders
    2. Effect on other areas
      1. married into royal families
      2. temples and Indian art constructed
      3. Buddhism spread throughout – Hinduism to upper class Indonesian families
      4. Affect China > Buddhism and art
    3. Started after Aryan invasions, but classical period lasted longer than China/Rome
      1. Foundation of religion, art, literary tradition, social & family network
  8. China and India – borrowed from each other, but didn’t change
    1. India vs. China - Differences
      1. Art – lively vs. restrained
      2. primary religion vs. separate religions/philosophies to fit needs
        1. Religion more otherworldly vs. practicial findings
        1. Emphasis on caste vs. political structure
        2. Different emotional reactions vs. restrained behavior
        3. Expanded cultural influence through trade vs. new territory/emissaries
        4. Land ownership consistent vs. trying to get more land/take over power
      3. India vs. China – Similarities
        1. large peasant class
        2. close-knit villages
        3. mutual cooperation
        4. cities/merchants took on secondary role
          1. but…more sea trade in India
        5. owners of land had power, could tax
        6. patriarchy
  9. Global Connections
    1. no civilization more open to others
    2. None more central to cultural exchanges
    3. New civilizations
      1. Trade influence grew
      2. Religion, epics, art, architecture led to new civilizations – Angkor Wat/Majapahit
    4. Trading network
      1. Coveted cotton textiles and bronze statuaries
      2. Epic literature
Subject X2: 

Chapter 04 - Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome

Chapter 4
Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome

  1. Introduction
    1. Mediterranean culture
      1. Greece slowed Persian empire, set up a few colonies, but…
      2. Rome known for empire
      3. New institutions/values that would remain in western culture
      4. “our own” Classical past
        1. U.S. Constitution
        2. buildings in the U.S.
        3. founders of the philosophical tradition
        4. Socratic method
    2. Greco-Roman history
      1. more dynamic, but less successful
        * We can clearly recognize the connections and our own debt without adhering to the notion that the Mediterranean world somehow dominated the classical period.
      2. Complicated – passed through two centers
        1. Rome preserved many of Greek achievements
    3. Rome vs. Greece
      1. Mighty empire vs. inept/Greek city-states
      2. Mastered engineering vs. scientific thought
      3. western Europe – Greco Roman vs. Eastern Europe – Greek influence
      4. Shared
        1. political ideas
        2. common religion
        3. artistic styles
        4. economic structures
  2. The Persian Tradition
    1. 550 BCE Cyrus the Great – massive Persian Empire across Middle East
      1. Tolerant of local customs
      2. Advanced iron technology
      3. Zoroastrianism
      4. artistic lifestyle
      5. Conquered by Alexander the Great
      6. Persian language and culture survived into the 20th century
  3. Patters of Greek and Roman History
    1. Greece
      1. Crete – showed Egyptian influence by 2000
        1. Monumental architecture
      2. 1400 Mycenae – kingdom Trojan War
        1. Indo-Europeans destroyed until 800 – Dark Ages
      3. Rise from 800-600 strong city-states
        1. tyrant or aristocratic council
        2. divided by mountains
          1. unified government difficult
          2. trade developed
        3. written language came from Phoenician alphabet
        4. regular celebrations
          1. athletic competitions – Olympic games
        5. Sparta/Athens rose to the top
          1. Sparta – military tradition dominated slves
          2. Athens – commercial state, slaves, artistic/intellectual leadership
      4. 5th century – Democracy in Athens
        1. Pericles - most famous political figure
          1. No official position, but influence/negotiation
        2. each citizen participated
        3. eventually Spartan/Athenian war weakens both sides
          1. Peloponnesian Wars – weakened Greece
            1. Philip II of Macedon came down and took over
            2. Alexander the Great then kept going to Persia
              1. 13 years of conquests – 33
              2. Successor kingdoms ruled for centuries
              3. Hellenistic period – Greek art/culture merges
              4. Trade flourished
              5. Scientific centers – Alexandria
              6. Greece decline, but legacy carries on
    2. Rome
      1. Started under control of monarchy in 800 – defeated in 509
      2. Roman republic expanded
        1. Always fear of invaders, keep extending boundaries
        2. Across Sicily, conflict with Carthage
          1. Leads to Punic Wars – 3 of them
            1. Bloody defeat by Hannibal – through Gaul
            2. 3rd Punic War – salted fields – agriculture
      3. Republic replaced by powerful generals
        1. Caesar first to “Cross the Rubicon” – 45 BCE
        2. August Caesar takes over in 27 BCE – after rivalry following assassinat
          1. Pax Romana – basic structure for Roman Empire
            1. Until 180 CE Marcus Aurelius – peace to Medit. World
            2. Empire expanded to Britain
        3. Gradual fall until 476 when invaders took over
          1. economic deterioration – trade loss
          2. population loss – declining birth rates
          3. government less effective – couldn’t take care of empire
          4. unable to take over more land to finance empire
          5. too spread out – undefendable
      4. Diocletian Reforms
      5. Constantine – 313 adopts Christianity
      6. After the fall
        1. Governments became local in Western Europe – can’t control/order
        2. Roman armies needed foreign recruits – why are we fighting again?
  4. Greek and Roman Political Institutions
    1. Introduction
      1. Politics crucial – polis – Greek city-state – similar to China
        1. “Good life” included political service, military
      2. Did not try to administer local regions
      3. Unlike China, never had single set of political institutions/bureaucracy/emp
      4. Like India diverse forms
        1. Monarchy – not preferred – tried to abolish
        2. Individual strongman – tyranny – quite common – some effective
    2. Greece – demos – the people
      1. General assemblies – all vote – direct democracy – not a republic
      2. Executive officers chosen by lot – similar to jury duty
      3. ½ citizens – slave/foreigners – women excluded > 25% participate
      4. Negatives of democracy – Peloponnesian Wars
        1. Lower class citizens want power – recommend stupid military choices
      5. Most preferred – aristocratic assemblies – aristocracy – rule of the best
    3. Rome
      1. Constitution – relied on aristocracy – election of magistrates
      2. Senate – held executive offices – two consuls shared power – public speaking
        1. Dictator during emergencies
      3. Ample political theory – Cicero main guy
        1. Political ethics
        2. Duties of citizens
        3. incorruptible service
        4. key political skills – oratory
        5. . Diff. than China – not so much on hierarchy, obedience, bureaucracy
      4. Roman Empire – preserved Senate – relatively useless
      5. Local autonomy prevailed – accept times like Jewish rebellion 63 CE
        1. tolerance local customs, religion
      6. Strong military organization
      7. Well-crafted laws – Twelve Tables 450 BCE – restrain upper class
        1. Rules, not personal whim, should govern people
        2. regulated property, commerce
        3. similar to Chinese bureaucratic structure
      8. Focused on law courts, military force
        1. Not so much on commerce, but…
        2. Rome…roads, harbors – military transport, commerce
        3. Public baths, stadiums – “bread and circuses”
      9. Supported official religion – civic festivals, but not imposed
        1. Religions tolerated as long as didn’t conflict with state
          1. Problem w/ Christianity, state not first
    4. Key elements
      1. Localism, political focus, diversity of political systems, aristocracy, law
      2. Lacked specific individual rights, instability showed system was flawed
  5. Religion and Culture
    1. Religion
      1. Christianity spread, but not a product of Christian/Roman Culture
      2. Greco-Roman religion – nature > gods and goddesses
        1. Different names/interacted w/ mortals/whims/soap opera
        2. Patrons of nature/human activities
        3. god stories used to illustrate human passions/foibles – literature
        4. lacked spiritual passion – lower class attracted to “mystery religions” M. East
        5. Upper class – didn’t allow for method systematic inquiry
      3. Many thinkers/philosophers searched for explanations/model for ethical behavior
        1. Aristotle – Golden Mean – balance
        2. Stoics – moral independence – discipline/personal bravery
        3. Socrates – question – accused of undermining – poison
        4. Plato – understand three forms – True, Good, Beautiful
        5. Importance – human ability to think, not human spirituality
        6. Similar to Confucianism, but more skeptical and focused on abstract questions
    2. Rational inquiry
      1. Few inventions, many theories, classification
        1. Many theories wrong
        2. Some geometry, anatomy, incorrect astronomy
      2. Romans more practical – engineering – roads/aqueducts
    3. Art and literature – far more important
      1. Official religion inspires artist expression – temples, statues
      2. Realistic depiction of human form
      3. Poetry, music, dance – not as preserved
      4. Drama – comedy and tragedy – trilogy – focused on human flaws
        1. Sophocles – Oedipus complex
        2. Not just for upper class
        3. Romans known more for athletic performances – charioteers/gladiators
      5. Greek literature – epic tradition – Homer – Iliad/Odyssey – links mythology/history
      6. Sculpture – heroic/realistic tradition
      7. Architecture – columns – Doric, Ionic, Corinthian – classical architecture
        1. Rome – dome/stadium – heavily adorned public buildings/monuments
  6. Economy and Society
    1. Tendency for large landowners to squeeze out small farmers > feudalism later
      1. Much tension comes from farmers trying to keep independence, get out of debt
      2. Difficulty in farming – geography, topography
        1. Forced olives, grapes – but these need capital, patience – 5 years – landlord
      3. Commercial agriculture led to need for empire
        1. Supervised grain trade, public works, storage facilities
        2. Manufactured products less advanced – exported animals/skins, metals
    2. Merchants – better in Mediterranean than China, but ambiguous
    3. Slavery – key component – agriculture – from military expansion
      1. Free farmers couldn’t compete w/ slave/tenant labor
      2. Hurt technological innovation – behind India/China in production technology
    4. Tight family structure – women inferior/dif
    5. f. laws – not as bad as China, but infanticide
    6. Not the period of “human race was most happy or prosperous” – idealized in Western world
      1. Urban achievements not everything
  7. The Fall of Rome – fell in parts, not all at once
    1. No central religion
    2. Classical Mediterranean life not fully carried on
  8. Global connections
    1. Outsiders as barbarians
    2. Alexander the Great expanded
    3. some Romans saw Greek literature/philosophical focus as a waste of time
    4. Rome expanded to Germanic tribes – trade/war
      1. Tolerant of local customs, but built Roman monuments
    5. Believed there was little to learn from beyond their own borders
  9. Classical Mediterranean in Comparative Perspective
    1. China, India, Medit. All have agricultural economy, empires
      1. Secular Medit. similar to Confucian
    2. Politics don’t speak of deference, bureaucratic training
    3. Greeks more into theory
    4. Each had social hierarchy and laws to justify/protect upper class
      1. Aristocracy – India – priests, China – bureaucrats, Medit. – aristocrats
    5. Social mobility
      1. India’s caste – little
      2. China – few talented bureaucrats could move up
      3. Medit. – some non-aristocrats could move up, military
    6. Lowest class
      1. India – untouchables
      2. China – “mean people”
      3. Medit. – slavery
        1. Farmers/property important – but scorned manual labor > slavery
      4. United by different reasons – social unrest, rebellions in all
        1. India – Hinduism
        2. Medit. – military force, local authorities
        3. Chinese – Confucianism – obedience, self-restraint
      5. China/India more successful in convincing poor of legitimacy of class structure
        1. Medit. focused on aristocracy, tried to give some political rights to others
Subject X2: 

Chapter 05 - The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

Chapter 5
The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

  1. Expansion and Integration
    1. Key point – how did classical civilizations adjust to expansion
      1. Between 550>400 BCE Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, Socrates
        1. Need to articulate central values
    2. How did they all unite?
      1. China – more centralized
      2. Mediterranean – more localized/diverse
      3. India – key religious values – not as vulnerable to collapse – like Rome
    3. What are the two challenges of integration?
      1. Territorial – how to command
        1. China – language for elite, resettlement
        2. Rome – local autonomy, tolerance
        3. India – spread caste system
      2. Social – inequality between men/women – upper/lower class
        1. China – hierarchy – deference – obedience – Confucian
        2. India – caste system
        3. Rome – slavery
    4. How to maintain cohesion?
      1. Rome – promise of upward mobility
      2. China – mutual respect between upper and lower
      3. India – future reincarnation into higher form if good life
  2. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
    1. Some as border civilizations, some entirely independent
      1. Wider trade patterns
    2. Africa – Kush – hieroglyphics, iron, monarchy
      1. Defeated by Axum, then Ethiopia
        1. Ethiopian Christian church cut off from Greeks – isolated
        2. Ethiopia – by 20th century – oldest uninterrupted monarchy
      2. Farming on southern border of Sahara – regional kingdoms
        1. Agriculture spread slowly – dense vegetation, diseases on domesticated
        2. Eventually farmed new crops, traded w/ Asia
    3. Japan – 200 CE extensive agriculture – migrations from Korea over 200,000 year period
      1. tribal chiefs – each tribe had own god
      2. Chinese visitor – law-abiding, fond of drink, experts agriculture
        1. Tattoos to separate social classes
      3. Shintoism – worship political rulers and spirits of nature – eventually nationalized
      4. 400 CE – one regional ruler took over surrounding territories
        1. By 600 CE began trading/interacting with Chinese civilization
    4. Northern Europe – lagged behind Japan – most backward areas in the world
      1. Regional kingdoms – no written language – except Latin imports
        1. Primitive agriculture and hunting
      2. Gods and rituals to deal with nature
        1. Not until 1000 CE did Christianity truly unite
    5. Central America – Olmec civilization – more advanced than Europe/Africa
      1. Corn staple food crop, but few domesticated animals
      2. Olmec culture
        1. Artistic forms – jade
        2. religious images – animals and humans
        3. science – accurate calendars
      3. Successors made Teotihuacan – great city, later taken over by Maya – 400 CE on
      4. Olmecs similar to Sumerians – foundation
      5. Incas in Peru/Bolivia – isolation form world – couldn’t copy and react
        1. No wheel, iron
        2. Advanced civilization – agriculture to city
    6. Polynesian peoples – Fiji by 1000 BCE, Hawaii 400 CE
      1. Great travelers/explorers
      2. adapted local plants, brought in new animals, imported caste system under kings
    7. Central Asia – played central role in trade
      1. Invention of stirrup
      2. Important contacts between civilizations
      3. herding groups invaded civilizations
  3. Decline in China and India
    1. 200-600 CE all three start to decline
      1. Outside invasion – nomadic growth – Huns
        1. Huns realized weakness of regime
      2. Internal problems
    2. Han Dynasty – population growth/prosperity spiral down
      1. Confucian intellectual activity less active
      2. Bureaucrats corrupt
      3. Local landlords took up power
      4. New peasant taxes – social unrest
        1. Peasants become day laborers/sell children
      5. Daoism attractive – healing practices + magic
        1. Yellow Turbans – golden age w/ magic
          1. Attacked weak emperor/corrupt bureaucracy
      6. Similarities to Rome
        1. Political ineffectiveness
        2. Epidemics – killed half of China
        3. Three centuries of chaos
      7. Cultural unity threatened by Buddhism
      8. Eventually invaders kicked out by Sui and Tang – started one of most glorious periods
      9. Why survived?
        1. Structures too strong – bureaucracy
          1. Invaders couldn’t offer anything better
    3. India decline – not as drastic
      1. Gupta emperors losing control of local princes
      2. Hun invaders penetrate deeper into India
      3. Regional princes, Rajput, gain more power
      4. But…Indian culture evolved – Hinduism wins out over Buddhism
        1. Huns have no patience for Buddhist principles of calm/contemplation
        2. Mother Goddess Devi spread
      5. Threat from Islam, Arabs fighting for Allah
        1. Hinduism supported more by government
        2. Not as much focus on intellectual pursuits, focus put on uniting Hinduism
        3. Arab traders took control of trade
      6. Regionalism prevailed, but Hinduism saved the day
  4. Decline and Fall of Rome – most severe
    1. Symptoms of decay
      1. Declining population
      2. Brutal/arbitrary emperors
      3. tax collection difficult – blood from turnip
      4. humans saw futility of life
    2. Causes
      1. weak emperors, succession, army helps selects emperors
      2. plagues from international trade
      3. population decrease > can’t recruit troops > have to hire Germanic soldiers
      4. Upper class more pleasure seeking – loss of morals
        1. Stopped having kids
      5. Aside from writing textbooks, no new artistic creativity
        1. Textbooks summarized info already known, plus threw in superstition
    3. Course of decline
      1. quality of imperial rule declined
      2. life became more dangerous
      3. economic survival more difficult> farmers work for landlords > feudalism/manorialism
      4. estates became self-sufficient – trade declined
      5. Some emperors try to stop
        1. Diocletian reforms – improve administration, tax coll, economic regulation, worship emperor as god > Persecute Christians
        2. Constantine – Constantinople – use Christianity to unify – eastern emp. Effective
      6. Western proven as even weaker – when barbarians come – no one cares
        1. 5% of empire able to take over
      7. Why it didn’t survive?
        1. No shared political/bureaucratic traditions
        2. No common religion
      8. Created three regions
        1. Eastern – Byzantine Empire – Greek – Justinian codes – famous Roman laws
          1. Sassanid Empire – Persian – bridge to the east – continued under Persian rule
        2. North Africa – Augustine – Christian theologizns
          1. Coptic Church in Egypt – soon Islam would take over
        3. Western empire – shattered
          1. Regional unities
          2. Reduced level of civilization – crude, cities shrank, Dark Ages
            1. Literacy falls – sense of inferiority to classical Rome – forgotten
  5. The New Religious Map
    1. End of classical period led to rise of major religions – unprecedented growth
      1. Devastating plagues – provided solace for death
      2. Growing political instability – Christianity > Mediterranean, Buddhism > Asia
        1. Islam arose in 600 CE and became most dominant force
      3. Common focus
        1. Spiritual concerns beyond daily life
        2. Hope of better existence after death
      4. Hundreds of thousands underwent conversion process
        1. Syncretism – religions changed to incorporate features of civilization
      5. Yet, remained different
    2. Buddhism
      1. Buddhism altered more than Hinduism as it expanded across Asia
        1. Monks pushed conversion
        2. Two groups – minority who abandoned earthly life & others doing best they could
      2. bodhisattvas – attain nirvana through meditation
        1. Could lead in prayer and advise on spiritual matters
      3. Changed from religion based on ethics to emotional cult offering salvation
      4. In China, issue of celestial afterlife
        1. Mahayana – Greater Vehicle – east Asian form
          1. Buddha as divine savior – statues, against earlier belief against images
          2. Boddhisattvas – souls could receive prayers and aid people after death
        2. Southeast Asia – closer to original – meditation and ethics
      5. Pushed forward new artistic interests – pagodas in Japan
      6. Impact on women
        1. women and men both had souls
        2. syncretism – Buddhist – husband “supports” wife > “controls”
        3. valued pious Buddhist wives – could help family reach salvation
          1. keep wives busy, calm, out of mischief
      7. Conflict
        1. Focus on afterlife takes away focus on political interests
        2. holy life incompatible w/ family needs
        3. threat to distract loyalty to emperor
        4. Daoism reaction – practical benefits through magic
      8. Never dominated culture, coexisted
        1. response to changing conditions of troubled area
  6. Christianity
    1. Similarities to Buddhism
      1. Spreading at same time – Buddhism east, Christianity west
      2. Christianity initially less successful
      3. Emphasis on salvation
      4. Guidance of saints
    2. Differences
      1. Placed more emphasis on organization, structure - borrowed from Roman Empire
      2. Premium on conversion
      3. Exclusive nature of truth, intolerant of competing beliefs - reason for success
    3. Beginnings
      1. Reaction to rigidities of Jewish priesthood
      2. Cult/reaction movements started – promised afterlife for virtuous
        1. Jesus of Nazareth – gentleness + charisma
        2. initially no desire to spread
        3. message
          1. one God, virtuous life dedicated to God, fellowship among believers, life of poverty better for holiness
          2. Sacrifice for sins
          3. Afterlife > belief, good works, discipline, perform rituals
        4. why did it spread?
          1. Solace in negative world
          2. Missionaries travel easily around Roman Empire
          3. early leaders made adjustments to match needs
            1. Bishop system matched provincial governments
          4. attractive to rich/poor – promise of salvation – like Hinduism
          5. women – souls equal, men and women worship together
      3. Gradual growth
        1. Competed w/ eastern cults, persecuted
        2. Constantine converted only 10%
          1. Theocracy in East – emperor strong
          2. Provincial leaders more power in West – papa – Pope in Rome
      4. Beliefs
        1. Trinity – Father, Son, Holy Spirit
        2. formal theology – writers – Augustine – mixed w/ classical philosophy
        3. Notion of free will
        4. state not first
        5. worked against slavery – brotherhood more important – across class lines
        6. respect for disciplined work
        7. Church building maintained Roman architecture
      5. Syncretism – polytheistic traditions
        1. Moved birth to winter solstice – December 22ish
      6. Monasticism – Benedict
        1. Benedictine Rule – disciplined life, prayer, study, piety
        2. Monasteries centers of learning – preserved classics
  7. The World around 500 CE
    1. World religion – durability, different kinds of people
      1. cuts across cultures, wins converts, wide geographic area, diversity
      2. animism decreases
    2. Islam – initially surpasses Christianity, rival ever since
      1. No new religion after Islam
      2. Religious map doesn’t alter much after Islam
    3. Changes to world
      1. Showed importance of trade routes
      2. Tendency toward single divinity – away from polytheism – but still existed
    4. Set up themes for future
      1. Response to collapse of former civilizations
      2. Need to react to new religious map
      3. Agricultural skill, and new contacts meant other civilizations would be catching up
    5. Global connections
      1. dangerous land travel
      2. new premium on shipping
      3. borders became more porous – new exchanges – new connections for future
Subject X2: 

Chapter 06 - The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Chapter 6
The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

  1. Introduction
    1. Before 7th century – contacts, but not total control of ancient world under one empire
      1. Arabia – nomadic land on periphery of major civilizations
    2. 7th century – followers of Islam “submission” – Muslims – Allah – one God
      1. Began conquest and conversion
      2. Within decades, Muhammad had empire of Persia, Greece and Egypt
    3. Later empire spread
      1. Merchants, mystics, warriors
      2. Empire expanded
        1. Africa, Asia, southern Europe
        2. Across steppes to central Asia, western China, south Asia
        3. Across ocean trade routes to southeast Asia and eastern Africa
        4. Across overland trade routes, Sahara to western Africa
        5. Across Asia Minor and into European heartland – rivals Christianity
      3. Muslim merchants
        1. Worked with traders from other regions
        2. Prime agents for transfer of food crops, technology, and ideas
        3. Muslim scholars studied, preserved and improved upon learning of Ancient Civs
          1. Eventually, Arabic – language of Qur’an would become international language of the educated
      4. Would define Middle East and N. Africa until today
  2. Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam
    1. Introduction
      1. Geography – unlikely birth of religion – inhospitable desert
      2. Bedouin – nomadic culture dominant
        1. Some towns – Mecca/Medina – merely extensions of Bedouin life
          1. Safety of trade routes determined success of cities
          2. People linked to kinship
          3. Culture
            1. Focus on clan and family
            2. language and religion
        2. Some coastal trading towns
    2. Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance
      1. Organization
        1. kin-related clans group with others to make tribes
          1. Only congregate for war, severe crisis
          2. Conditions force you to rely on clan – kicked out equals death
          3. Life regulated by councils
            1. shayks – leaders of the tribe/clan
              1. has large herds, several wives, many children/retainers
            2. Ideas of shayks enforced by warriors
        2. Conflict over pastureland/watering holes
          1. Need to defend one’s honor
          2. One man’s slight could lead to huge conflict followed by revenge
          3. Constant conflicts led to weakened empire – vulnerable to outsiders
    3. Towns and Long-Distance Trade
      1. Small communities of traders emerge
      2. Some northern cities become trade links
        1. Mecca dominates – mountainous region – controlled by Umayyad clan of Quraysh tribe
          1. Mecca has Ka’ba – focus of bazaars
            1. Obligatory truce brought rival groups together
        2. Medina – to the north – wells and springs
          1. Unlike Mecca, run by five competing families – 2 bedouin, 2 Jewish
            1. These divisions later help with formation of Islam
    4. Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia
      1. Women greater freedom…varied from tribe to tribe
        1. Key economic roles – milking camel, weaving cloth, raising children
        2. Unlike Persian neighbors – not covered or secluded
        3. wrote poetry
        4. Able to have multiple partners
        5. Lineage matrilineal
      2. …but, men still greater
        1. Earn status through war/battle
        2. Creation of cities leads to stratification leads to male dominance
        3. Men only polygamy
    5. Poets and Neglected Gods
      1. Sparse resources – art and architecture didn’t flourish
      2. Poetry/oral history main method of sharing stories
        1. Theme – heroic clans, warriors
      3. Gods – polytheistic and animism
        1. But…how many really believed
        2. One tribe, Quraysh believed had one god named Allah
          1. but not prayed to, sacrificed to initially
  3. The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam
    1. Early life of Muhammad
      1. Born into prominent clan of Quraysh tribe
        1. Father and mother die, raised by uncle and prominent grandfather
        2. Made caravan trips with Abu Talib – exposed to Christian/Jewish faiths
      2. Early 20s worked as a trader for Khadijah – later wife
        1. saw inequity of classes
        2. saw class rivalries
        3. saw tension between clans as some, Umayyads, got rich through commerce
        4. saw monotheistic religions
          1. Many prophets during this time period pushed for monotheism
      3. 610 – first revelation from Gabriel
        1. Wrote Allah’s words in Qur-an
    2. Persecution, Flight and Victory
      1. Seen as threat – Umayyad in Mecca
        1. Threat to wealth and power
        2. Threatened Ka’ba role, no longer center of commerce?
      2. One clansmen Ali, finds way for him to sneak out to Medina in 622
        1. Medina ideal location – caught up in clan conflict
        2. Muhammad invited in to resolve disputes
        3. Wisdom as political leader won him new converts
      3. Umayyad send out attacks on Muhammad
        1. Muhammad proves himself as strong military leader
        2. Finally Umayyad surrender, let Muslims visit Ka’ba
        3. 10,000 converts enter city, destroy idols, Mecca inhabitants convert
    3. Arabs and Muslims
      1. Why attractive to Arabs
        1. Form of monotheism that belonged to no single tribe
        2. Equal of other monotheistic faiths
        3. Allowed no intermediaries, priests
        4. End to vendettas, feuds – united
        5. Single, supernatural authority
        6. Turned violence against selves into violence against others
        7. Ethical system to live lives
          1. zakat – charity tax for poor
          2. Wealthy forbidden from overtaxing poor
        8. All aspects of life regulated to prepare for Judgement Day
    4. Universal Elements in Islam
      1. Why attractive to others outside of Arab world
        1. uncompromising monotheism
        2. highly developed legal codes
        3. egalitarianism
        4. strong sense of community
        5. most aspects similar to that of Judaism and Christianity
          1. Accepted older teachings, Muhammad just most recent divine instructions
      2. Five Pillars
        1. No god but Allah
        2. Pray five times a day facing Mecca
        3. fast during Ramadan
        4. Zakat for those in need
        5. Hajj - pilgrimage to Ka’ba to worship Allah
  4. The Arab Empire of the Umayyads
    1. Initially, it looked like Islam might fail with Muhammad’s death
      1. Some renounced faith
      2. Other argued over secession
    2. Foreign expeditions took minds off of internal problems – how convenient
      1. Rather easily beat neighbors
        1. courage
        2. military prowess
        3. religious zeal
        4. weakness of border empires
      2. New lands/people ruled by Arab elite
    3. Consolidation and Division in the Islamic Community
      1. Muhammad gave no procedure for appointing successor – leader – caliph
        1. Ali – cousin and son-in-law too young
        2. Abu Bakr – earliest follower, closest friend
          1. courage, warmth, wisdom
          2. Knew genealogy of tribes – alliances
          3. Ridda Wars – defeated Bedouin tribes, brought under power of Islam
      2. Initially just raided for booty
        1. but…raids showed weakness of empires
        2. many residents tired of being merely vassals and frontier guardians for Persians/Byz
    4. Motives for Arab conquest
      1. Unity of faith gave them common cause
      2. Pent-up energy from warrior people
      3. booty – “bread and dates”
      4. not driven by desire to win converts – avoided mass conversions
        1. wanted tax money – that’s the key – need to keep people not Muslim
  5. Weaknesses of the Adversary Empires
    1. Sasanian Empire of Persia
      1. Autocratic emperor manipulated by aristocrats
      2. Zoroastrianism – religion of emperor ignored by common people
      3. Delayed too long to realize threat, eventually fled east and were killed
    2. Byzantine Empire – stronger adversary
      1. defection of their own frontier Arabs
      2. Muslim invaders got support from Christians from Syria and Egypt
        1. Copts and Nestorians would rather be taxed less
      3. Muslims triumphed in early battles, would continue siege for centuries
  6. The Problem of Succession and the Sunni-Shi’a Split
    1. Frustration over
      1. Centuries of personal animosities
      2. Who would control booty from victories
      3. Spark to conflict – murder of third caliph Uthman
        1. Uthman from Umayyad clan – remember the guys who wanted to assassinate Muham
    2. Ali – remember – the son-in-law of Muhammad
      1. Regains thrown – doesn’t punish assassins – war’s on
      2. Ali’s forces were winning, but he decides on mediation at Battle of Siffin
        1. Makes him look week, he loses some people from his side
        2. 660 Mu’awiya – Umayyads claim he is new caliph from Jerusalem
          1. Ali assassinated shortly after
          2. Son Husayn tries to regain power, but is abandoned by Iraqis and killed
      3. And now we have a feud
    3. Sunnis vs Shi’a
      1. Backers of Umayyads vs. backers of Ali
      2. Caliph goes through dominant clan vs. caliph goes through descendants of Muhammad
      3. Saddam Hussein is a Sunni but the the Shi’as have more people in Iraq today
  7. The Umayyad Imperium
    1. Moves East and West
      1. Runs into conflict with Buddhism in East
      2. Goes into Spain and eventually stopped by Charles Martel at Poitiers in 732 in West
    2. Capital moved to Damascus, Syria – Arab/Muslim aristocracy ruled over non-Arabs/Muslims
      1. Tried to keep Muslims separate
        1. Part of military elite, moved to garrison towns
        2. Don’t want to lose taxes – remember Muslims can’t tax Muslims
  8. Converts and “People of the Book”
    1. Well…the guys didn’t like being separated, and started intermarrying
      1. Mawali – Muslim converts still had to pay taxes
        1. Some even had to pay jizya – a surtax for nonbelievers – thanks, glad I converted
          1. Oddly enough, not that many people converted…hmmm…I wonder why
      2. Dhimmi – “People of the Book” – basically everyone else in the empire who believed in another religion other than Islam
        1. Muslim lords tolerated other religions…yeayyy taxes
  9. Family and Gender Roles in the Umayyad Age
    1. Position of women actually pretty good, don’t confuse w/ life in Persian Empire
      1. Muhammad stressed importance of marriage, fatherhood – adultery illegal
      2. Husband can marry up to four wives, but must be able to support them all
      3. Got rid of infanticide, gave more property rights to women
      4. Many of women some of his strongest early followers – wife for instance
        1. Helped compile Qur’an, some even went along on campaigns
      5. Veiling isn’t mentioned, but one woman even said why cover, Allah made me this way
  10. Umayyad Decline and Fall
    1. Umayyad caliph’s growing addiction to luxury and soft living – see Saddam Hussein in Dictionary
      1. Stopped fighting wars, built palaces – revolts start around empire
    2. Merv – don’t be scared by the name, but this is where the revolution begins
      1. 50,000 warriors had married local women – identified with region
      2. Rarely given share of booty
      3. Annoyed at Umayyad elite
      4. Annoyed that the Umayyads were sending in new troops – what…we’re not good enough?
      5. Marched under the Abbasid party banner
        1. Joined with the mawali – non-Arab converts
        2. Coalition of the willing defeated Umayyad caliph at Battle on the River Zab
        3. Invited the rest of the Umayyad family to a nice little get together
          1. Wrapped them in carpets and slaughtered them
          2. Hunted down the rest – kind of like in Revenge of the Sith, treatment of Jedis
          3. One guy made it out - Caliphate of Cordoba – in exile – like Yoda
  11. From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abbasid Era
    1. Abbasids less tolerant of Shi’ism sects
    2. Pushed for centralized, absolutist imperial order
      1. Jeweled thrones
      2. Expanded number of bureaucrats – sound like Han China anyone?
        1. Appointed a wazir – chief administrator – guy in charge of getting stuff done
        2. Royal executioner – guy in charge of getting bloody stuff done
        3. Able to collect revenue from far corners of empire, though further away harder
  12. Islamic Conversion and Mawali Acceptance
    1. Toward end of Umayyad period, already starting to accept
      1. No longer dividing up booty – can this please be the last time I use the word booty
    2. Under Abbasid – mawalis given equal footing to first generation – can’t tell the difference
      1. No longer have to pay head tax for being non-Muslim
      2. Open to administrative careers – public life
        1. Even conquered Persians took on a greater role
  13. Town and Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion
    1. Merchant class wealth and social status improves – trade a priority***
      1. Afro-Eurasian trading resumes after Rome/China let it die
      2. Created super cool ships called dhows
      3. Muslims worked with Jews, Christians – trade never stops – no Sabbath conflicts
    2. Products – luxury products for elites
    3. Money reinvested in companies
      1. Share given to charity
      2. Created mosques, religious schools, baths, rest houses for weary
      3. Hospitals – best medical care in the world
    4. Increased handicraft production
      1. furniture, glassware, jewelry, tapestries/carpets – you know you’ve heard of Persian rugs
        1. workers had some rights – formed guilds, owned tools,
    5. Slaves do garbage jobs
      1. Urban is better – could actually work your way to freedom
      2. Rural/mining – oftentimes left to non-Muslim captures
    6. Landed elite emerges – ayan – both old money and new money (warriors)
  14. The First Flowering of Islamic Learning
    1. Previously illiterate – ignorant of outside world
      1. Allows them to be open-minded, accept styles and approaches and creativity of the conquered
    2. First priority – preserving classical texts of Greece, Mediterranean, Middle East
      1. W/out Muslim and Jewish scholars – much of classical knowledge would be lost
      2. Traded ideas – Indian number system
  15. Global connections
    1. Rise without precedent – first truly global civilization – nobody had heard of America yet, don’t count
      1. Patchwork of languages, religions, ethnic types
      2. Brought together agriculturalists, nomads, urban dwellers
    2. Commitment to trade and merchants
    3. Ideas from classical civilizations first preserved, then improved upon, then carried all over
  16. Architecture – the mosque
    1. Borrowed from classical architecture
      1. Sometimes even used materials from destroyed churches/temples
    2. Couldn’t use animals/humans so focused on
      1. Geometric designs
      2. Colorful ceramic tiles
      3. Semiprecious stones
      4. Flower and plant motifs
      5. Qur’an passages swirling in Arabic
Subject X2: 

Chapter 07 - Part II Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia

Chapter 7 Part II
Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia

  1. Introduction
    1. Mid 9th century losing control
      1. Rebellious governors
      2. new challenging dynasties
    2. …but still creative – ironically – a golden age without political stability
      1. architecture
      2. fine arts
      3. literature
      4. philosophy
      5. mathematics and science
    3. Territorial growth – warriors, traders, wandering mystics
      1. political conquest
      2. peaceful conversion
    4. Conduit for exchange – between urban/agrarian centers and between nomadic peoples
      1. ideas
      2. plants and medicines
      3. commercial goods
      4. inventions
  2. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
    1. Introduction – 3rd Abbasid caliph – al-Mahdi
      1. Courtly excesses > financial drain
        1. taste for luxury/monumental buildings
        2. surrounded self with wives, concubines, courtiers
      2. Political divisions
        1. continued Shi’a revolts and assassinations
      3. Problem of succession
        1. Son/successor poisoned
          1. Harun al-Rashid (786-809)
            1. most famous
            2. enduring
    2. Imperial Extravagance and Succession Disputes
      1. Extravagance amazed visitors
        1. Charlemagne impressed by mosques, palaces, treasures
        2. The Thousand and One Nights
          1. Luxury and palace intrigue/manipulations
      2. Throne at 23 – growing power of royal advisors
        1. signaled shift in power – court advisors now more important
        2. Now also power struggles between court factions
      3. Death of Harun al-Rashid led to civil war
        1. winning son had huge army
          1. started precedent of having “bodyguards”
          2. mercenary forces could reach 70,000
      4. Power shift now to military
        1. Between military and court, assassinations quite common
    3. Imperial Breakdown and Agrarian Disorder
      1. Caliphs try to move capitals away from Baghdad – kind of like Versailles
        1. Very expensive
        2. Cost of new palaces/capitals plus mercenary force = high taxes
        3. Peasant revolts caused from
          1. taxation
          2. pillaging
          3. Shi’a “encouragement”
    4. The Declining Position of Women in the Family and Society
      1. Remember Islamic world initially quite open to egalitarian treatment of women
      2. Harem – women kept in seclusion
        1. creation of Abbasid court
        2. win their freedom/gain power by bearing healthy sons
        3. some women became slaves
          1. But…slaves captured, purchased from non-Muslim regions
            1. prized for beauty and intelligence
            2. best educated men and women
            3. officials more attracted to slaves then wives sometimes
            4. more freedom than free women – no veils/robes
      3. Veil
        1. slaves – no veil/robes
        2. Upper class no career outlets beyond homes
          1. focused on interests of sons
        3. lower class women could actually farm, weave clothing, raise silkworms
    5. Nomadic Incursions and the Eclipse of Caliphal Power
      1. Kingdoms try to take over power
        1. 945 Buyids of Persia invade empire and captured Baghdad
        2. Took names of sultan – victorious
        3. 1055 Seljuk Turks – replaced Buyids
          1. Turks were Sunnis – purged Shi’a officials
          2. Kept Byzantines from taking over
          3. Lay foundations for Ottoman Empire
    6. The Impact of the Christian Crusades
      1. First Crusade 1096-1099 – most successful for Europeans
        1. Surpise + political divisions
        2. Europeans killed Muslim and Jewish inhabitants of Jerusalem
      2. 200 years of battle – but…had little effect on Muslim princes
      3. Saladin – Salau-ud-Din – reconquered territory
      4. Impact much greater on Christians – Muslims show little interest in the west
        1. Increased European borrowing
          1. weapons – damascene sword
          2. fortifications
          3. science/medicine
          4. recovered Greek learning
          5. mastered Arabic numerals
          6. Middle Eastern rugs/textiles
          7. names for different cloths – taffeta, muslin
          8. Popular culture
            1. Chess
            2. Troubadours/ballads
            3. food – dates, coffee, yogurt
  3. The Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements
    1. Introduction
      1. Political divisions not that important – still successful artistically
      2. Remember – India/Western Europe also fragmented
      3. One of great ages in human ingenuity and creativity
      4. Expansion of professional classes
        1. Great fortunes to be made through trade
          1. Middle East > Mediterranean Europe
          2. Coastal India and island southeast Asia
          3. Overland caravan trade with China
      5. Artists and Artisans
        1. Mosques/palaces – larger more arnate
        2. Tapestries/rugs from Persians – rare
          1. exquisite designs
          2. vivid colors
          3. skill
        3. Fine bronzes/superb ceramics
    2. The Full Flowering of Persian Literature
      1. Persian caliphs, wives, concubines, advisors, bureaucrats
      2. Persian language became synonymous with “high culture”
        1. Language drafted by skilled cartographers
      3. Epic Poem – Shan-Nama – 10th/11th centuries
        1. History of Persia – battles, intrigues, love affairs
      4. Other topics – love affairs, every day life, striving to reach communion with divine
      5. Blend of mystical and commonplace
    3. Achievements in the Sciences
      1. First, preserved and compiled learning of ancient civilizations
      2. Math
        1. Second, made major corrections to algebraic/geometric theories
        2. Trigonometry – sine, cosine, tangent
      3. Science
        1. objective experiment
        2. classification – animal, vegetable, mineral
        3. weight of minerals
        4. astronomical tables
      4. Practical applications
        1. best hospitals – required formal examinations
        2. optics/bladder ailments
        3. From China trade
          1. perfected – papermaking, silk-weaving, ceramic firing
        4. best maps – cartography
    4. Religious Trends
      1. Key Theme of Muslim world **** Social strife and political divisions vs. trading links and intellectual creativity
      2. Mysticism gave vibrancy vs. orthodox religious scholars (ulama)
      3. Orthodox Muslims
        1. Gained prominence after Crusades
        2. suspected Greek learning – questioning
          1. threatened authority
        3. Qur’an – final, perfect, complete revelation
      4. Al-Ghazali tried to fuse Greek/Arab traditions
      5. Sufist movement
        1. Sufis – name from woolen robes
          1. great healers
          2. some led militant bands
          3. some bodily denial
          4. some used meditation, songs, drugs, dancing (dervishes)
          5. helped expand religion
        2. Personal union with Allah
        3. Reaction to abstract/impersonal divinity
        4. World illusory
    5. New Waves of Nomadic Invasions and the End of the Caliphate
      1. Abbasid domains divided as rival states grew
      2. Mongols under Chinggis Khan – 1220s
        1. Grandson – Hulegu continued
        2. Baghdad overthrown in 1258
          1. Cairo and Istanbul would become dominant city
        3. Defeated by Mamluks – Turkish slaves
  4. The Coming of Islam to South Asia
    1. Introduction
      1. Religion carried by invaders, traders, migrants
      2. Hindus and Muslims came into contact/conflict
      3. India pattern of nomadic invaders
        1. those who remained usually assimilated
          1. Due to strength and flexibility of India’s civilizations
          2. Offered higher level of material culture than they had before
        2. Muslims – first to bring in religion and not want to change/assimilate
      4. Differences between Hindus and Muslims
        1. Hinduism – open, tolerant, inclusive of various forms, idol worship, meditation
        2. Islam – doctrinaire, proselytizing, exclusive worship of single god
        3. Socially – Islam egalitarian vs. Hindu caste, compartmentalized, more rigid
        4. So…religiously more restrictive vs. socially more restrictive
        5. Interactions – violent > trade > religious interchange > wary peace
    2. Political Divisions and the First Muslim Invaders
      1. First – 711 – Traders
        1. Arab seafarers
        2. Muhammad ibn Qasim – preemptive assault to punish attack on Arab trading
        3. Brought little change – embraced by some
          1. Lower taxes
          2. Greater religious toleration
          3. Local officials get to retain titles, keep running things
          4. Status of Brahman castes repected
        4. Arabs lived in cities/garrison towns – apart
        5. Same pattern as other parts – little attempt at first at conversion, few converted
    3. Indian Influences on Islamic Civilization
      1. Indian learning
        1. Hindu mathematics – algebra/geometry
          1. Use numerals of Hindu scholars
          2. This number critical to two scientific revolutions
        2. Medicine to music
          1. Physicians brought to Baghdad
          2. Arabian Nights tales maybe based on Indian stories
        3. Game of chess
      2. Indian dress, hairstyles, foods, rode on elephants
    4. From Booty to Empire: The Second Wave of Muslim Invasions
      1. Little territory added in centuries following Muhammad ibn Qasim
        1. But…Turkish slave dynasty? – 962
        2. Mahmud of Ghazni – series of expeditions
          1. Drawn by wealth
          2. Zeal to spread Muslim faith
          3. Defeated princes
        3. Muhammad of Ghur and Qutb-ud-din Aibak pushed territory further
      2. Capital becomes Delhi
        1. 300 year Muslim dynasties – sultans of Delhi
          1. Fought Mongol/Turk invaders
          2. Fought internally
          3. Fought Hindu princes
    5. Patterns of Conversion
      1. Interactions accommodating and peaceful
        1. Few converts won forcibly***
        2. Sufi mystics quite successful – similar to gurus – helped region
          1. Mosques/schools center of regional power
          2. Militias to help protect from bandits
          3. Cleared forests, helped with settlement
          4. Welcomed low caste/outcastes
          5. Charisma
      2. Most attractive to Islam?
        1. Buddhists
          1. Buddhism being corrupted by rituals/didn’t follow Buddha’s teachings
          2. Muslims raided Buddhist temples
          3. Some Buddhists – orgies/magic experiments
        2. Low-caste, untouchables, animistic tribal peoples
          1. Egalitarian
          2. Group conversions
        3. Desire to escape head tax
        4. Intermarriage
    6. Patterns of Accommodation
      1. Hindu community not really concerned with Islam initially
        1. Believed religion would soon be absorbed
      2. Hindus worked as administrators
      3. Muslims separated from Hindus
        1. Muslim communities
        2. sexual relations restricted
      4. Some Muslims adopted Hindu ways
        1. claimed divine descent
        2. minted coins with Hindu images
        3. socially divided Muslim communities along caste lines
        4. adopted customs
          1. Indian foods
          2. dress
          3. Pan – limestone wrapped in betel leaves
          4. Women treated poorly
            1. Married at early ages
            2. sati performed by upper caste Muslims
    7. Islamic Challenge and Hindu Revival
      1. Threatened by Islam
        1. Actively proselytizing religion
        2. Great appeal to large segments of the Indian population
      2. Hindu reaction – increasing popularity – extending methods of prayer/ritual
        1. Place greater emphasis on devotion to gods/goddesses
        2. bhaktic cults
          1. open to women/untouchables
          2. Mira Bai – writers of religious poetry
          3. saints from low-caste origins worshipped by all – brahmains down
            1. Kabir – saint who played down difference
        3. languages in vernacular
        4. chants, dances, drugs – spiritual intoxication
          1. state of ecstasy > attachment to gods – earthly life irrelevant
    8. Stand-Off: The Muslim Presence in India at the End of the Sultanate Period
      1. Brahmans took a more active role
        1. Denounced Muslims as infidel destroyers of Hind temples
        2. Denounced Muslims as polluted meat-eaters
      2. Muslims couldn’t be flexible
        1. Hinduism says some rituals optional – can’t be true for Islam
      3. Hindus remained majority
        1. Least converted/integrated of all the areas Muhammad’s message reached ***
  5. The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia
    1. Introduction
      1. Island southeast Asia usually a middle ground for trade
        1. Drop off Chinese products, Arab/Indian vessels pick up
        2. Goods from Sumatra
          1. aromatic woods
          2. spices, cloves, mace
        3. By 8th century – trade controlled by Muslims
          1. Elements of religion filtered slowly
          2. 13th century – Shrivijaya empire fell, Islams had full control
            1. Incentive now for trading centers to adopt faith
    2. Trading Contacts and Conversion
      1. Peaceful/voluntary conversion more common than force
        1. Merchants introduced rituals
          1. Stated most of known world already converted
        2. Port centers convert first
          1. Malacca converted – moved inland
          2. Trading links critical
            1. Enhance personal ties
            2. Common basis in law
            3. Eastern ports now culturally/economically linked
        3. Bali – Hinduism – remained impervious to Islam
        4. Mainland southeast Asia remained Buddhist
    3. Sufi Mystics and the Nature of Southeast Asian Islam
      1. Syncretism
      2. Spread by Sufis – mysticism
        1. Tolerated earlier animist, Hindu, Buddhist beliefs/rituals
        2. Many beliefs would be seen contrary to origins
          1. Women retained stronger position
          2. Markets dominated by female buyers/sellers
          3. Inheritance still matrilineal
          4. Fused Javanese puppet shows
  6. Global Connections
    1. Political friction irrelevant, still a central focus for many continents
      1. Led to refinement of civilized life
      2. Fine arts, sciences and literature
    2. Conflicts left open fringes to European political expansion
    3. Growing orthodoxy – growing less receptive to outside influences
      1. Bad timing, Christian Europe entering stage of unprecedented curiosity, experimentation
Subject X2: 

Chapter 08 - African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam

Chapter 8
African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam

  1. Introduction
    1. Mansa Musa – crossed Sahara on hajj
      1. wealth symbolized potential of Africa
    2. Sub-sahara never totally isolated
      1. But…for periods contact was difficult and intermittent
    3. Changes came from
      1. Arrival of Muhammad followers
        1. Commercial and military attributes
        2. changed by Islam, but retained individuality
        3. African culture not united
        4. provided major external contact between sub-Saharan Africa and world
    4. State building
      1. Mali, Songhay – created more from military power than ethnic/cultural unity
      2. Merchant city states on west/East coast
      3. Portugese in 15th century brought Africans into world economy more
      4. Bantu migration continued
      5. Societies don’t build so much on previous civilizations
  2. African Societies: Diversities and Similarities
    1. Introduction
      1. Diverse – large centralized states to stateless societies
        1. Differences in geography, language, religion, politics
      2. Universalistic faiths penetrated continent
        1. but…universal states/religions don’t characterize history
    2. Stateless societies
      1. organized around kinship and other forms of obligation
      2. council of families
        1. or…secret societies of men/women
      3. little concentration of authority
        1. government – not a full-time job
        2. after internal dispute, you can always leave and form new village
      4. Unable to
        1. mobilize for war
        2. organize large building projects
        3. create stable conditions for long distance trade
    3. Common Elements in African Societies
      1. Even though different, similarities existed
        1. language – Bantu migration
        2. thought
        3. religion – animistic religion
          1. power of natural forces
          2. ritual and worship
          3. dancing, drumming, divination, and sacrifice
          4. witchcraft
          5. cosmology – how universe worked
          6. belief in creator deity
          7. saw selves as first settlers, land meant more than economic usefulness
          8. link of deceased ancestors
      2. Economies
        1. North Africa – fully involved in Mediterranean trade – quite different than rest
        2. Settled agriculture and skilled metalwork had spread
        3. Market life key for men and women
        4. Professional merchants controlled trade
      3. Population – least known – by 1500 – 30 to 60 million people
  3. Arrival of Islam
    1. Land conquered and reconquered by Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals
      1. Cyrene and Carthage became huge trading centers
    2. 640-700 CE – Muslim followers spread across Africa
      1. by 670, controlled Ifriqiya – Tunisia > Africa
        1. Arabs called n.east Arica > Ifriqiya and west – Maghrib
      2. When Abbasid dynasty united – many conversions
        1. 11th century – Almoravids – ultra-conservative - reformers
          1. launched jihad – holy war to purify, spread, protect faith
          2. Almohadis – also reformers
            1. Return to original teachings of Muhammad
        2. Why attractive?
          1. Egalitarian teachings – all Muslims are equally
          2. Reinforced African kings authority
          3. Equal footing with Arab invaders
          4. …but
            1. Disparity between law and practice
  4. The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia
    1. Islands of Christianity left behind
    2. Christian Egyptians – Copts
      1. Traded with Byzantine Empire
      2. Eventually split with empire – doctrinal and political issues
        1. What differences
      3. Muslim invaders allowed them to keep religion – tolerance
        1. Met resistance in Kush/Nubia – couldn’t push Islam further
    3. Axum > Ethiopia – most important African Christian outpost
      1. Cut off, surrounded by pagans, influenced by Jewish/pagan immigrants
      2. Dynasty appeared – build rock sculptures
      3. Traced origins to marriage of Solomon and Sheba – Bible
      4. Maintained its brand of Christianity – isolated
      5. in 1542 Portugese expedition pushed back Muslim invaders
        1. But…couldn’t push Catholic faith, remained isolated
  5. Kingdoms of the Grasslands
    1. Introduction
      1. Three coasts – Atlantic, Indian, savanna on edge of Sahara
      2. Edge of desert
        1. Gold found
        2. Camels improved trade
          1. Sahel – grassland belt – best place to live – centers of trade
        3. African states emerge as trade intermediaries
        4. Location makes them open to droughts and attack
        5. 10th century Ghana rose to power through taxing salt, gold exchange
    2. Sudanic States
      1. Patriarch or council of elders
        1. Power over subordinate communities
          1. Collect taxes, tribute, military support
        2. States emerge – Ghana, Mali, Songhay
      2. Rulers separated from commoners through ritual – think “mandate of heaven”
    3. The Empire of Mali and Sundiata, the “Lion Prince”
      1. Mali – 13th century – Malinke broke away from Ghana
        1. Rulers supported Islam – encouraged obedience to ruler
          1. built mosques
          2. attended public prayers
          3. supported preachers
        2. juula – traders
        3. Sundiata – Sunjata – brilliant leader
          1. Lion Prince – expaned Mali
          2. Originator of social arrangements – divided into clans – castelike
            1. 16 free to bear arms, 5 religious, 4 blacksmiths
          3. Created peace through loyalty, severely punished crimes
            1. Security of traders key to survival
            2. Ibn Batuta – Arab traveler – noted impressive security
        4. Mansa Musa – 1324 trip to Mecca – awesome, impressive
          1. passed out gold – devalued
          2. brought back Ishak al-Sahili architect – great Mosque of Jenne
    4. City Dwellers and Villagers
      1. Cities flourished – Timbuktu and Jenne
        1. Mosque, library, university
        2. Book trade
        3. Difficult life – soil sandy and shallow
          1. Clearing land done communally
          2. Polygamy for the purpose of having more labor
        4. irrigation in Timbuktu
    5. The Songhay Kingdom – middle Niger Valley
      1. “masters of the soil” and “masters of the waters”
      2. 1370, Songhay broke from Mali – gold trade
      3. Sunni Ali – ruthless, tactical commander
        1. Expanded borders, created administration
      4. Mid-16th century Songhay dominated Sudan
      5. Familiar pattern – created unique brand of Islam
        1. pagan/Muslim beliefs both believed
          1. fusion, priests still need to work with local spirits
        2. local interpretation of Muslim law
        3. woman mixed freely in public, no veil
      6. Downfall when Muslim army from Morocco came down > this led to revolts
      7. Muslim role in city
        1. Came as merchants – joined communities
        2. Though minorities, became elite
          1. Located throughout west Africa, but no Islamicized state
        3. Intermarriage took place
    6. Political and Social Life
      1. Large states represented goals of elite family/group
      2. Islam served many groups
        1. Common religion/law united
        2. Trust to merchants
        3. leaders took names emir/caliph to reinforce authority
        4. as advisors/scribes – Muslims helped with administration
        5. maintained theocracy – spiritual and political leader
        6. with new states came increased social differences
      3. Adjustment
        1. Women
          1. Many societies matrilineal
            1. But…Sharia…Islamic law says it must be patrilineal
            2. Many visitors shocked at African women’s equality
          2. Impact of slavery –
          3. 8 > 7 million traded
            1. Always existed, Muslims brought it to new heights
              1. Muslims saw slavery as process in conversion
            2. Used as servants, laborers, soldiers, administrators, eunuchs, concubines
              1. Led to desire to enslave women and children
              2. Children of slave mothers freed
                1. Need for more slaves
  6. The Swahili Coast of East Africa
    1. Introduction
      1. Indian Ocean coast – center for Islamic influence
        1. string of Islamicized trading cities – why?
          1. universal set of ethics
          2. maritime contacts easier
      2. Compromise between indigenous ways and new faith
    2. The Coastal Trading Port
      1. Founding – Bantu people from 1st century to 10th century
        1. Even Indonesia and Malay in 2nd century- bananas/coconuts on Madagascar
        2. Fishers, farmers made rough pottery & iron
      2. 13th century – urbanized trading ports – at least 30 port towns
        1. Shared Swahili language
        2. Contained mosques, tombs, palaces cut of stone and coral
        3. Exported ivory, gold, iron, slaves, exotic animals
        4. Imported silks – Persia, porcelain – China
        5. Sofala – beautiful coastal city, gold access, furthers south to catch monsoon
          1. Riding the monsoon season key to trading in Indian Ocean]
        6. link to coastal commerce and caravan trade
        7. Chinese sailing expeditions – 1417 > 1431 – big boats – National Geographic
    3. Mixture of Cultures – Islam fused with local religions – not entirely accepted
      1. 13th century – great Islamic expansion
        1. Trust and law to facilitate trade
        2. Ruling families built mosques and palaces
        3. Claimed to be descendants of Persian ruling familes
          1. Gave rule legitimacy
        4. Rulers and merchants Muslim, but others retained beliefs
      2. Swahili language – Bantu + Arabic words
        1. Arabic script used
      3. Islam didn’t penetrate internally
        1. Class based
      4. Women – some still were matrilineal, some patrilineal
      5. 1500 Portuges arrive
        1. Wanted to control gold trade
        2. Established Fort Jesus, but couldn’t control trade
  7. Peoples of the Forest and Plains
    1. Introduction
      1. Internally – following own trajectories independently
        1. Some herding, some agricultural
        2. Some small villages, some larger states
      2. Most preliterate – knowledge, skills, traditions through oral methods
        1. But…could still make strides in arts, building and statecraft
    2. Artists and Kings: Yoruba and Benin
      1. Nigeria, Nok
        1. Terra cotta/bronze realistic/stylized art
          1. portrait heads of rulers
        2. Long gap in history
      2. Yoruba
        1. Agricultural society led by ruling family/aristocracy
        2. City Ile-Ife
        3. Spoke non-Bantu language
        4. Small city-states, regional kings
        5. Urbanized nature similar to city-states of Italy/Germany
      3. Benin – Edo peoples
        1. Ivory/bronze art – sculptures
          1. Some even included Portugese soldiers
        2. Ruler in large royal compound
    3. Central African Kingdoms
      1. South of rain forest near Lake Victoria
      2. State formation replaced kinship based societies
        1. Rituals reinforced ruler’s power
        2. Luba peoples - believed leaders controlled fertility of humans/agricult.
    4. The Kingdom of Kongo and Mwene Mutapa
      1. Kongo
        1. Art – weaving, pottery, blacksmithing
        2. Sharp division of labor
      2. Farther east – Bantu confederation – built royal courts of stone
        1. zimbabwes – stone houses – Great Zimbabwe most famous
          1. Some even believed Phoenicians – prejudices
        2. Mwene Mutapa
          1. Controlled gold, glass beads, porcelain trade
          2. Iron weapons
  8. Global Connections
    1. Reality – more written records in Sudanic states and Swahili coast – Islam
    2. Synthesis of African/Islamic values changed some Africans lives
    3. Portugese arrived in 15th century
    4. Muslims and Portugese intensified trade of ivory, slaves and gold
      1. Widened trade and global relations
Subject X2: 

Chapter 09 - Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Chapter 9
Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

  1. Introduction
    1. Two major civilizations
      1. Byzantine – Orthodox Christianity
        1. Maintained high level of political, economic, cultural life
        2. Leaders saw selves as Roman Emperors
        3. Empire lasted for 1000 years until Turkish invaders
        4. Constantinople – most opulent, important city in Europe
        5. Spread civilization to previously uncivilized areas
          1. Russia, Balkans
          2. Russia inherits empire from Byzantine
      2. West – Catholicism
    2. Similarities
      1. Both influenced by Islam
      2. Both civilizations spread northward
      3. Polytheism gave way to monotheism
        1. Some syncretism – old religious beliefs maintained
      4. Northern areas struggled for political definition
      5. New trading activities – N. South
      6. Looked back to Greco-Roman past – borrowed
    3. Differences
      1. Different, sometimes hostile versions of Christianity
      2. Little mutual contact
        1. Trade didn’t go east/west
      3. East more advanced politically, culturally, economically
  2. The Byzantine Empire
    1. Origins of the Empire
      1. 4th century CE – eastern capital Constantinople - Constantine
        1. elegant buildings
        2. Christian churches
        3. Greek becomes used language – Latin looked at as inferior
        4. High levels of commerce
        5. Recruited armies from barbarians
        6. Emperor kept separate
    2. Justinian’s Achievements
      1. 533 – a “moron” tried to reconquer western territory
      2. Successes
        1. Rebuilding Constantinople – architecture – Hagia Sophia
        2. Codification of Roman Law
          1. reduced confusion
          2. organized empire
          3. spread Roman legal principles
        3. W/ general Belisarius – conquered N. Africa
      3. Failures
        1. Unable to take/hold Italian empire
        2. Westward expansion weakened his empire
          1. Persian forces attacked from East
          2. New tax pressure
    3. Arab Pressure and the Empire’s Defenses
      1. New focus after Justinian – defending boundaries
        1. Withstood invasions of Arab Muslims in 7th century
          1. Greek fire devastated Arab ships
          2. Even though victory, but…
            1. constant threat on borders
            2. new economic burdens
            3. less power for farmers > greater power to aristocratic generals
      2. Slavic kingdoms – Bulgaria – pushed on empire
        1. Marriages and military success helped unite regions
        2. 1014 – Bulgaroktonos – defeated Bulgaria
          1. Became most powerful monarch on earth
          2. Capital city had awesome buildings, entertainment
    4. Byzantine Society and Politics
      1. Similar to early China
        1. ordained by God – head of church and state
        2. passed religious and secular laws
        3. Elaborate court rituals
          1. Kept separate
          2. Immobilized rulers, prevented innovativeness
      2. …but, women held imperial throne
        1. Theodora – daughter or emperor, but refused to marry heir, sister did
          1. Forced to live in monastery
          2. Claimed control in 70
            1. Checked power of unruly nobles
              1. Limited bureaucratic corruption
              2. Severely retaliated against political enemies
      3. Maintaining order
        1. Bureaucrats
          1. Trained in Greek classics, philosophy and sciences
          2. Recruited from all social classes
        2. Officials close to emperor – eunuchs
        3. Provincial leaders appointed from center
        4. Spies everywhere
        5. Military organization
          1. Recruit and offer land
          2. Military leaders could gain regional powr
        6. Economically – hands on
          1. Controlled food prices/regulated trade
          2. Prices kept artificially low for urban rich
          3. Trade – silk production, luxury goods – only China’s could compete
            1. But merchants didn’t gain a lot of prestige, power
          4. Cultural life
            1. Relatively conservative – little innovation
            2. Art and architecture
              1. adapted Roman domed buildings
              2. religious mosaics
              3. icon painting
                1. blue and gold backgrounds + richly dressed figures
                2. brilliance of heaven
                3. led to iconoclast movement – should they be destroyed
    5. The Split Between East and West
      1. Different focus
        1. East economic orientation, link to Asia more than Europe
      2. Disagreement
        1. papal attempts to interfere over icons
        2. Charlemagne claims to be Roman emperor
        3. Rituals in Latin, not Greek
        4. pope as first bishop
        5. religious art
        6. celibacy for priests
      3. 1054 Schism – split between Roman Church and Eastern Orthodox
    6. The Empire’s Decline
      1. Invasion – 11th century – Seljuk Turks
        1. Cut off source of tax revenue
        2. Cut off food supplying territory
      2. Creation of independent Slavic kingdoms
      3. During Crusades – Italian merchant cities – Venice – gained trading advantages
      4. 1453 – Turkish sultan brought army w/ artillery
      5. Importance
        1. Anchored vital corner of Mediterranean
        2. Key trading contacts
        3. Maintained classical learning
        4. Spread Christian learning
  3. The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
    1. Introduction
      1. Contacts with Russia due to missionary activity and trade routes
      2. Regional kingdoms formed
      3. Brought to an end by Mongol invasions
      4. Missionaries
        1. Cyril and Methodius – created written script for language
        2. Slavic alphabet – Cyrillic
        3. ***Difference – religion allowed to have vernacular/local languages – not Latin
    2. The East Central Borderlands
      1. Balkans – area of competition between east and western political models
      2. Moderately active trade and industry
      3. Influx of Jews
        1. barred from agriculture
        2. resented by Christian majority
        3. forced to take commerce jobs
        4. emphasis on education and literacy
        5. able to govern selves
        6. developed distinguished culture
    3. The Emergence of Kievan Rus’
      1. Byzantine influence formative period for Russian civilization, but nothing yet
      2. Early culture in this region
        1. Animist
        2. Strong family tribes/villages
        3. folk music, oral legend
        4. Maintained animist religion – gods of sun, thunder, wind and fire
      3. Scandinavian traders set up trade stop at Kiev
        1. monarchy emerged
        2. Rurik, Denmark native, became first monarch
        3. Russia – Greek word for “red” – hair color of Norse traders
        4. Vladimir I – 980-1015 – converted to Christianity, and on behalf of people
          1. Constantine/Theodisius all in one
          2. Forced conversions
          3. Chose Orthodox instead of Roman Catholicism
            1. reject influence of pope
            2. not accept a religion that forbade alcohol
            3. splendor of Orthodox religious ceremonies
          4. Became largest state in Europe – though decentralized
            1. Created formal law codes
    4. Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus’
      1. Kievan Rus could not replicate Byzantine
        1. bureaucracy
        2. elaborate educational system
      2. Borrowed from Byzantine
      3. devotion to power of God/saints
      4. ceremonies and luxury
      5. ornate churches
      6. monogamy replaced polygamy
      7. almsgiving – obligation to poor
      8. Russian literature
        1. mixture of religious and royal events
        2. tone of God being wrathful due to wickedness and then saving the day
      9. art – icons, illuminated manuscripts
      10. religious art rivaled by local music, street performers, theater
        1. social structure
        2. fairly free farmers
        3. boyars – aristocrats – less political power
    5. Kievan Decline
      1. Rival princes set up regional governments
      2. Rapid decline of Byzantium
        1. relied on prosperity/manufacturing of southern neighbor
      3. 1237-1241 Mongol Invasion
        1. Tatars control – two centuries
          1. literature languished
          2. trade lapsed
          3. north-south commerce never returned
          4. left day to day control to locals
      4. When Constantinople falls in 1453, Russia claims throne of east European leadership
        1. “third, new Rome”
    6. The End of an Era in Eastern Europe
      1. After Turks, Mongols – Eastern Europe fell on hard times
        1. East and West on different trajectories
          1. Western Europe free from outside control
          2. West continued focus on political, economic, cultural advancement
      2. Christianity remained
      3. Church-state relations remained
      4. Pride in artistic culture remained
  4. Global Connections
    1. Byzantine Empire key – Constantinople key trading city
    2. Russia became dependent on Constantinople
    3. With coming of Mongols – led to unusual isolation
stearnschapter9.doc49.5 KB
Subject X2: 

Chapter 10 - A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe

Chapter 10
A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe

  1. Introduction
    1. Middle Ages – Medieval
      1. Gradual recovery from Rome’s collapse
      2. Growing interaction with other societies
    2. Spread of religious beliefs
      1. Most polytheistic converted from Christianity
      2. Some continued to believe in magic/supernatural spirits
    3. Knowledge from trade/invaders
      1. Tools for new crops
      2. European paper factory
      3. Arabs – math, science, philosophy
    4. Took more from other nations than contributed – one-sided trade
    5. Two Images
      1. Prejudice toward Europe – big, smelly, hairy lugs
        1. Newer to civilization
        2. Economy less advanced
        3. Manners less polished
      2. Flashes of brilliance
        1. Thomas Aquinas – sum up knowledge of man, God, nature
  2. Stages of Postclassical Development
    1. Rome’s decline affected
      1. Italy fragmented
      2. commerce shrinking
      3. Spain in hands of Muslims
      4. Frequent invasions – Viking raids
      5. Weak rulers
      6. Subsistence agriculture
      7. Literacy restricted to hierarchy/monasteries
        1. No additions, merely copied old manuscripts
        2. Couldn’t understand a lot of the philosophy they copied
    2. The Manorial System: Obligations and Allegiances
      1. Manorialism – economic/political relation between lord and peasants
      2. Serfs
        1. lived on self-sufficient manors
        2. received protection/justice from lords
            i. Military force
        3. gave part of goods/crops to lord
        4. worked monthly on lord’s land
        5. some could escape
            i. move to city/become wanderers
          1. production low – limited equipment
            1. Moldboard – curved metal
            2. Three-fold system – fallow
        6. Obligations
          1. For labor and land received
            1. ownership of houses
            2. pass property rights to children
    3. The Church: Political and Spiritual Power
      1. Only solid, stable organization in Western Europe
        1. Copied structure of Roman Empire
          1. Pope – Rome – top authority
          2. Regional bishops
          3. Supervised local priests
        2. Role of pope
          1. regulate doctrine
          2. beat back heresies
          3. sponsored missionary activity
        3. Conversions of leaders oftentimes to legitimate authority
        4. Monasteries
          1. prayer/religious discipline
          2. developed monastic rules – Benedict of Nursia
          3. Helped improve cultivation of land
          4. Provided some education/promoted literacy
    4. Charlemagne and His Successors
      1. Northern France – Carolingians overtook Franks
        1. Charles Martel – Battle of Tours 732 – pushed back Muslims/stopped Spain
        2. Charles the Great – Charlemagne
          1. Substantial empire in France/Germany
          2. Restored church-based education
          3. Intellectual activity gradually restored
          4. Upon death, split empire among 3 grandsons
          5. Successors useless
        3. Political history from here became regional monarchies
          1. no single language
            1. Separate languages led to national identities - difference
          2. cultural unity around Church
        4. Holy Roman Emperors for German/Italian section
          1. Rule hollow, means little, regional lords still controlled
    5. New Economic and Urban Vigor
      1. New sources of strength
        1. new agricultural techniques
          1. three-field
          2. moldboard plow
          3. horse collar – almost as cool as the world famous Chinese ox collar
        2. dominance of lord/knights – horse collar and stirrups
        3. Viking raids slowed down
          1. Christianized
          2. Regional government stronger
      2. All led to population growth
        1. Led to new markets
        2. Look to eastern lands not previously converted to agriculture
        3. Loosen bonds of serfdom
        4. trade with others led to new crops
      3. Growth of towns
        1. Literacy spread
        2. Professional entertainers – new songs, tricks – the lovely bear-baiting
        3. Monastic schools/hospitals
        4. Merchant activity/craft production
      4. Improved cultural life
        1. Universities next to cathedrals
        2. Taught philosophy and theology
    6. Feudal Monarchies and Political Advances
      1. Feudal relationships
        1. Military elites
          1. Could afford horses/iron weaponry/training
        2. Greater lords then controlled vassals and then they controlled lesser vassals
        3. These feudal relationships could be expanded
        4. Charlemagne took to next level, granted land for allegiance
      2. Bad - Inhibited strong central states
        1. Good - Reduced regional warfare
      3. Kings used feudalism to build power – administration/bureaucracy would follow
        1. France – 14th century – king had Church pay tax
          1. Previously Church was exempt from tax on property
      4. William the Conqueror – 1066- England had unique form of feudalism
        1. great lords tied to king
        2. Royal officials called Sheriff – think Robin Hood
        3. Bureaucracy filled with urban business/professional people
    7. Limited Government
      1. Power of Church limited political claims
      2. Aristocrats – powerful independent voice
        1. Magna Carta – nobles forced King John in 1215 to sign rights
        2. Led to creation of Parliament
          1. House of Lords - nobles
          2. House of Commons – wealthy businessmen
          3. Held power of taxation – could prevent/enable King warfare
      3. Parliaments elsewhere represent Three Estates – church, nobles, urban leaders
      4. Saw war as key to settling problems – Hundred Years War prime example
    8. TheWest’s Expansionist Impulse
      1. Causes
        1. Population growth
        2. Missionary impulse
        3. Righteous zeal provided by Christianity
      2. Expulsion of Muslims in 1492
      3. Germanic knights pushed east – Germany and Poland
      4. Pushed to Greenland, Canada
      5. Crusades
        1. Pope Urban II – indulgences – fight for God, reclaim holy land
          1. forgiveness of sins
          2. ensured entry to heaven
          3. spoils from rich Arabs
          4. Thirst for excitement
          5. facilitate Christian pilgrim’s visits
          6. Venice – save commercial rites
          7. attacking Jews
        2. Opened to economic/cultural influence of Middle East
    9. Religious Reform and Evolution
      1. Church started to focus on landholdings/political interests
      2. Reform Movements
        1. Franciscans poverty/service
        2. St. Clare of Assisi – represented new spirit of purity/dedication
        3. Pope Gregory VII
          1. insisted on holy character of priesthood
          2. priests stay unmarried
          3. free Church from state control
            1. Avoid investiture – state appointment of bishops
          4. Church wanted to control/judge heresies
    10. High Middle Ages
      1. High mark 12th and 13th centuries
      2. Dominance of Christianity vs. vitality/diversity of university life
      3. Agricultural existence vs. growing cities/merchants
  3. Western Culture in the Postclassical Era
    1. Theology: Assimilating Faith and Reason
      1. Dark Ages – knowledge was gathering quotes, little creativity
      2. 1000 forward – attempt to prove God’s existence
      3. Also…attempt to prove errors of church leaders
        1. Peter Abelard – defiant attitude – logical contradictions of faith
          1. Bernard of Clairvaux – monk – faith alone is enough
          2. Relied heavily on faith of Bible, like Muslims and Qur’an
    2. New Universities
      1. Intellectual vitality – university education led to higher jobs
        1. Unlike China, success not tied into bureaucratic system directly
      2. Students actually paid teachers directly sometimes
    3. Thomas Aquinas
      1. Faith came first
      2. Through reason, humans could find order
      3. His Summas used logic to eliminate objections
        1. Scholasticism – logic to absurd degrees – can you prove anything logically?
          1. Consider Zeno’s paradox – nothing new
    4. Emphasis on previous learning, but some exceptions
      1. Roger Bacon – optics – added to Muslim learning
        1. Eyeglasses
    5. Popular Religion
      1. Little known of how people actually practiced
      2. Religious devotion expanded
        1. City religious groups formed
        2. Veneration of Mary – merciful side of Christianity
        3. worship of saints
      3. But…continued to believe in magical rituals
        1. Pagan festivals
        2. Even…dancing and merriment
    6. Religious Themes in Art and Literature
      1. Christian art reflected popular outlook and formal religious theology
        1. Goal – serve the glory of God
        2. Depicted saints
        3. Used stylized figures
        4. Medieval life as backdrops
        5. Stained glass designs for churches
      2. Gothic Architecture
        1. Combined Muslim design and Western engineering
        2. Gothic
          1. Soaring spires
          2. Tall arched windows – cast to heavens
        3. Proved
          1. Growing technical skill
          2. Ability to tax, central gov’t
          3. Patient labor
        4. Medieval Literature
          1. Mostly Latin, but vernacular writing emerged
            1. Similar to India – Sankrit, but the people read Hindi
          2. Oral sagas, adventure stories
          3. Showed conflict
            1. Christian values vs. richness/coarseness of life
          4. Love became first new value pursued
          5. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales – has naughty stories that poke fun at institutions
  4. Changing Economic and Social Forms in the Postclassical Centuries
    1. West became a commercial zone
      1. Italian merchants actively sought cloth from North
      2. Northern cities became centers for Western exchange/markets for exotic products
    2. New Strains in Rural Life
      1. Most nobles disproved of commerce/some embraced
      2. Lord want better conditions, tax higher
        1. Some serfs can get paid
        2. Led to conflicts – peasant uprisings
          1. Frustration over gap between lord and peasant
    3. Growth of Trade and Banking
      1. Urban growth
        1. specialized manufacturing
        2. increased commercial activities
        3. greater trade
        4. banking introduced
      2. Rising trade
        1. Wanted luxury goods
        2. Wanted spices – flavor, preservation, medicinal value
        3. Timber/grain from N. Europe to mfg goods from S. Europe
        4. Hanseatic League – Scandinavian cities
      3. Jewish businessmen became money lenders
      4. Trade, bankers, merchants all pushed for capitalism
        1. Jacque Coeur – famed merchant – made a ton, lost a ton
      5. Merchants
        1. Not as wealthy/adventuresome as Muslims
        2. But…because of weak govts they had more power
          1. Developed rather independently from gov’t
      6. Guilds – relatively independent from state – like labor unions today
        1. limit membership
        2. control apprenticeships
        3. discouraged new methods of mfg – goal security not innovation
        4. guaranteed quality
        5. members had status in local affairs
        6. statutes/rules enforced by municipal gov’ts
      7. Clock making – technology, schedule of church services
      8. Most people peasants though, some moved to city – year and a day rule
      9. Economic values – still what’s best for group
    4. Limited Sphere for Women
      1. Christian religion
        1. Equality of souls
        2. Women’s monastic groups – convents
        3. Veneration of Mary, religious saints
        4. But…Eve as cause of original sin
      2. Compared to Islam
        1. less confined to household
        2. less segregated in church services – but couldn’t lead
      3. Urban women had role in commerce
        1. Could operate/run guilds
      4. Literature stressed women as docile/supportive/chivalry
  5. Decline of the Medieval Synthesis
    1. End of Medieval Era
      1. Monarchies consolidated holdings – combined
      2. Hundred Years’ War
        1. Futility of military methods
          1. Paid armies better than knights
          2. Ordinary archers better/cheaper
          3. Castles ridiculous to gunpowder
        2. Futility of feudalism
      3. Sources of vitality ending
        1. Agriculture can’t keep up with population growth
          1. lands used up
          2. no new technology
          3. led to several famines
        2. Series of devastating plagues
          1. Black Death
        3. Social disputes – peasant uprisings
      4. But…manufacturing and mining increases
    2. Signs of Strain
      1. Land owning aristocracy fading
        1. But still keeping ceremony and chivalry – looks silly though
      2. Church losing power
        1. Church focused on political involvement/loses spiritual side
        2. Gov’ts gain power, start taxing Church
      3. Breakdown of intellectual/artistic synthesis
        1. Now when people speak, it could be called heresy
        2. Art now focuses on human figures, less spiritual
    3. The Postclassical West and Its Heritage
      1. Improvements after 900
        1. population
        2. trade
        3. cities
        4. intellectual activity
        5. universities
        6. Gothic art
        7. government based on feudal/Church relations
      2. Imitation of surrounding regions – especially Islam
      3. Divided rule resembled feudal Japan and feudal Africa
  6. Global Connections
    1. Early part – danger of invasions – Vikings
    2. Fear of Islam, threat – considered dangerously false religion
    3. Problem…much to be learned from this “threat”
    4. Europe tried to benefit from this knowledge exchange, while reducing threat
StearnsChapter10.doc58 KB
Subject X2: 

Chapter 11 - The Americas on the Eve of Invasion

Chapter 11
The Americas on the Eve of Invasion

  1. Introduction
    1. By 1500, Americas densely populated by Indians – misnomer – Columbus/Indies
      1. Term has meaning only when used to apply to non-Indians
    2. Mesoamerica and Andean heartland
      1. Imperial states in place when Europe arrives
      2. Few areas influenced by two main centers
      3. Areas that developed independently
  2. Postclassic Mesoamerica
    1. Introduction
      1. Toltecs/Aztecs replace Mayas of 8th century CE
        1. By 15th century Aztecs created extensive empire – war, religion, agrarian
      2. Downfall of Mayans – Teotihuacan
        1. Nomads from North come down
        2. Toltec Culture – 968 established capital Tula
          1. Sedentary/agrarian peoples with militaristic ethic
          2. Cult of sacrifice/war
          3. Aztecs saw Toltecs as givers of civilization
    2. The Toltec Heritage
      1. Leader Topilitzin followed Quetzalcoatl – feathered serpent
      2. Empire spread over much of central Mexico
      3. 1000 Conquered Chichen Itza – Mayans under control of Toltecs
      4. Toltec influence northward
        1. Trade turquoise with American Southwest
        2. How far – to Mississippi/Ohio – debatable evidence
          1. Stepped temples – Monk’s Mound
          2. Ritual sacrifice
          3. pottery
          4. Social stratification
          5. Large city – Cahokia could handle 30,000 people
    3. The Aztec Rise to Power – eagle with serpent on cactus
      1. Geography – aquatic environment – chinampas
        1. Aztecs/Mexicas won control of lake
        2. Nomadic tribes or agricultural culture
      2. Political structure – centralized city with tributary city-states
      3. Military – tough warriors/fanatic followers of religion
      4. 1428 emerged as independent power
    4. The Aztec Social Contract
      1. Subject peoples
        1. Pay tribute, surrender lands, military service
        2. King civil power/god on earth
      2. Stratified society
        1. Histories rewritten
      3. Human sacrifice – cult of military class supplying war captives as sacrifices
    5. Religion and the Ideology of Conquest
      1. Incorporated features from past Mesoamerican religions
        1. Little distinction between world of gods and natural world
        2. Deities – fire, rain, water, corn, sky, sun – pantheon
          1. Gods of fertility/agriculture
          2. Creator deities
          3. Warfare and sacrifice
        3. Female form for all gods
      2. Yearly festivals/ceremonies
        1. Expansive calendar
      3. Sacrifice - to energize the sun god – needed nourishment of human blood
        1. Types and frequency/degree changed with Aztecs – borrowed from Toltec
        2. religious conviction vs. political control
      4. Religious questions – afterlife, good life, do gods exist
      5. Art has flowers/birds/song and blood
    6. Tenochtitlan: The Foundation of Heaven
      1. Metropois – central zone of palaces/whitewashed temples
      2. Adobe brick residential districts
      3. Larger houses for nobility
      4. Zoos, gardens for king
      5. Geographically connected to island by four causeways
      6. Calpulli ruled neighborhoods
    7. Feeding the People: The Economy of the Empire
      1. Mass population needed to be fed
        1. Tribute
        2. Irrigated agriculture – chinampas – floating islands
          1. 20,000 acres
          2. High crop yields – 4 times a year – corn/maize
      2. Trade
        1. Regular intervals to market
        2. Barter or cacao beans/gold for currency
        3. Pochteca – long distance trade
      3. State controlled distribution of tribute
        1. Primarily redistributed to nobility
  3. Aztec Society in Transition
    1. Widening Social Gulf
      1. Life based on calpulli (neighborhood) groups
        1. Governed by council of family heads
      2. Nobility came from heads of calpullis
      3. Military leaders based on success in taking captives
        1. Ritual warfare – uniforms
      4. As society grew, widening social disparity – no longer egalitarian (hmmm…where have I seen this pattern before?)
        1. Scribes, artisans, healers between peasants and nobility
      5. But…competition not between social classes, but between corporate groups
    2. Overcoming Technological Constraints
      1. Role of women – relatively equal, but subordinate to men
        1. Peasant women – fields, child-rearing
        2. Revered as weavers
        3. Polygamy among nobility, monogamy among poor
        4. Could inherit property
      2. Limits of technology
        1. Women – six hours a day grinding corn/maize
          1. Couldn’t be freed from 30-40 hours of preparing food
      3. Controlled vast number of people amazingly –
      4. 5 million to 25 million
    3. A Tribute Empire
      1. Most power in hands of Aztec ruler and chief advisor
        1. “elected” from best siblings of royal family
      2. As time passed, ritual sacrifice/military dominated all elements of life
      3. City-states – as long as they made tribute – they could have autonomy
      4. Weaknesses
        1. Rise of nobles altered dynamics
        2. Society based on system of terror
      5. By 1500, Aztec society was in the down, military period – height far earlier
  4. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
    1. Inca Empire – Twantinsuyu – highly centralized
      1. Integrated various ethnic groups
      2. Irrigated agriculture
      3. Incorporated elements of previous civilizations – agriculture/religion/metallurgy
      4. Introduction
        1. Genius for state organization/bureaucratic control
        2. When central authority broke down, regional leaders took over
          1. war between rival chiefdoms
    2. The Inca Rise to Power
      1. Inca “ruler” – military alliances and campaigns to take over
      2. Subsequent rulers with names you’ll never remember expanded and consolidated land
        1. Between 9 and 13 million people under rule
    3. Conquest and Religion
      1. Reason for conquest
        1. economic gain
        2. political power
      2. religion – cult of ancestors
        1. deceased rulers mummified
      3. split inheritance
        1. leader’s power goes to successor
        2. leader’s property goes to male family
      4. political and social life related to religion
        1. holy shrines – stones, mountains, rivers, caves, tombs – huacas
          1. Prayers/human sacrifices
        2. Temple of the Sun – center of state religion
    4. The Techniques of Inca Imperial Rule
      1. Leader/inca considered a god
      2. Court also temple
      3. Four provinces ruled by governor, power then divided further
        1. Local rulers could remain autonomous if they were loyal
      4. All nobles played role in state bureaucracy
        1. Nobles gained privileges, had a lot to lose
        2. Could wear large ear spools – orejones – gee thanks
      5. Spread language – unified
      6. System of roads with way stations – tambos – one day apart
      7. For labor, people benefited from large, expensive work projects – only central gov’t can provide
        1. State-sponsored irrigation made cultivation possible
      8. Instead of tribute, they wanted labor
      9. Relation between men and wome
        1. Needed to stay close
        2. Women link to the moon
      10. Downfall
        1. Marriage alliances created rivals for the throne – ahhh…that whole succession problem rears its ugly head
    5. Inca Cultural Achievements
      1. Art – built on styles of predecessor peoples
        1. Metallurgy – gold/silver/bronze, copper
        2. Pottery/cloth
      2. But…No system of writing…No wheel
      3. Math
        1. Knotted strings quipo to count
      4. Infrastructure – greatest achievement
        1. land/water management
        2. extensive road systems
        3. Architecture and public buildings
        4. Terraced farming on steep slopes
    6. Comparing Incas and Aztecs aka “if you forget everything else, remember this”
      1. But first, before we get started…look at the words used in this section
        1. No really…look at the words used
        2. They start with words like “although”, or “both”
        3. It’s just beautiful how the reader can make connections
      2. In fact, my eyes are filling a little misty
        1. This is one of the best Comparative Analysis Essays I’ve ever seen in your Stearns book, and after 14 chapters of taking notes, I’m starting to
          1. feel like Stearns is like a brother, an older brother, but a brother
          2. but…I digress…let’s get back to it
      3. Similarities
        1. Represented military and imperial organization success
        2. Controlled circulation of goods
        3. Agricultural based with a food surplus
        4. Nobles became more important than local leaders
        5. Allowed for diversity as long as authority
        6. Empires acquired by conquest of sedentary peoples
        7. Belief systems, cosmology similar roots
        8. Both couldn’t survive shock of conquest
          1. Your book says they do survive the conquest, but I beg to differ, they were split up into small little regions
          2. But, I will accept that they carried on the culture
        9. However “We cannot overlook the great DIFFERENCES”
          1. Aztecs have better trade and markets
          2. First, there quite similar, variations of same system
          3. Metallurgy, writing systems, hierarchy
            1. Ummm…book…could you give us some specifics
          4. Overall…this section does a horrible job discussing differences
  5. Other Indians
    1. How to differentiate – based on degree of social order/material culture/political structure
      1. Diversity based on geographical factors
      2. Not all agriculture based
    2. How many Indians?
      1. If you guessed 14,375,421, you were wrong
      2. Between 8.4 million and 112 million – Gee thanks…that’s real close
        1. Numbers changed due to
          1. Understanding of impact of disease
          2. archaeological studies
          3. improved estimates of agricultural techniques
      3. Europe about the same size as the Americas – population wise
    3. Differing Cultural Patterns
      1. Basically…it’s hard to say there is just one type of “Indian”
        1. Some hunted, some gathered, some farmed, some did a mixture
        2. Some had huge class divisions, some were more egalitarian
        3. Most lived in small kin-ship based groups
      2. North America extremely diverse
        1. Some lived in cliffs, towns or teepees
        2. Agricultural unless farming too tough, then hunter gatherers
      3. Similar to Europe/Asia
        1. Kin based societies
        2. Communal owning of property
        3. Women subordinate, but some had high positions
      4. Part of ecological system, not controlling it “You think you own whatever land you land on…earth is just a dead thing you can claim, but I know…”
    4. American Indian Diversity in World Context
      1. Paradox – wealthy/accomplished civilizations, but “primitive” to Europe
      2. But…how much is the difference based on lack of…
        1. wheel
        2. large pack animals
        3. metal tools
        4. written language
      3. They developed, just differently
    5. Global Connections
      1. Isolation prevented diffusion of ideas – it’s not bad, just the reality
      2. Lacks world religions, large domesticated animals (yes…they had guinea pigs)
      3. Not immune to diseases
      4. Lacked ironworking
    6. I’m tired, and I’m going to bed
Subject X2: 

Chapter 12 - Reunification and Renaissance: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties

Chapter 12
Reunification and Renaissance: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties

  1. I. Introduction
    1. A. Vital consolidation – changes less fundamental than elsewhere
    2. B. Though isolated, created “orbit of influence”
    3. C. After Han – nomadic invasions
      1. 1. Regional kingdoms
      2. 2. Landed families with aristocratic backgrounds dominated rulers
      3. 3. Decline
        1. a. Foreign religion – Buddhism
        2. b. non-Chinese nomads ruled
        3. c. Great Wall divided between kingdoms
        4. d. trade/city life declined
        5. e. technology stagnated
        6. f. thought looked for magical cures/immortality
    4. D. Rapid return to height under Tang because of
      1. 1. Preservation of Confucian institutions
  2. II. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Summary
        1. a. Sui recentralized control
        2. b. Under Tang – bureaucracy restored, improved, expanded
        3. c. Confucian revival
      2. 2, Sui Dynasty – 580 – return to strong dynastic control
        1. a. Wendi – northern elite family
        2. b. Secured power through
          1. 1. marriage
          2. 2. support of neighboring nomadi leaders
            1. a. Reconfirmed titles
            2. b. Showed no preference for scholar gentry
        3. c. Won support
          1. 1. lowering taxes
          2. 2. creation of food granaries
    2. B. Sui Excesses and Collapse
      1. 1. Son Yangdi
        1. a. murdered father
        2. b. extended father’s conquests
        3. c. drove back nomads
        4. d. established milder legal code
        5. e. restore examination system
      2. 2. Downfall
        1. a. Programs hurt aristocratic families and nomadic leaders
        2. b. Built palaces
        3. c. Build canal links
        4. d. extensive game park – imported trees
        5. e. failed in attempt to take Korea
    3. C. The Emergence of the Tang and the Restoration of the Empire
      1. 1. Li Yuan – Duke of Tang took over
        1. a. Former nomadic leaders forced to submit
        2. b. Created frontier armies
          1. 1. Sons of tribal leaders sent to capital as hostages – eventually assimilated
        3. c. Korea overrun by Chinese armies
          1. 1. Kingdom of Silla created as tributary state
    4. D. Rebuilding the Bureaucracy
      1. 1. To survive, must rebuild and expand imperial bureaucracy
        1. a. need for loyal/well-educated officials
        2. b. offset power of aristocracy
        3. c. power to ruling families + bureaucrats
        4. d. created ministries
          1. 1. secretariat – drafted decrees
          2. 2. secretariat monitored officials
          3. 3. executive ran ministries – day to day life
    5. E. Growing Importance of the Examination System
      1. 1. Numbers of bureaucrats grew far past Han
      2. 2. Ministry of Rites – several kinds of examinations
      3. 3. Honor to those who passed
        1. a. Jinshi title
        2. b. transformed into dignitaries
        3. c. special social status
          1. 1. certain clothing
          2. 2. exempt from corporal punishment
          3. 3. access to material comfort/pleasures
          4. 4. Birth and family connections could still help you get into universities, assist
            1. a. Bureaucracy still overwhelmingly run by established familes
          5. 5. Merit and ambition important, but birth and family influence count for more
    6. F. State and Religion the Tang-Song Era
      1. 1. State support of Confucian ideas
        1. a. Threatened Buddhist monastic orders
        2. b. Threatened old aristocratic families
      2. 2. Previous nomadic rulers – mostly Buddhist
        1. a. Masses believed in Mahayana Buddhism – salvation
        2. b. Chan/Zen Buddhism for elite
          1. 1. Stress on meditation
          2. 2. appreciation of natural/artistic bueaty
          3. 3. Empress Wu – 690-705
            1. a. Tried to make Buddhism state religion
            2. b. Commissioned Buddhist painting/sculpture
            3. c. Statues of Buddha carved
            4. d. Large pagodas built
            5. e. 50,000 monasteries
          4. 4. Reached Height in beginning of Tang empire
    7. G. The Anti-Buddhist Backlash
      1. 1. Daoists competed by stressing heir own magical/predictive powers
      2. 2. Economic challenge of Buddhists
        1. 1. not taxed
        2. 2. denied labor pool – can’t tax/conscript peasants on monasteries
      3. 3. Emperor Wuzong
        1. 1. Thousands of shrines destroyed
        2. 2. monks/nuns forced to abandon monastic life
        3. 3. Lands divided among taxpaying landlords/peasants
      4. 4. But…Buddhism already left mark in law, arts, language, heaven, charity
  3. IIII. Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song
    1. A. Fall of Tang
      1. 1. Empress Wei attempts to take throne for son by poison
      2. 2. Another prince Xuanzong takes over
        1. a. Initially wanted political/economic reforms
        2. b. Eventually devoted self to arts, pleasures music
        3. c. Relation with Yang Guifei – woman from harem of another prince
          1. 1. Famous, ill-fated romance
          2. 2. Focus on Yang Guifei
            1. a. Power to her family – angered others
            2. b. neglected economy
            3. c. military weakness
      3. 3. Military leaders push for revolt
        1. a. Revolt put down, but emperor has to kill Yang Guifei
        2. b. Had to make alliances with nomadic leaders/regional kings
        3. c. Regional lords develop independent armies
          1. 1. Leads to period of revolts
    2. B. The Founding of the Song Dynasty
      1. 1. Just when it seemed like provincial leaders and nomads would again rule…
      2. 2. Zhao Kuangyin – fearless warrior
        1. a. Can’t overcome Liao dynasty
        2. b. Precedent set - *** Song dynasty always plagued by pressure from north
          1. 1. Had to pay heavy tribute to north
          2. 2. North militarily dominant
        3. c. Song empire culturally superior
    3. C. Song Politics: Settling for Partial Restoration
      1. 1. Desire to not have same problems as under Tang
        1. a. Military subordinated to civilian bureaucrats
          1. 1. Different than Rome/West where military leaders dominate
        2. b. Civil officials only allowed to be governors
        3. c. military commanders rotated
        4. d. promoted interests of Confucian scholar-gentry
          1. 1. Officials’ salaries increased
          2. 2. Civil service exams routinized – every three years at three levels
        5. e. Led to too many officials, but…bureaucracy saved
    4. D. The Revival of Confucian Thought
      1. 1. Revival of Confucian ideas
        1. a. Recover long-abandoned texts (like Renaissance in Europe)
        2. b. decipher ancient inscriptions
      2. 2. Neo-Confucians
        1. a. Personal morality highest goal
        2. b. Virtue attained through book learning…and…
        3. c. Personal observation…and…
        4. d. Contact with wise people
        5. e. Hostile to foreign philosophies – aka Buddhism
        6. f. Focus on tradition
      3. 3. Eventually stifled thought of elite
      4. 4. Reinforced class, age, gender distinctions
        1. a. If men/women keep to place, you can achieve social harmony
    5. E. Roots of Decline: Attempts at Reform
      1. 1. Problems
        1. a. Weakness in phase of Khitan from north, encouraged other nomads
        2. b. Tribute paid to north weakening economy
        3. c. Cost of army – 1 million – too expensive
        4. d. Focus on civilian leaders, meant weak leaders often led armies
        5. e. Money not spent on fortifications, but on scholarly pursuits/entertainment
      2. 6. Wang Anshi – attempts to reform
        1. a. Legalist perspective
        2. b. Cheap loans
        3. c. Irrigation projects
        4. d. Taxed landlord/scholarly class
        5. e. Established trained mercenary force
        6. f. Tried to reorganize university education
    6. F. Reaction and Disaster: The Flight to the South
      1. 1. Song dynasty survived invasion of Jurchens by moving South
      2. 2. Southern Song dynasty not powerful,but…
        1. a. Lasted 150 years
        2. b. One of the most glorious periods of Chinese history – their Golden Age
  4. IV. Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age
    1. A. Grand Canal
      1. 1. Movement of people and goods
      2. 2. Population switch made it necessary to improve communications north-south
        1. a. South producing more food – has larger population
      3. 3. Million forced laborers
    2. B. A New Phase of Commercial Expansion – how does the economy get better
      1. 1. Silk Road expanded and protected
        1. a. Horses, Persian rugs, tapestries imported
        2. b. silk textiles, porcelain, paper exported
      2. 2. Junks – as strong quality wise as dhows of the Arabs
        1. a. watertight bulkheads
        2. b. sternpost rudders
        3. c. oars, sails, compasses, bamboo fenders
        4. d. gunpowder rockets
      3. 3. Governments supervised hours/marketing methods at trade centers
      4. 4. Merchants banded together in guilds
      5. 5. Expanded credit
      6. 6. Deposit shops found throughout empire
      7. 7. paper money – credit vouchers – flying money
        1. a. Reduced danger of robbery
    3. C. World’s Most Splendid Cities
      1. 1. Surge in Urban Growth
      2. 2. Imperial City – Changan
        1. a. Palace/audience halls restricted
        2. b. Elaborate gardens, hunting park
      3. 3. Hangzhou – “most noble city” “best in the world” – Marco Polo
        1. a. Great marketplaces
        2. b. entertainment
          1. 1. boating
          2. 2. singing girls
          3. 3. bath houses
          4. 4. restaurants
          5. 5. acrobats
          6. 6. tea houses,
          7. 7. opera performances
    4. D. Expanding Agrarian Production and Life in the Country
      1. 1. Agricultural improvements
        1. a. Encouraged peasant migrations
        2. b. supported military garrisons in rural areas
        3. c. state-regulated irrigation/canals
        4. d. new seeds – Champa rice from Vietnam
        5. e. great poo – human, animal, fertilizer manure
        6. f. inventions – wheelbarrow
        7. g. break up land of aristocracy
          1. 1. Takes power from aristocrats
          2. 2. Promoted position of ordinary citizen
      2. 2. Architecture
        1. a. Curved roofs meant status
        2. b. Yellow/green tiles
    5. E. Family and Society in the Tang-Song Era
      1. 1. Women
        1. a. Showed signs of improving, but then deteriorated
          1. 1. Marriages among same age women/men
          2. 2. Importance of marriage alliances helped with dowrys
          3. 3. Upper classes – women could yield considerable power initially
            1. a. Range of activities – even polo
            2. b. Divorce by mutual consent
            3. c. More defense against husband’s negative behavior than in India
            4. d. Wealthy women even took lovers in Hangzhou
    6. F. Neo-Confucian Assertion of Male Dominance
      1. 1. Women, but with the Neo-Confucianists, women put back in their place
        1. a. Primary role – bearer of sons – patrilineal line
        2. b. Advocated confining women – fidelity, chastity, virginity
        3. c. Excluded from education for civil service
        4. d. Footbinding – equal to veil/seclusion in Islam
          1. 1. Preference for small feet – feminine
          2. 2. Limited mobility – crippling
          3. 3. Can’t be initially accepted by the poor – still need the labor
          4. 4. Eventually, because marriage goal, mothers had to bind daughter’s feet
      2. 2. Men permitted to have premarital sex, concubines, remarry after death
        1. a. Laws favored men for inheritance
    7. G. Glorious Age: Invention and Artistic Creativity
      1. 1. Inventions
        1. a. New agricultural tools
        2. b. Banks and paper money
        3. c. Engineering feats – Grand Canal, dikes, dams
          1. 1. Bridges – arches, segmented, suspension, trussed – forms used today
        4. d. Explosive powder
          1. 1. Grenades, flamethrowers, poisonous gases, rocket launchers
          2. 2. Checked nomadic invasions
        5. e. Domestically
          1. 1. dinking tea, chairs, coal for fule, kite
        6. f. Key inventions for future civilizations
          1. 1. abacus, compass, printing – movable type
    8. H. Scholarly Refinement and Artistic Accomplishment
      1. 1. Painted landscapes
      2. 2. Artists generalists, not specialists – you would be the poet, musician, and painter
      3. 3. Confucian influence vs. Buddhist
        1. 1. Landscapes, everyday life replace devotional objects
      4. 4. Paintings
        1. 1. Symbolic – philosophical or taught lessons
          1. a. Crane – pine tree – longevity
          2. b. Bamboo – scholarly class
        2. 2. Abstract – subtlety and suggestion
    9. I. Global Connections
      1. 1. By moving south, Song could withstand nomadic invaders
      2. 2. More market oriented
        1. 1. Technological improvements taken from surrounding areas
        2. 2. Production of luxury goods desired by wealthy class around the world
        3. 3. Chinese inventions utilized by rest of the world
        4. 4. Until 18th century – political and economic resources unmatched by other civilizations
Subject X2: 

Chapter 13 - The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

Chapter 13
The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

  1. Introduction
    1. Neighbors of China borrow from Chinese achievements
      1. Influenced North/West nomadic neighbors
      2. Also influenced agrarian Japan, Korea, Vietnam
      3. Buddhism played key role in transmission
        1. Indian ideas filtered through Chinese society/culture
  2. Japan: The Imperial Age
    1. Introduction
      1. Overview
        1. 7th and 8th century attempt to borrow from China
          1. army, bureaucracy, etiquette, art
        2. But…emperor’s sheltered
          1. 1. provincial leaders/warlords took over
        3. c. Plunged into civil wars from 12th to 17th century
      2. 2. Taika Reforms – copying Chinese administration
        1. a. Chinese characters/language adoption
        2. b. wrote history in dynastic terms
        3. c. court etiquette
        4. d. struggled to master Confucian ways
        5. e. worshipped Chinese style temples
        6. f. admired Buddhist art
        7. g. Buddhism blended with kami – Shinto
    2. B. Crisis at Nara and the Shift to Heian (Kytoto)
      1. 1. Army/bureaucratic ideas stopped by aristocratic families/Buddhist monks
      2. 2. Emperor can’t control Buddhist monks – influenced government
        1. a. Moves to Heian – monks just make monasteries in nearby hills
        2. b. Power given to aristocratic families
        3. c. Rank determined by birth, not merit
        4. d. Local leaders organized local militias
    3. C. Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era
      1. 1. Hyper structured rules of court
        1. a. Polite behavior always
        2. b. Every action known by everyone – put up a façade always
        3. c. Complex gardens/palaces
      2. 2. Literature
        1. a. Writing verse prioritized
        2. b. First novel – prose – Lady Murasaki’s The Tale of Genji
          1. 1. criticizes those who pursue aesthetic enjoyment
          2. 2. Shows how poised/cultured nobility must act
          3. 3. Females played unusually creative roll – avoided full Chinese influence
    4. D. The Decline of Imperial Power
      1. 1. 9th century – Fujiwara clan influences emperor greatly
        1. a. Stacked courts
        2. b. Married into family
        3. c. Built up large estates
      2. 2. Monks equally build up power and domains
    5. E. The Rise of the Provincial Warrior Elites
      1. 1. Large landed estates come from
        1. a. aristocratic families
        2. b. Built up power – landowners, estate managers, local officials
      2. 2. Mini-kingdoms – like fiefdoms/manors in Europe
        1. a. small fortresses
        2. b. constant threat from neighboring lords
        3. c. self-sufficient – granaries, blacksmith, wells
      3. 3. Warrior leaders – bushi
        1. a. administered law, public works, collected revenue
        2. b. maintainied armies
      4. 4. Samurai armies – loyal to lords
        1. a. called in to protect emperor
        2. b. age of danger/bandits – samurai as bodyguards
        3. c. warrior class
        4. d. constantly trained in hunting, riding, archery
        5. e. used longbow and steel swords
        6. f. warrior code – bushido
          1. 1. courage
          2. 2. seppuku – hari-kari if you dishonor family
          3. 3. prearranged battle locations, proclaimed ancestry, few fatalities
          4. 5. Peasants become serfs – bound to land
            1. a. can’t carry swords, dress like samurai
            2. b. turned to Buddhism
  3. III. Era of Warrior Dominance
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. 12th century on > civil wars
      2. 2. Chinese influence declines
      3. 3. Warrior elite produces impressive Japanese art – ceramics/landscape, poetry
    2. B. Declining influence of China
      1. 1. Emperor – heavenly mandate and centralized power a joke – regional power clear
      2. 2. Refuse to grovel, pay tribute to Chinese Son of Heaven
      3. 3. Gempei Wars – peasants vs. samurai
      4. 4. Minamoto established bakufu – military government
        1. a. Power with Minamoto family and samurai retainers
    3. C. The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords
      1. 1. Warlords – shoguns – military leaders
        1. a. built up power – enlarged domains
        2. b. Hojo family – manipulated shoguns who ruled for emperors
      2. 2. Ashikaga Shogunate took power 1336-1573
        1. a. Emperor flees to hills
        2. b. Warlord lands passed out to samurai – used to be just military, now leaders
          1. 1. 300 little kingdoms – daimyos – no longer bushis
    4. D. Toward Barbarism? Military Division and Social Change
      1. 1. Chivalrous qualities of Bushi era deteriorate
        1. a. spying, sneak attacks, betrayals
        2. b. poorly trained peasant forces
        3. c. looked like they were reverting to barbarism
      2. 2. Some Daimyos tried to maintain order
        1. a. tax collection
        2. b. public works
        3. c. encourage settlement of unoccupied areas
        4. d. new tools
        5. e. new crops – soybeans, hemp, paper, dyes, vegetable oil
        6. f. new commercial class emerged
          1. 1. guild organizations started – solidarity/group protection
      3. 3. Women
        1. a. merchant women a bit of independence
        2. b. noble women used to be able to ride/use bow and arrow
          1. 1. Now primogeniture – oldest son gets everything wins out
          2. 2. given in marriage for alliances
          3. 3. taught to slay selves rather than dishonor – if raped
          4. 4. Japanese theatrical female roles played by men
    5. E. Artistic Solace for a Troubled Age
      1. 1. Focus – simplicity/discipline
      2. 2. Revival of Chinese influence
      3. 3. Monochrome ink sketches
      4. 4. Architecture built to blend with natural setting/meditation
        1. a. Famous gardens
          1. 1. Volcanic rocks
          2. 2. Raked pebbles
          3. 3. Bansai trees
          4. 4. Tea ceremony
  4. IV. Korea: Between China and Japan
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Most profoundly influenced, for longest
        1. a. Extension of mainland
        2. b. Dwarfed by neighbor
        3. c. Ruled by indigenous dynasties
      2. 2. Peoples before – hunting and herding peoples
        1. a. Colonized by Chinese settlers
        2. b. Koguryo tribe resisted Chinese rule – Sinification…but…
          1. 1. variants of Buddhism
          2. 2. Chinese writing – tough to be adapted
          3. 3. unified law code
          4. 4. established universities
          5. 5. tried to implement Chinese-style bureaucracy
            1. 1. Noble families don’t allow
      3. 3. Divided into three parts during Three Kingdoms
        1. a. Koguryo
        2. b. Paekche
        3. c. Silla
    2. B. Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea
      1. 1. Three kingdoms weakened – Koguryo warriors hurt Tang
      2. 2. China striking alliance – Silla in southeast – became tribute
        1. a. tribute payments
        2. b. submission as vassal
        3. c. Chinese withdraw armies in 668
    3. C. Sinification: The Tributary Link
      1. 1. Tribute system
        1. a. Send embassies
        2. b. Must kowtow – ritual bows – prostrate self
      2. 2. Benefits of tribute system
        1. a. Continued peace
        2. b. Access to Chinese learning, art, manufactured goods
        3. c. Merchants went with emissaries
        4. d. Scholars study at Chinese academies
      3. 3. *** Became major channel of trade/cultural exchange
    4. D. The Sinification of Korean Elite Culture
      1. 1. Aristocrats
        1. a. studied in Chinese schools – some took tests
          1. 1. but family connections still more important than test scores
        2. b. artistic pursuits/entertainment
        3. c. favor Buddhism over Confucianism
      2. 2. Art
        1. a. Artwork/monastic designs reproduced Chinese Buddhist work
        2. b. Outdid teachers for pottery
          1. 1. porcelain/ black stoneware
    5. E. Civilization for the Few
      1. 1. Elite attracted to luxury goods
        1. a. fancy clothes
        2. b. special teas
        3. c. scrolls
        4. d. artwork
      2. 2. Korea exported raw materials
        1. a. forest products and copper
      3. 3. Beneath elite class
        1. a. purpose servicing elites
        2. b. government workers
        3. c. commoners
        4. d. near-slaves – “low born” – like mean people
    6. F. Koryo Collapse, Dynastic Renewal
      1. 1. After common people tired of being repressed
      2. 2. Yi dynasty established 1392 – ruled until 1910
        1. a. Restored aristocratic dominance
  5. V. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Vietnam – rice-growing area
      2. 2. Viets not as accepting of Chinese influence
        1. a. farther away
        2. b. resilient culture
        3. c. seen as distinct people – fear of losing identity
      3. 3. Already received benefits from China
        1. a. technology
        2. b. market for their ivory, tortoise shells, pearls, peacock feathers, aromatic woods, exotic products from sea/forest
        3. b. political organization
        4. c. ideas
      4. 4. Seen as “southern barbarians”
      5. 5. Different from China
        1. a. Different language
        2. b. Village autonomy
        3. c. favored nuclear family over extended family
        4. d. never developed clan networks
        5. e. women have greater freedom/influence
        6. f. women wear long skirts/not long pants
        7. g. delighted in cockfighting
        8. h. chewed betel nut
        9. i. blackened teeth
    2. B. Conquest and Sinification
      1. 1. 111 BCE Han dynasty conquers Vietnam – elite realized they could benefit
        1. a. attended Chinese schools
        2. b. took exams for administration
        3. c. cropping techniques and irrigation
        4. d. military organization gave them an edge over neighbors
        5. e. extended family model to extended family – venerated ancestors
      2. 2. Roots of Resistance
        1. a. Elites like, but peasants annoyed
        2. b. Chinese didn’t like local customs – disgusted/looked down
        3. c. Peasants rallied when lords wanted to fight
          1. 1. Trung sisters led 39 CE revolt
            1. a. Women had a lot to lose with Confucian ideas
      3. 3. Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influence
        1. a. Can’t control
          1. 1. Greater distance
          2. 2. Mountain barriers
          3. 3. Small number of Chinese actually moved to Vietnam
          4. 4. Vietnamese took advantage of political turmoil in China
          5. 5. By 939 won independence
        2. b. Future leaders borrowed from Chinese ideas
          1. 1. Chinese palaces
          2. 2. Administration
            1. a. Secratriats
            2. b. Ministries
            3. c. Civil Service Exams
            4. d. Bureau of Censors – graft/corruption
        3. c. But…scholar gentry never arises
          1. 1. local officials identify with peasantry
          2. 2. competition from well-educated Buddhist monks
    3. C. The Vietnamese Drive to the South
      1. 1. Able to defeat Khmer/Cham neighbors – superior military forces/weapons
    4. D. Expansion and Division
      1. 1. North vs. South – South seen as less energetic, slower
      2. 2. Nguyen in South, Trinh in North – civil wars
      3. 3. Unable to unite against foreign threat – eventually French
  6. IV. Global Connections
    1. A. Chinese organization suited to sedentary cultivation
      1. 1. Borrowing from China led to ignoring of outside world
    2. B. Writing, bureaucracy, religious teachings, art spread to Asia
      1. 1. Korea, direct rule brief, but influence great
      2. 2. Japan – emulated China for awhile, aristocratic class took over
    3. C. Imports monopolized by wealthy elites
Subject X2: 

Chapter 14 - The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur

Chapter 14
The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur

  1. Introduction
    1. Mongols ended/interrupted many great postclassical empires
    2. Extended world network – foundation for interaction on global scale
    3. Forged mightiest war machine
    4. Four khanates – sons divided
      1. Ruled for 150 years
      2. Last time nomadic peoples dominated sedentary peoples
    5. Paradox of rule – fierce fighters vs. tolerant/peaceful leaders
  2. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    1. Introduction
      1. difficult to organize before Chinggis Khan
        1. divisions/rivalries
        2. Khan – astute political strategist/brilliant military commander
      2. Nomadic world – horse culture
        1. Lived on herds – meat, milk, traded hides for grain/vegetables
        2. Tough little ponies
        3. Children ride from early age
        4. Could even sleep/eat on horse
          1. Animal power/seasonal migrations
          2. Movable shelters
        5. Political organization
          1. Like Bedouins – kin/clan based – combined in confederations when needed
          2. Men dominated but women could influence tribal meetings/home
          3. Leadership qualities – courage, alliance forging ability
    2. The Making of a Great Warrior: The Early Career of Chinggis Khan
      1. Born Temujin to tribal leader, but father poisoned
      2. Imprisoned by rival clan, but escapes
        1. Makes alliance with another clan
      3. Reputation as warrior/military commander attracted other clan chiefs
      4. 1206 at kuriltai meeting – named khagan – extreme ruler
    3. Building the Mongol War Machine
      1. Natural warriors
        1. trained from youth to ride/hunt
        2. tough, mobile, accustomed to death
        3. variety of weapons – lances, hatchets, maces
          1. Short bow the best – 400 yard range vs. 250 European
          2. Chinggis Khan’s leadership
        4. organization, discipline, unity
        5. directed fighting spirit toward conquest
        6. divided groups into tumens – think centurions of Rome
      2. Messenger force – tightly bandages – ride all day/night
      3. Military discipline – killed if flee
      4. Generosity fto brave foes
      5. Utilized excellent maps
      6. New weapons – flaming arrows, gunpowder, siege weapons
        1. Willing to adopt from conquered groups
    4. Conquest: The Mongol Empire Under Chinggis Khan
      1. Ruled over ½ million Mongols
      2. Greatest pleasure making war – campaigns
        1. fortified cities – willing to adopt weapons of other nations
          1. developed siege weapons
            1. rams, catapults, exploding balls
            2. bamboo rockets
        2. threatened terrifying retribution – surrender or else
          1. slaughtered/sold townspeople
          2. buildings turned to rubble
          3. forced to pay tribute
    5. First Assault on the Islamic World: Conquest in China
      1. Defeated Turkik ruler to the west – Muhammad Shah II
        1. Leader sent back envoys with heads shaved
        2. Mongols destroyed with authority
          1. Fight, cavalry runs away, followed by other army, heavy cavalry moves in
        3. 2. Battle tactic

        4. Defeated Muhammad Shah II and brought in tens of thousands of horsemen
  3. Life Under the Mongol Imperium
    1. Astute and tolerant rulers
      1. Open to new ideas
      2. Wanted diverse peoples to live together in peace
    2. Interest in arts and learning of conquered people
    3. New capital at Karakorum – wise and clever visited as envoys
      1. Confucian scholars on how to rule China
      2. Muslims – engineers and trade
      3. Daoist holy men – elixir for immortality
    4. All religions tolerated
    5. Mongol script created – mostly illiterate people
    6. Effects
      1. Peace to much of Asia
        1. Towns – handicraft production, scholarship, free expression
      2. Secure trade routes
      3. Force for major economic/social development
  4. The Death of Chinggis Khan and the Division of the Empire
    1. 180,000 warriors to conquer China
    2. But…got sick and died in 1227
      1. empire divided among 3 sons and Batu grandsono
      2. Last bit of anger – carried back Khan’s body
        1. Hunted/killed every animal/human in sight
    3. Mongol successor Ogedei – third son – named grand khan
      1. Not best warrior, but best diplomat
  • The Mongol Drive to the West
    1. Introduction
      1. Golden Horde/Tartars (people from hell) – golden tent of early khans
        1. Assault on Russia side campaign
        2. Main goals
          1. fine tune war machine
          2. get some money from booty
      2. Russia divided into small kingdoms – don’t unite
        1. Only successful winter invasion
          1. Good for horse’s footing
          2. Access over frozen rivers to enemies
          3. All slaughtered or led into slavery
    2. Russian in Bondage
      1. 2 ½ centuries of Russia in bondage
      2. Effects
        1. Peasantry have to give up crops
          1. Some flee to protection of ruling class – become serfs
        2. Some Russian towns make profits
          1. Increased trade
          2. Moscow – trade, tribute collector
            1. Rulers made money and annexed other towns
      3. Tribute collectors
        1. Battle of Kulikova – overthrew Golden Horde
      4. Impact – turning point in Russia history
        1. Moscow grew
        2. Orthodox church intensifies control
        3. changes in Russia’s military organization
        4. princes realize need to centralize control
          1. Reduce limitations put on power by nobility, clergy, merch
        5. Russia’s isolation from Christian lands
          1. Benefit – Russia protected from invasion from Europe
          2. Negative – Cut off from key transformations in w. Europe
    3. Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from Europe
      1. W. Europe thought Mongols were Prestor John
        1. Mythical Christian monarch cut off who would one day return
      2. Mongols wanted to pillage Europe, but…
        1. Death of khagan Ogedei – forced leader Batu to retreat
          1. Compete for leadership
        2. Richer lands to plunder in Middle East
    4. The Mongol Assault on the Islamic Heartland
      1. 1258 – capture/destruction of Baghdad
        1. 800,000 killed
        2. Abbasid caliph
      2. Effects
        1. ended dynasty that had ruled since 8th century
        2. left faithful without central authority
        3. devastated focal points/trading centers of Islamic civilization
      3. Eventually defeated by the Mamluk
        1. Enslaved by Mongols – later defeated them
        2. With cooperation with Christians
  • The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History
    1. Introduction
      1. Administered very strictly
      2. Mongols retained distinct culture
      3. Opened China to influences from Persian lands/contacts with Europe
      4. Kubliai Khan
        1. Assumed title of great khan/Yuan
        2. Changed name of regime to Yuan – Yuan Dynasty
        3. Denied Chinese influence
          1. distinction between Mongol/Chinese
          2. forbade Chinese scholars from learning Mongol script
          3. forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese
          4. women from nomadic families accepted into harem
          5. Mongol religious ceremonies retained
          6. traditional tent encampment set up in capital
          7. Did not embrace civil service exams
        4. worked with Chinese on some issues
          1. Surrounded self with Chinese advisors – Confucian, Buddhist, Daoist
          2. Capital at Tatu – Beijing
          3. Introduced rituals and classic music into court
        5. New social structure
          1. Mongols
          2. Nomadic/Muslim allies
          3. North Chinese
          4. Ethnic Chinese/peoples from South
    2. Gender Roles and the Convergence of Mongol and Chinese Culture
      1. Women
        1. Refused to adopt footbinding
        2. Women retained property rights
        3. Destroyed vision of women as dainty, to be protected
          1. Rode to hunt
          2. Kubilai’s daughter said had to beat wrestling
        4. Chabi – wife
          1. promoted Buddhist interests
          2. reduced harsh treatment of Song captured
          3. didn’t convert nearby farmland to pastureland
    3. Mongol Tolerance and Foreign Cultural Influence
      1. Curiosity/cosmopolitan tastes – opened China up
        1. Brought scholars, artists, artisans
        2. Muslims second social class
          1. Supervised building of Chinese-style imperial city
          2. Persian astronomers corrected Chinse calendars
          3. Doctors added 36 volumes of Muslim medicine
      2. Welcomed travelers
        1. Polo family from Venice – Marco Polo
          1. Marco Polo’s travel log created extreme interest in Asia
          2. Inspired European efforts in navigation
    4. Social Policies and Scholar-Gentry
      1. Completely altered social hierarchy
        1. Prevented scholar-gentry from taking positions – got rid of test
        2. Bolstered position of artisans
        3. Merchants also prospered
          1. Mongols created war fleets/navies
          2. Cities/sedentary lifestyles flourished – ironic
          3. Open to different ideas
            1. Traditional poetry/essay writing suffers
            2. popular entertainment – dramas flourish
              1. The Romance of the West Chamber
              2. Actors no longer “mean people”
          4. Help for peasants
            1. Doesn’t turn cropland into pasture land
            2. Reduces taxes
            3. Plan to establish elementary education – never goes through
    5. The Fall of the House of Yuan
      1. Mongol aura of invincibility falters
        1. Lost to military lords of Japan
        2. Song loyalists raised revolts in South
        3. Frustrated/unsuccessful expeditions to Java/Vietnam
      2. Softening of the ruling class
        1. Stop taking care of day to day work
        2. Allowed corrupt Chinese/Muslims to run finances
      3. Scholar-gentry encouraged revolts
      4. Banditry/piracy increases – can’t guarantee safety
      5. Famine hit many regions
      6. Religious Sects – White Lotus Society
        1. Magical powers to overthrow Mongols
      7. Man from poor peasant family – Ju Yuanzhang starts Ming dynasty
    6. Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur
      1. Timur-I Lang – Timur the Lame
        1. Highly cultured person
        2. Ruthless conqueror – atrocities – pyramid of skulls – tens thousands
          1. Spared artisans/scientists to help build capital
          2. Upon death, empire falls apart
          3. Last great challenge from nomads
  • Global Connections
    1. Lasting changes
      1. new ways of making war
        1. gunpowder
      2. Facilitated trade
        1. unprecedented trade of foods, tools, ideas
        2. brought great wealth to traders – think Venice
      3. Created urge for overseas expansion
    2. Greatest impact – plagues
      1. Fleas on livestock
      2. Rats on ships that nibbled grain
      3. Economic/social impact – 50% of some regions
        1. Forced adjustments/change in economic/social roles to deal with
    3. Other exchanges
      1. Europeans adapt products and technologies
        1. Explosive powder/printing
      2. After many wanted to maintain contacts
        1. But…China grew more wary of outsiders
        2. But…land-based travel became more difficult
          1. Led to the need to focus on improving sea routes/transportation
  • Subject: 
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 15 - The West and the Changing World Balance

    Chapter 15 Notes
    The West and the Changing World Balance

    1. Introduction
      1. 1400 – world in period of transition
        1. Downfall of Arab caliphate
        2. Spread of Mongols
        3. Who would take new international trade role? Maybe China?
      2. But…Enter the Europeans – finally, they’ve been behind everyone for 8000 years
        1. Italy, Spain, Portugal took leadership role
        2. Americas couldn’t respond to European invasions
      3. Key question – why did different civilizations react differently?
        1. This could be a key question – notice the word differences
          1. This class just loves to compare civilizations
    2. The Decline of the Old Order
      1. 1200 – Middle East run by Byzantine Empire (North) – Arab Empire (South)
        1. But…Turks took over Byzantines in 1453, 1258 Mongols - Caliph
      2. Social and Cultural Change in the Middle East
        1. Religious leaders gained power over artistic leaders in Arab world
          1. New piety – think about orthodox Muslims today
          2. Religious art themes
          3. Rationalism of Greece (Hellenism) now seen as bad, a threat
            1. …don’t think this is just Arab world, Europeans getting scared of logic/rationalism as well
        2. Economic shifts
          1. As centralized power slows, provincial leaders (landlords) get more power
            1. Hmmm…what an interesting pattern I’ve never seen before
          2. But…bad things resulted
            1. Lower agricultural yield
            2. Less taxes
            3. Less trade
            4. Indian Ocean trade still strong
          3. A gradual decline, not sudden like in Rome
          4. But…even though politically weak, other political areas took more power
            1. Ottoman Turks took over control – more powerful than before
      3. A Power Vaccum in International Leadership
        1. Ottoman Turks not an international leader like Islamic caliphate
        2. Mongols provided next global leader
          1. Encouraged interregional trade
          2. Exchanged technology/ideas
          3. End of empire turned to seaborne trade, as land trade less protected
      4. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal
        1. Ming “brilliant” dynasty took over 1368-1644
          1. pushed out Mongols first
          2. re-established tributary links with Southeast Asian states
        2. State-sponsored trade expeditions
          1. Admiraly Zhenghe – 1405-1433 led vast, unparalleled fleet
            1. Former eunuch – why do you think leaders like eunuchs for advisors?
            2. Brought fleet of 28,000 troops – scared the willies out of local leaders
          2. Eventually brought back – threatened the Confucian bureaucrats
            1. Remember – they don’t like merchants having power
            2. Other reasons – cost
              1. Money better spent building Beijing, fighting Mongols
        3. What if Chinese kept trading? Lost chance to be world power
          1. Dainty little European ships no match
          2. Followed Chinese pattern of spending money internally, practically
            1. Not like West, where power is judged by expansion
        4. Instead – worked on infrastructure – population increased, manufacturing improved
        5. Arabs on decline, Mongols dying out, China not stepping to the plate…leads to…
    3. The Rise of the West
      1. Why is their rise surprising?
        1. Still awed by other bureaucracies
        2. Church under attack
        3. warrior aristocrats softened life – ridiculous tournaments/armor
        4. lives of ordinary Europeans falling apart
          1. famine
          2. vulnerable to bubonic plague
            1. China’s population hit by 30%
            2. Europe lost 30 million
              1. Led to strikes/peasant uprisings
      2. Sources of Dynamism: Medieval Vitality
        1. Why was Europe still strong?
          1. Strong regional governments created during feudalism
          2. Military innovations thanks to Hundred Years War
            1. Nonaristocratic soldiers – regular guys not paid boy gov’t
            2. Paid by central gov’t = more taxes = more central power
          3. Growth of cities – helped commerce
          4. Church content with capitalism – notice alliteration
          5. Technology improving – metalwork
      3. Imitation and International Problems
        1. Technology pushes expansion
          1. During Mongol period – Europe has ideal access
            1. Not controlled, but still involved in trade
            2. Internal conflict spurs regions to improve technology to win battles
        2. International Factors push expansion
          1. Interest in luxury goods
          2. Nobody wants European products, so they have to pay in gold
            1. Europe doesn’t have gold…so…they need to go find some
          3. Fears of a Muslim threat
            1. Need to secure Western ports
            2. Need to create sea trade since Muslims now control land trade
      4. Secular Directions in the Italian Renaissance
        1. First…I can’t believe we’re going to spend two paragraphs talking about the Renaissance when this was discussed ad nauseum in Western Civ
        2. West’s surge forward – rebirth of culture and political views of Classical Europe
          1. Artists create more human-centered works of art – humanism
          2. Artist/writers pushed for own reputation
          3. Works now secular, and religious simultaneously
          4. Italy started – wealthy merchants want to impress others – patrons
            1. Help sponsor cultural activities, scholars – competition
          5. Human Values and Renaissance Culture
            1. Focus of art changes – it’s a cultural revolution
              1. Subject – people, nature, portraits
              2. Created perspective
              3. Vivid, realistic statues – like classic Rome/Greece
            2. But…not a full break from Medieval World…usually had to involve religion too
            3. Change mindset – looking outward
              1. Building ships, pushing commerce
              2. Ambitious city-state governments funded new ventures
              3. Human ambition, pursuit of glory focused on exploration/conquest
        3. The Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission
          1. Spanish and Portugese rulers pushing military/religious agenda
            1. Goal of armies – push Christianity, kick out Arabs/Jews
            2. Government enforced Church codes
            3. Inquisition courts to enforce orthodoxy
            4. Key…government with religious mission
    4. Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase
      1. Early Explorations
        1. Western route to the Indies – spice trade area?
          1. Vivaldis from Genoa sailed off to the land of nowhereville
          2. Mostly had to stick to the coast of Africa
        2. After 1430, some navigational problems solved
          1. compass/astrolabe – navigation by stars – from Arabs
          2. Improved mapmaking
          3. but…geographically inaccurate maps give false confidence
          4. 1498 – Vasco de Gama heads to Indian Ocean
      2. Colonial Patterns
        1. How to make expeditions profitable?
          1. Henry the Navigator pushed for scientific, intellectual, religious, economic
        2. Islands off Africa became test ground for colonialism
          1. large agricultural estates
            1. sugar, cotton, tobacco
          2. brought in slaves by Portugese
        3. Success of early programs led to expansion
        4. Forces influencing European expansion
          1. inferiorities and fears - Muslims
          2. energies of Renaissance merchants
          3. economic pressures
          4. population surge
    5. Outside the World Network
      1. Introduction
        1. America/Polynesia not affected by world exchange – they’d be centuries behind
        2. New problems left civilizations vulnerable
      2. Political Issues in the Americas
        1. Resentment for leadership
          1. For some reason tribute regions tired of being enslaved, sacrificed
        2. Overextension – difficult to control
        3. Other cultures developing – maybe would have surpassed
        4. All irrelevant, because when Europeans arrive…
      3. Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia
        1. Between 7th and 14th spread eastward – Hawaii – spread culture
          1. Society in caste system – military leaders/priests dominate
          2. No written language – oral history
      4. Isolated Achievements by the Maori
        1. 8th century – Maori in New Zealand
          1. Most elaborate art
          2. Military leaders/priests have great power
          3. Slaves
        2. Because developed in isolation
          1. Vulnerable to disease
          2. Inferior weapons
          3. Cultural disintegration
      5. Adding up the Changes
        1. Master plan that Europeans would dominate or series of coincidences?
          1. Political instability in Americas
          2. Developed in isolation left technologically inferior
          3. Vulnerable to diseases
          4. China decides not to continue pursuit of world trade domination
          5. Individuals try to improve Europe’s trade deficit – Henry the Navigator
          6. Muslim impact on Africa less control
          7. Africans don’t benefit from trade with Mongols
    6. Global Connections
      1. Global contacts
        1. Muslim traders/missionaries still active
        2. Mongols readily shared ideas from one end of empire to the other
        3. China made new contacts
        4. But by 1450…who would dominate next was in flux
      2. Key continuity
        1. Regions required trade to survive
          1. Africa relied on Middle East
          2. Southeast Asia linked to Muslim traders/China
          3. Western Europe contacts increasing
          4. China, India, Middle East see Africa/Europe as consumer source
      3. And that’s it…not that painful of a chapter, agree?
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 16 - The World Economy

    Chapter 16.
    The World Economy

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. What are consequences of…
        1. 1. Voyages of Columbus
        2. 2. Exploration of Europeans
        3. 3. Empires built by European conquerors/missionaries
      2. B. Consequences
        1. 1. Power shift
        2. 2. Redefinition of interchange
      3. D. Patterns of diffusion
        1. 1. Classical – developing regional economies/cultures – Medit./China
          1. a. External conflicts existed, but not that important
        2. 2. Postclassical Era – contacts increase
          1. a. Missionary religions spread
          2. b. Interregional trade key component of economies – bet. continents
          3. c. Some regions dominated trade – Muslims then Mongols
        3. 3. 1450-1750 – Eve of the Early Modern Period
          1. a. New areas of world brought into global community – Americas
          2. b. Rate of global trade increased – Southeast Asia
          3. c. Relationships between groups changed power structure
          4. d. Effects on Europe – dominated trade
            1. 1. Changes within Europe
            2. 2. Parts of world become dependent on Europe
            3. 3. Used New World goods to pay for Old World luxury items
              1. a. Americas > Silver > China
      4. E. Foods
        1. 1. 30% of world’s food comes from Americas – potato, corn
          1. a. Corn embraced by Africa – later by Europe
            1. 1. Thought spread plague – also not in Bible – is it kosher?
    2. II. The West’s First Outreach: Maritime Power
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Western nations unprecedented mastery of oceans
          1. a. Spain, Portugal > Britain, Holland, France
        2. 2. Who pushes trade? Princes, clergy, merchants
          1. a. Muslims – superior economy, goods
            1. 1. European nobility used to luxury goods
          2. b. Mongols – sped up exchanges
          3. c. Fall of Khans – China a mystery again
        3. 3. What were Europe’s disadvantages?
          1. a. Ignorant of world – earth flat? Indigenous warriors
          2. b. Fear of Ottoman Empire
          3. c. Lack of gold to fund
          4. d. Limited distance of small, oar-propelled ships
      2. B. New Technology
        1. 1. What were the key technological innovations that helped with trade?
          1. a. deep ships able to carry a lot of armaments/weapons
          2. b. compass
          3. c. mapmaking
          4. d. explosives adapted to gunnery
            1. 1. Metallurgy adapted Chinese invention
          5. e. Europe has unprecedented advantage on sea
      3. C. Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack
        1. 1. Why Portugal?
          1. a. Western geographic location
          2. b. Rulers
            1. 1. Excitement of discovery
              1. a. Could harm Muslim world
              2. b. Could get really rich
              3. c. Henry the Navigator – 1434 – African Coast
              4. d. 1488 – Around Cape of Good Hope
              5. e. 1498 – Vasco de Gama
                1. 1. Threatened by Spain – Columbus 1492
                2. 2. Four ships + Hindi pilot from Africa > India
                3. 3. Brought iron pots, gold for spices
                4. 4. Ships threatened, killed Indian merchants
              6. f. Portuguese then hit Brazil, Africa, India, China, Japan
            2. 2. Why Spain?
              1. a. Recently freed from Muslim rule
              2. b. Missionary zeal
              3. c. Desire for riches
              4. d. 1492 – Columbus – India/Indies – earth round
                1. 1. Mistaken Americas > “Indians”
                2. 2. Amerigo Vespucci – realized New World
              5. e. 1521 Magellan rounds Southern tip – heads to Indonesia
              6. f. 16th century – Spanish sent military force to back up American claims
      4. D. Northern European Expeditions
        1. 1. End of 16th century – Holland, France, England join game – why?
          1. a. Strong, wealthy monarchies
          2. b. Zealous Protestants want to rival Catholics
          3. c. Spain/Portugal become complacent
          4. d. N. Europe lighter, faster ships – 1588 Spanish Armada defeated – shift in power
          5. e. Spain/Portugal already controlled S. America
            1. 1. N. European focused on N. America
            2. 2. Interest in Americas
              1. a. Market for English woolens
              2. b. Fish
              3. c. French trappers
              4. d. Nortwest passage – Hudson
            3. 3. Dutch freed from Spain – Holland begins exploring
              1. a. Pushed Portuguese from Indonesia
              2. b. S. Africa as relay station
            4. 4. Creation of trading companies
              1. a. Dutch East India Company/British East India Company
              2. b. Government monopolies of all commerce
              3. c. Not supervised
              4. d. Raise armies/coin money
              5. e. Essentially more powerful than independent governments
                1. 1. Dutch ruled Taiwan
                2. 2. British ruled India
            5. 5. What were negatives of travel?
              1. a. Tiring, uncertain future
    3. III. Toward a World Economy
      1. A. The “Columbian Exchange” of Disease and Food
        1. 1. Spread disease
          1. a. Native Americans – no natural immunities to smallpox/measles
            1. 1. 50-80% casualties over 150 years
            2. 2. Wiped out earlier civilizations
            3. 3. Made possible for heavy European colonization
        2. 2. Crops
          1. a. Corn/sweet potatoes to China
            1. 1. + new agricultural technology > population increases
            2. 2. 17th century has population pressure
            3. 3. 18th century – Europe major population change
        3. 3. Animal husbandry
          1. a. Horses and cattle to New World – yeayyy…beasts of burden
      2. B. The West’s Commercial Outreach
        1. 1. What was European effect on existing traders?
          1. a. Did not totally displace
            1. 1. Muslims controlled
            2. E. Africa
          2. b. Replaced some interregional traders
            1. 1. India > S. East Asia – think Malacca
          3. c. European controlled ports
            1. 1. Contacts with overland traders
            2. 2. Access to inland goods
        2. 2. Indirect control set up – Western traders get special rights
          1. a. Western merchants allowed freedom in foreign cities
            1. 1. Nagasaki, St. Petersburg, Constantinople
            2. 2. Supplemented regional economies
      3. C. Imbalances in World Trade
        1. 1. Most active competition between Europe – see any global context – wars to come?
        2. 2. Spain failed – bad banking system
        3. 3. England, France, Holland – merchants already strong – core nations
          1. a. What was the effect on these countries?
            1. 1. Pushed manufacturing, new markets for goods
            2. 2. Created mercantilism – nation-state must only trade with core nation
              1. a. Stiff tariff (aka import tax) policies discouraged colonial mfg
        4. 4. Outside Europe, some regions became dependent, subservient
          1. a. What goods did these regions offer?
            1. 1. Low cost goods – metals, cash crops – sugar, spice, tobacco, cotton
            2. 2. Human labor – sub-Saharan Africa supplies slaves
            3. 3. Exchanged for mfg. goods > guns, alcohol
      4. D. A System of International Inequality
        1. 1. Global context – dependent nations then are the dependent nations today
          1. a. Don’t exaggerate core-dependent system
            1. 1. Some regional princes/local leaders got rich also
            2. 2. Some not involved – local peasants aren’t touched by global econ.
          2. b. But…what were the negatives?
            1. 1. Significant minorities fueling system
            2. 2. Latin/African merchants don’t control rules of trade
            3. 3. Wealth doesn’t stimulate local economies – mfg. not encouraged **
              1. a. Forced to rely on imports, don’t become self-sufficient
            4. 4. Coercive labor systems spread
              1. a. System only survives with cheap labor
              2. b. Importation of African slaves to Americas
              3. c. Encomienda system – estate agriculture – forces peasants
      5. E. How Much World in the World Economy?
        1. 1. Those not in global economy don’t grow as fast – why?
          1. a. Don’t have huge profits of European core nations
          2. b. Technologies don’t change as rapidly
        2. 2. China – benefited, but participated on small scale
          1. a. Refused to embrace all of Europe’s new technologies – firearms
          2. b. Limited trade through Macao – which country controlled Macao?
          3. c. So…bad, didn’t develop as fast, but good…didn’t become subservient
          4. d. Chinese mfg. of luxury goods enough to keep pace
            1. 1. What…China manufactures goods? Really? I’ve never seen anything that says Made in China
            2. 2. Europeans loved Chinese goods – porcelain plates > China
            3. 3. Japan – initially open to Western missionaries, gunnery, shipping
              1. a. Feudal wars interested in guns
              2. b. But…guns kept out
                1. 1. Threat on samurai military dominance
                2. 2. Warring lords – balance of power would be destroyed
                3. 3. Made guns locally then…
              3. c. Totally cut off trade, isolated for 17th to 19th century – Meiji Restoration
              4. d. Only Nagasaki – Dutch port – kind of like Macao
            4. 4. India – Mughal Empire – 16th century
              1. a. Encouraged small port colonies from Europeans
              2. b. But…India focused mostly internally
            5. 5. Ottoman/Safaid Empires
              1. a. Focused internally
              2. b. Few European enclaves in key cities
            6. 6. Russia
              1. a. Remains agricultural
              2. b. Trades with nomadic peoples
            7. 7. Africa
              1. a. Aside from sub-Sarahan slave regions, mostly ignored
      6. F. The Expansionist Trend
        1. 1. First phase of dependent countries – S. America, W. Indies, N. America, W. Africa
        2. 2. Second phase – Southeast Asia
        3. 3. Third phase – India, Mughal Empire
          1. a. British/French East India Companies controlled more of economy/admin
          2. b. British passed high tariffs, stop import of cotton
            1. 1. Goal – India market for British goods
            2. 2. Source of gold income
          3. c. India’s position gradually worsened, mfg. started to stall
        4. 4. Third phase – Eastern Europe
          1. a. Growing western cities needed Eastern grain
          2. b. Serfs on large Polish, Prussian, Russian estates
            1. 1. Like encomienda system, but European gov’ts stronger than Americ
    4. IV. Colonial Expansion
      1. A. The Americas: Loosely Controlled Colonies
        1. 1. Why was colonization of Americas possible?
          1. a. Superior horses, guns, iron weapons
          2. b. Population losses of Indians
          3. c. Political disorder
        2. 2. What type of men led expeditions?
          1. a. Adventurous, violent, treacherous, unscrupulous, money hungry
          2. b. Vasco de Balboa – first colony on mainland – Panama
          3. c. Francisco Pizarro – defeated Incas
        3. 3. What were the characteristics of colonies?
          1. a. gold-hungry
          2. b. loosely controlled by colonial govts back in Europe
          3. c. Initially, natives allowed to exist, if they paid tribute
          4. d. Administration/rule became more formalized
            1. i. Expanse of agriculture
                ii.Missionary efforts
      2. B. British and French North America: Backwater Colonies
        1. 1. Types of early British colonies
          1. a. Religious Calvinist refugees – New England
          2. b. Huge land grants to people of influence – William Penn
        2. 2. French colonies in Canada
          1. a. Originally to be manors
          2. b. New France – Quebec
            1. 1. Strong role of Catholic church
          3. c. British take control of Canada in 17
          4. 6.4 after Seven Years War
            1. 1. French and Indian War if you’re studying US History
        3. 3. N. America not as valuable as W. Indies, Asian colonies, L. America
          1. a. Important – this allowed US manufacturing to develop on own
            1. 1. US South looked like L. America – big estates + slaves
              1. a. Wealthy planter class wants European luxury goods
              2. b. Foundation of self-governing – “civil society”
                1. 1. Ran own assemblies
                2. 2. Church as center of organization
                3. 3. Consumers of Enlightened thinkers – Joh Locke
              3. c. Little new art, part of Europe
              4. d. Economy developed under salutary neglect
                1. 1. Merchant class started, had something to lose
                2. 2. Annoyed at tax hikes meant to pay for Seven Years War
              5. e. Ease of displacing Indians
                1. 1. Few, no large empires
                2. 2. Not agriculture based, easy to displace
                3. 3. Disease
                4. 4. Did not combine with natives like in L. America
              6. f. Slaves – by 18th century – 23% of English colonies slave
      3. C. North America and Western Civilization
        1. 1. To what extent was European culture reproduced in America?
          1. a. Family patterns similar, but…
            1. 1. Married younger, larger families < more land (cause)
            2. 2. Focus on nuclear family
            3. 3. Child-centeredness of American families – need labor to survive
      4. D. Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations
        1. 1. Not colonizing Africa, content to have fortresses on coast
          1. a. Why not colonize? Climate, disease, nonnavigable rivers
        2. 2. European impact locations
          1. a. Angola – Portugese go inland for slaves, disrupts society
          2. b. Cape Colony – S. Africa – Dutch stop
            1. a. Boer (farmers) spread out
            2. b. After 1770, battle became for who would control – Boer/Indigenous
            3. c. Philippines – Spain – missionary zeal
            4. d. Indoneseia, Taiwan – Dutch
        3. 3. Fall of India
          1. a. Mughal Empire weakening 17th century
          2. b. British/French forts all over coasts
          3. c. Centralized gov’t fails, move to regional leaders
          4. d. Why does Britain beat France for control of India?
            1. 1. Station at Calcutta – base for income gathering
            2. 2. British gov’t listens closely to British East India Trading Co.
            3. 3. Superior navy – communication
            4. 4. Less focused on missionary work – tolerant of Hindi customs
          5. e. Seven Years War – 1756 – catalyst 120 deaths of English prisoners
            1. 1. Allied selves with regional leaders, same as in Americas
          6. f. British controlled, but Mughal Empire still existed
        4. 4. Pattern – Colonial administrations push for economic advantage
          1. a. Open country to markets
          2. b. Restrict from buying own goods
          3. c. Commercial production of cheap foods/raw materials
      5. E. Impact on Western Europe
        1. 1. Economically – pushed further industrial revolution
          1. a. World trade, African slave trade
          2. b. Brought in wealth, capital to be reinvested
          3. c. Reduced dependence on agriculture
          4. d. Additional tax revenues for governments
          5. e. Militaries grew with larger tax revenues
        2. 2. Political – colonial rivalries create national conflict in Europe
          1. a. Seven Years’ War – British/France in Europe, India, N. America
            1. 1. First world war
        3. 3. Food
          1. a. Sugar now consumed by lower classes as well
            1. 1. Set precedent for Europeans – quick satisfaction, easy pleasure
      6. F. Impact of a New World Order
        1. 1. Unfree labor systems
          1. a. Slavery, serfdom affected
          2. E. Europe, L. America, W. Africa
        2. 2. New foods, societies could now survive, prosper
        3. 3. Individual merchants, landowners status improved
        4. 4. China prospered from silver income, lost from population rise
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. Europe’s economy, military, government changed
      2. B. Reactions to Europe’s rise
        1. 1. Sit back and watch passively in awe
        2. 2. Consciously isolate self
        3. 3. Retained vibrant internal colonies
        4. 4. Blended European ideas with local customs
          1. a. Religion in S. America
          2. b. Distinct art forms
    Chapter 16 The World Economy56.5 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 17 - The Transformation of the West

    Chapter 17
    The Transformation of the West

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. 1450-1750 dramatic changes
        1. 1. Still agricultural
        2. 2. Commercially active
        3. 3. Manufacturing base
        4. 4. Science at center of society
        5. 5. Shifting ideas of family/nature
        6. 6. Increased bureaucratization – sound familiar?
      2. B. Reasons for change
        1. 1. Dominance of international trade
        2. 2. Overseas expansion
        3. 3. Combination of commerce, state, culture, and technology
        4. 4. 1450-1650 – series of cultural shifts
        5. 5. 1650-1750 – Scientific Revolution > Enlightenment
    2. II. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce
      1. A. The Italian Renaissance
        1. 1. Artistic movement
        2. 2. Challenged medieval values/styles
          1. a. Examine old truths
        3. 3. Why in Italy?
          1. a. Urban, commercial economy
          2. b. Competitive city-states – an arts race?
        4. 4. New themes
          1. a. Writing in Latin
          2. b. Secular subjects – love/pride
          3. c. Classical/human-centered themes
          4. d. Religion declined as focus
          5. e. Humanism – humankind as focus of intellectual/artistic
        5. 5. Political Theory – Niccolo Machiavelli
          1. a. End justifies means – better to be feared then loved
        6. 6. Other effects
          1. a. Improved banking techniques
          2. b. Merchants became more profit-seeking
          3. c. Political rule based on ability to improve well-being/city’s glory
          4. d. Professional armies/improved tech. – conflict among city-states
          5. e. Diplomacy – exchange of ambassadors
      2. B. The Renaissance Moves Northward
        1. 1. Fall of Italian power
          1. a. French/Spanish invasions
          2. b. Atlantic trade routes reduced Mediterranean importance
          3. 2. Spread to North – France, Germany, England
        2. a. Classical art/architecture
        3. b. Greek/Latin literature
        4. c. Humanists wrote in vernacular – own language
        5. d. Writers more popular culture – low-brow – Shakespeare
          1. 1. bodily functions
          2. 2. human passions
          3. 3. Set new classics
        6. 3. Political Change > toward greater state power
          1. a. Revenue increase > greater ceremony/pomp aka blowing $
          2. b. Kings – Francis I – patrons of arts/architecture
          3. c. State-sponsored trading companies
          4. d. Military conquest
          5. e. Feudal/religious justifications not as important as state
        7. 4. Renaissance effects
          1. a. Kings still restricted by power of local lords
          2. b. Peasants not touched by Renaissance values
          3. c. Economics same
          4. d. Men more bravado – women more domestic
      3. C. Changes in Technology and Family
        1. 1. Technological Changes
          1. a. Learned from Asia
            1. 1. Pulleys/pumps for mines
            2. 2. Stronger iron
          2. b. Printing press – Johannes Gutenberg – movable type
            1. 1. Books helped expand Renaissance
            2. 2. Literacy gained ground
            3. 3. Source for new thinking
        2. 2. Family structure
          1. a. European-style family
            1. 1. Late marriage
            2. 2. Nuclear families not extended
          2. b. Goals/reasons
            1. 1. Limit birth/family size
            2. 2. Husband/wife importance
            3. 3. Linked family to property holdings – can’t marry till own property
      4. D. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations
        1. 1. Protestant Reformation
          1. a. Martin Luther – 1517 – German monk 95 Theses
            1. 1. Indulgences
            2. 2. Only faith brings salvation – not Church
            3. 3. Sacraments not important
            4. 4. Monasticism wrong
            5. 5. Translate Bible to vernacular
          2. b. Why did people buy into Luther’s views?
            1. 1. Political Leaders
              1. a. Nationalist – don’t want pope’s taxes
              2. b. gain more power over Holy Roman Emperor
              3. c. seize church lands
              4. d. State control of church
            2. 2. Ordinary People
              1. a. Justification for rebellion against lords – Luther’s response?
              2. b. Notion of work – other careers seen as positives
              3. c. Moneymaking OK
              4. d. Christian bias against moneymaking – Christ’s view of rich?
        2. 2. Anglican Church
          1. a. Henry VIII has marriage/fertility issues – takes his ball and goes home
            1. 1. Women disposed of easily for political reasons
            2. 2. Daughter Elizabeth I – Protestant
            3. 3. Jean Calvin – Geneva, Switzerland – Predestination
              1. a. Priests as moral guiders
              2. b. Local believers participate in church administration
              3. c. Education to read Bible
              4. d. These would be your Puritans/Pilgrims with the Thanksgiving hats
            4. 4. Catholic Reformation – more severe or more open?
              1. a. Special council meetings
              2. b. Revived Catholic doctrine
              3. c. Restated importance of sacraments
              4. d. Tried to get rid of superstition/magical beliefs
              5. e. Jesuits – politics, education, missionary work
      5. E. The End of Christian Unity in the West
        1. 1. Series of religious wars
          1. a. Germany – Thirty Years War – 1618 German Protestants vs. Holy Roman Emperor
            1. 1. Destroyed German power/population
            2. 2. Treaty of Westphalia 1648 – princes can choose
          2. b. English Civil War – 1640s
            1. 1. Religious problems combined with…
            2. 2. Parliament wants power
        2. 2. Effects of Religious Wars
          1. a. Limited acceptance of religious pluralism
          2. b. Religious doubts? Wait a second…there’s more than one way to see God?
          3. c. Shift in power – France, England, Netherlands up, Spain/Italy down
          4. d. Philosophical changes
            1. 1. Less connection between God and nature
            2. 2. Focus on family life – love husband/woman
          5. e. Women’s Rights
            1. 1. More emphasis on happy marriage
              1. a. Emphasis on affection
            2. 2. But…no more convents, fewer options – must get married
          6. f. Growing literacy
      6. F. The Commercial Revolution
        1. 1. New world economy – greater commercialization
          1. a. Increased trade
          2. b. New goods
        2. 2. Causes
          1. a. Increased inflation
          2. b. Import of gold and silver – prices up
          3. c. New wealth needs new products
          4. d. Borrowing cheap – companies take more risks – easier to pay back
          5. e. Great trading companies
            1. 1. New profits
            2. 2. New managerial skills
            3. 3. Colonial markets
              1. a. Agricultural specialty areas – not just self-sufficient
                1. 1. Gradual switch to commercial farming
              2. b. Specialization in villages/cities
          6. 4. Increased purchasing power of ordinary citizens
            1. a. 1600 West 5x as much as S. European
            2. b. Furniture, wine
      7. G. Social Protest
        1. 1. Growing proletariat – people without access to property
          1. a. Population growth/inflation – had to sell property
          2. b. Became manufacturers
          3. c. Became paid laborers
          4. d. Cities – beggars/wandering poor
        2. 2. Popular protest results
          1. a. Demanded protection from poverty/loss of property
        3. 3. Effects of 17th century protests
          1. a. Social tension
          2. b. United peasants through songs, common causes
        4. 4. Witchcraft persecution – 17th century
          1. a. Europe/New England
          2. b. Method of blaming poor
          3. c. Conflict about family/role of women
    3. III. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change
      1. A. Scientific Revolution
        1. 1. Affected intellectual life
        2. 2. Promoted change in popular outlook
      2. B. Did Copernicus Copy?
        1. 1. Copernicus – heliocentric theory – new thinking – proved Greeks
        2. 2. Copied from Muslims or Chinese, Indian, Mayan or independent?
        3. 3. Science becomes more a focus of Europe than anywhere else
      3. C. Science: The New Authority
        1. 1. Scientific research can overrule/test existing theories
        2. 2. Galileo – conflict w/ Church over laws of gravity
        3. 3. William Harvey – circulatory system around heart
        4. 4. Rene Descartes – human reason can develop laws – accept nothing
        5. 5. 1687 – Isaac Newton – Principia Mathematica – summarized theories/observations
          1. a. Laws of motion, gravity
          2. b. Rational hypothesis + generalizations based on experiments
          3. c. Laws not blind faith
        6. 6. Effects
          1. a. Lectures/manuals for layman
          2. b. Witchcraft seen as ridiculous
          3. c. People control/calculate environment
          4. d. Doctors based more on scientific diagnosis – no more nutjobs
          5. e. Lost and found section of newspaper – huh?
          6. f. Attacks on religion
            1. 1. miracles don’t make sense
            2. 2. Deism – great clockmaker in the sky
            3. 3. John Locke – faith irrelevant – jus need senses/reason
        7. 7. Why is this unique?
          1. a. China/Muslim had science for practical reasons
          2. b. Europe – more pure science, understanding world
          3. c. West as center of advancement
      4. D. Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies
        1. 1. Feudal monarchies come to end
          1. a. Nobles lose influence after wars
          2. b. Heavy wars require more taxes/better administration
        2. 2. Absolute Monarchy
          1. a. Modeled after France
            1. 1. Parliament doesn’t meet
            2. 2. Blew up castles
            3. 3. Bureaucracy from merchants/lawyers
            4. 4. Appointed representatives to provinces
            5. 5. Professionalized army
              1. a. formal training officers – no longer nobility
              2. b. uniforms and support
              3. c. military hospitals/pensions – Hotel des Invalides
            6. 6. King Louis XIV – “I am the state”
              1. a. Patron of arts – government has cultural role
              2. b. Versailles – keep nobles busy
              3. c. Mercantilism – protect economy of nation
                1. 1. Reduce internal tariffs
                2. 2. Support manufacturing
                3. 3. Limit imports from other nations – lose $
                  1. a. Heavy import taxes
                  2. b. Need colonies for natural resources/market
              4. b. Borrowed in Spain, Prussia (Germany today), Austria-Hungary (Hapsburg)
                1. 1. Focus on military, expansion/protection
        3. 3. Parliamentary Monarchy
          1. a. Britain/Netherlands
          2. b. Central state + parliamentary
          3. c. England – civil wars – Glorious Revolution
            1. 1. Parliament sovereign over king (slowly becomes figurehead)
            2. 2. Meets regularly
        4. 4. Changing political theory
          1. a. John Locke
            1. a. Power from people
            2. b. Social contract between state/people to protect property
          2. b. Rousseau – right to protest
          3. c. Notions of limits to central authority
      5. E. The Nation State
        1. 1. Common culture/language
        2. 2. Loyalty linked by cultural/political bonds
        3. 3. Citizens believed gov’t should act for their interests
          1. a. France – bad harvest – state should do something
        4. 4. Kept Europe divided and often at war
    4. IV. The West by 1750
      1. A. Political Patterns – became stagnant
        1. 1. England – parliamentary routine – fight for power
        2. 2. France – unable to tax nobles, church
        3. 3. Central Europe – greater change
          1. a. Prussia – Frederick the Great – enlightened despot
            1. 1. Greater religious freedom
            2. 2. Better agriculture – potato
            3. 3 .Commercial coordination
            4. 4. Harsh punishments cut back
        4. 4. Continued war – link between states and war
      2. B. Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture
        1. 1. France and Western Europe
          1. a. Applying scientific thought to human society
            1. 1. Rational laws to describe social/physical behavior
              1. a. Criminologists – criminals should be rehabilitated
              2. b. Political scientists – careful constitutions to govern best
              3. c. Economics
                1. 1. Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
                  1. a. Competition good
                  2. b. Government avoid regulation
                  3. c. Let initiative and market forces work
                  4. d. Denis Diderot – Encyclopedie
                2. 2. Basic principles of human affairs
                  1. a. Humans good
                  2. b. Educated to be better
                  3. c. Religions that rely on blind faith are bad – attacked Catholic church
                  4. d. Progress possible if people set free
                3. 3. Feminist thinkers
                  1. a. Salons
                  2. b. Mary Wollstonecracft – new political rights for women
                  3. c. Journals written by women for women
                  4. d. Men to blame for women’s lowly position
                4. 4. Changes in habits/beliefs
                  1. a. Reading clubs/salons
                  2. b. Treat kids nicer
                    1. 1. Less swaddling – think Singapore burrito of my kids
                    2. 2. Educational toys/books
                  3. c. Love between family members
                  4. d. Emotional bond in marriage – what a crazy thought
                    1. 1. Move away from arranged marriages
      3. C. Ongoing Change in Commerce and Manufacturing
        1. 1. Purchasing – more processed products
        2. 2. Entertainment – pay for live entertainment – status improves
        3. 3. New agriculture – 3 fold not as effective
          1. a. Drain swamps
          2. b. Technology – fertilizer, seed drills, stockbreeding
          3. c. Potato – improved food supply, delay due to Bible
        4. 4. Increased manufacturing – colonial trade + internal commerce
          1. a. Domestic system – done in homes, collected individually
          2. b. Replaced by factories – moving toward Industrial Revolution
          3. c. Manufacturers begin organizing labor – how best to make money
        5. 5. Capitalism – invest in funds for profit
        6. 6. Population increase
      4. D. Innovation and Instability
        1. 1. Changes in stronger gov’ts that supported economics
        2. 2. Reevaluation of family/children’s roles
          1. a. Children newly empowered, grow up to question system
        3. 3. Political roles – enlightenment – what is my place in gov’t
        4. 4. Unusual agricultural society – changes in commercial, cultural and political world
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. 1450 Christianity makes them superior, but why do other civilizations have better cities/econom
      2. B. 1750 – believed their rational thought better than superstitions of others
        1. 1. Most civilizations backward
        2. 2. How cute – noble savage and exotic animals
      3. C. Changed views of Europe and others toward selves
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 18 - The Rise of Russia

    Chapter 18 Notes

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Land empire created between 1450-1750
        1. 1. Involved limited commercial exchange
        2. 2. Altered balance of power Asia/Europe
        3. 3. Expanded eastward into Asia
      2. B. Link to Eastern Europe
        1. 1. Some regional kingdoms
        2. 2. Conflict with Poland and Lithuania
          1. C. Changes of nation
            1. 1. Sense of separate identity
            2. 2. Reaction to Western influence – accept it, select from it, shun it
    2. II. Russia’s Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars
      1. A. First step – Break free from Mongol control
        1. 1. Moscow princes strong as tax collectors
        2. 2. Ivan III – Ivan the Great – large army – 1462 frees chunk
          1. i. Utilized support for Orthodox Church
          2. ii. Played off nationalism
          3. iii. 1480 totally freed of Mongol control
      2. B. Need for Revival
        1. 1. Basic Russian Values
          1. i. Under Mongols
            1. 1. Some adopted dress
            2. 2. Christianity maintained
            3. 3. Arts diminish
            4. 4. Economic hit – trade down/manufacturing limited
              1. a. Purely agricultural economy
        2. 2. Centralized Rule
          1. i. With imperial mission – make an empire
          2. ii. Connection to Byzantine Empire – married niece of empero
        3. 3. “Third Rome” – Caesar – Tsar
        4. 4. Ivan IV – Ivan the Terrible
          1. i. Killed many nobles (boyars) for alleged conspiracy
            1. 1. Nobles couldn’t stand up for selves – no tradition
      3. C. Patterns of Expansion
        1. 1. Central Asia
          1. i. Why? Push back Mongols
          2. ii. Vast plains easy to conquer/stage battles
          3. iii. Cossacks – Russian pioneers – horse + farm
            1. 1. Took over then settled lands
            2. 2. Skilled horsemen – think American cowboys/Mongol
        2. 2. Usages of expansion
          1. i. Land given to nobles for allegiance
          2. ii. Further east opened new trading relationships
        3. 3. Eliminated independent Central Asia
          1. i. Nomads gone
          2. ii. Diverse peoples added to Russia – multicultural empire
            1. 1. Like Mughal Empire/Ottoman Empire
            2. 2. Large Muslim minority
      4. D. Western Contact and Romanov Policy
        1. 1. Carefully managed contacts with the west
          1. i. Early contacts with British merchants
          2. ii. Imported Italian artists/architects to work on churches/palaces – onion
          3. ii. Nobles look to west for style/art/status - precedent
        2. 2. Conflict over heir to the throne
          1. i. After Ivan IV – Time of Trouble – disputes for throne – boyars
          2. ii. Romanov Dynasty chosen by boyars
        3. 3. Romanov’s reestablish order
          1. i. Stopped Swedish/Polish attacks
          2. ii. Expanded empire
            1. 1. Met Ottoman Empire
            2. 2. Part of Ukraine
        4. 4. Alexis Romanov’s new powers
          1. i. Abolished noble assemblies – think Louis XIV
          2. ii. State control of Orthdox faith – get rid of superstitions of Mongol era
            1. 1. Exiled to Sibera – Old Believers
    3. III. Russia’s First Westernization
      1. A. Introduction
        1. a. Unusually agricultural existence
          1. i. Peter the Great extended tsarist control
          2. ii. Expanded territory
          3. ii. Imitated Western forms
        2. b. Peter the Great – exceptional leader
          1. i. Traveled to west in disguise – picture 6’8” guy in disguise
          2. ii. Visited manufacturing centers – empires for alliances
            1. 1. Gained interest – brought back artisans, scientists
      2. B. Tsarist Autocracy of Peter the Great
        1. a. Autocrat
          1. i. Put down revolts with cruelty
            1. 1. Organized military
          2. ii. Devalued parliament
          3. ii. Recruited bureaucrats from outside nobility
          4. iv. Secret police to watch bureaucrats/prevent dissent
            1. 1. Chancery of Secret Police to 1990
        2. b. Foreign policy
          1. i. attacked Ottoman Empire, but didn’t win a ton of battles
          2. ii. weakened Sweden – sea port
          3. ii. shifted capital to St. Petersburg
      3. C. What Westernization Meant
        1. a. Political changes
          1. i. Small bureaucratic departments (think Ministries or Departments)
          2. ii. Military
            1. 1. Improved weaponry
            2. 2. First Russian navy
          3. ii. Got rid of nobility for advisors – got specialized people
          4. iv. Tsar-appointed local magistrates – can control provinces
          5. v. Systemized law codes/tax system (stuff China did 2000 years ago)
          6. vi. New training institutes for bureaucrats
        2. b. Economic changes
          1. i. Metallurgy and mining
          2. ii. Unlike W. Europe, didn’t urbanize, develop middle class
            1. 1. Serfs used for manufacturing – nobles rewarded
          3. ii. economics funded military
        3. c. Cultural changes
          1. i. Power to upper class women
            1. 1. stopped the pass the whip ceremony (whipped?)
            2. 2. wear Western clothing
            3. 3. Attend public events
            4. 4. Peasant relations stayed the same
          2. ii. Take power from elite
            1. 1. shave beards, wear western clothes – Mongol connection
            2. 2. altered appearance
        4. d. Borrowing from the West
          1. i. Education in math/sciences
          2. ii. Western cultural zone
            1. 1. imported ballet from France
            2. 2. Christmas trees from Germany
        5. e. To what extent was West imitated? Selective
          1. i. Didn’t change poor
          2. ii. Not wage labor, but serf (slave/coerced) labor
          3. ii. Economics for military purposes not for commercial expansion
          4. iv. Ideas to strengthen aristocracy, not create political rebellions
        6. f. Hostile Responses
          1. i. Peasants resented nobles – some didn’t speak Russian
          2. ii. Elite discouraged Western change – losing Russian identity
          3. ii. Set precedent for cycle of enthusiasm > revulsion
      4. D. Consolidation Under Catherine the Great
        1. a. Weak rule following Peter the Great
          1. i. Military leaders fought for power
          2. ii. Anti-western leaders emerged
          3. ii. Peter the Great’s daughter’s nephew – Peter III – mentally challenged
            1. 1. Wife Catherine – German princess – takes over
              1. a. Put down rebellions
              2. b. Centralized power
              3. c. Used Pugachev Rebellion as an excuse for more power
        2. b. Catherine II – fascinating women rulers
          1. i. Hated husband/son
          2. ii. Helped overthrow husband
          3. ii. Enlightened leader + realist/needed to centralize
          4. iv. Active personal life – doubt you need to know that
        3. c. Selective westernizer
          1. i. Brought some ideas of French Enlightenment
          2. ii. Brought some reformers to discuss law codes
        4. d. Image vs. Reality – centralized authority – serf life gets worse
          1. i. New powers to nobility – could increase punishment
            1. 1. Nobles then gave more power to central authority
            2. 2. Became service aristocracy – sold out?
          2. ii. Role of landlord
            1. 1. Requisition peasant labor
            2. 2. Levy taxes
            3. 3. Impose punishments
        5. e. Fading from Western influence – still selective
          1. i. Improved St. Petersburg
          2. ii. Encouraged nobles to travel
          3. ii. Closed Russia after French Revolution – hmmm…why?
            1. 1. Censored intellectuals – here’s a pattern/precedent
        6. f. Russian expansion
          1. i. Fought Ottoman Empire
          2. ii. Extended holdings all the way down to modern day Alaska, Oregon, N. California
        7. g. Russia’s interests in Europe
          1. i. Divided Poland between Austria and Prussia
            1. 1. Poland’s parliament kept crippling gov’t flexibility
          2. ii. Set precedent of involvement in W. Europe
            1. 1. Eventually, Russia would stop Napoleon
        8. h. Success by 1800 – summary – here’s what they accomplished
          1. i. Won independence
          2. ii. Centralized gov’t
    4. IV. Themes in Early Modern Russian History
      1. A. Introduction
        1. a. Nobility extremely important
        2. b. Two types
          1. i. Great landowners/absentee owners living in the cities – westernized
          2. ii. Smaller owners live out in the countryside – less Westernized
      2. B. Serfdom: The Life of East Europe’s Masses
        1. a. Nobles power over serfs increases
          1. i. Free farmers before
          2. ii. Fell into debt – repay through servitude
            1. 1. worked land, but didn’t own it
          3. ii. Gov’t encouraged process – why?
            1. 1. Made nobles happy – won’t revolt
            2. 2. Method of controlling masses, when bureaucracy wasn’t effective
        2. b. Serf laws
          1. i. 1649 – hereditary status – born a serf – can’t escape
        3. c. Similarity to slavery
          1. i. Bought and sold
          2. ii. Gambled away
          3. ii. Punished by masters
          4. iv. Differences
            1. 1. nation enslaved own people, not outsiders
            2. 2. relied on community ties (see precedent for commun-ism)
        4. d. Similarity to Eastern Europe
          1. i. Nobles in Poland, Hungary benefited from system
            1. 1. Supported political control
            2. 2. Allowed them to have distinctive/Western life
        5. e. Eastern Europe subordinate to the West
          1. i. Russian grain traded for luxury items for nobility
        6. f. Life of serfs on estates
          1. i. Whole villages could be sold for manufacturing jobs
          2. ii. Poor/illiterate
            1. 1. Paid high taxes/obligations – impossible to escape
          3. ii. Catherine the Great created model villages to show off
      3. C. Trade and Economic Dependence
        1. a. Classes between serfs and landlords
          1. i. Prevented emergence of merchant class
            1. 1. Western European merchants lived in Russian cities/controlled trade
        2. b. Success of Russia’s social and economic system
          1. i. Enough money to support empire
          2. ii. Exported furs/commodities to central Asia – balanced trade
          3. ii. Significant population growth
            1. 1. Surprising considering harsh climate
        3. c. Limitations of Russia’s social and economic system
          1. i. Man labor not technological innovation
            1. 1. No motivation – extra profit just goes to lord
          2. ii. Manufacturing lagged behind w. Europe
      4. D. Social Unrest
        1. a. System leads to protests
          1. i. Western-oriented aristocrats push for change – end of 18th century
          2. ii. Peasants – loyal to tsar, but resented lords
        2. b. Peasant Rebellions
          1. i. Pugachev rebellion – Cossack chieftain – promised
            1. 1. End to serfdom
            2. 2. End to taxation
            3. 3. End to military conscription
            4. 4. End to landed aristocracy
          2. ii. Eventually put down after roaming Southern Russia
            1. 1. Cut into pieces in Moscow square
      5. E. Russia and Eastern Europe
        1. a. Eastern Europe
          1. i. Changing boundaries
          2. ii. More embracing of enlightenment/scientific revolution – contributed scholars
        2. b. Nationalities lose autonomy
          1. i. Hungary part of German Hapsburgs
          2. ii. Czech part of Hapsburgs - Bohemians
        3. c. Decline of Poland
          1. i. Link to west – Catholic
          2. ii. Political aristocrats chose weak kings on purpose
            1. 1. Vetoed reform efforts
          3. ii. Poland split into three parts
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. Why so significant?
        1. a. Huge land empire – 10 time zones
        2. b. Different from w. Europe, but huge impact
    Chapter 18 Notes45.5 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 19 - Early Latin America

    Chapter 19
    Early Latin America

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Cortes conquers Aztecs
        1. 1. Amazed at beauty of Tenochtitlan - uncomparable
      2. B. Pattern of conquest, continuity and rebuilding
        1. 1. Spanish tried to utilized Native resources similarly
          1. a. Used materials from ruins to build own houses
          2. b. Used similar forced labor system
          3. c. Allowed to follow ancient customs
      3. C. Impact of invasions
        1. 1. Huge Spanish/Portuguese empires
        2. 2. Latin America pulled into new world economy
        3. 3. Hierarchy of world economic relationships – Europe on top
        4. 4. New societies created – some incorporated, some destroyed
          1. a. Distinct civilization combining Iberian Peninsula w/ Native
        5. 5. Created large landed estates
        6. 6. Europeans came to Americas for economic gain and social mobility
        7. 7. Exploited precious metals
    2. II. Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Iberian Peninsula on the Eve of Exploration
          1. a. Tradition of military conquest and rule over other peoples
          2. b. Ferdinand and Isabella – unified and destroyed religious diversity
            1. a. Jews expelled
            2. b. Religious contributed to acceptance of Columbus’s idea
      2. B. Iberian Society and Tradition
        1. 1. Recreating Iberian life
          1. a. Urban cities surrounded by American Indians
          2. b. Conquerors as nobles with Indians as serfs
          3. c. Precedent of controlling African slaves
        2. 2. Political rule
          1. a. Professional bureaucracy
          2. b. Theocracy – religion and Church influenced politics – vice versa
        3. 3. Role of merchants
          1. a. Trading posts in Africa, but estates in Atlantic islands
          2. b. Trade factories turned into plantations - Brazil
      3. C. The Chronology of Conquest
        1. 1. Era of Conquest – 1492>1570 – administration and economy set-up
        2. 2. Consolidation and Maturity – 1570>1700 – colonial institutions
        3. 3. Reform and Reorganization – 1700>1800 – Reform and reorganization
          1. a. Seeds of dissatisfaction and revolt
      4. D. The Caribbean Crucible
        1. 1. Early island conquests – Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba
        2. 2. Treatment of natives – Taino natives distributed to encomendero
        3. 3. City precedents – gridlike around central plaza – church, town hall, governor’s
        4. 4. Methods of rule – governors, treasury officials, notaries, Spanish laws brought
        5. 5. Early immigration
          1. a. Import African slaves
          2. b. Women came also – conquest goal turned to settlement
          3. c. Gold hunting phase initial then replaced by sugar plantations
        6. 6. Treatment of Natives – enslavement, disease, murder
        7. 7. Attempts at reform
          1. a. Clerics and priests tried to end abuses
          2. b. Bartolome d Las Casas – wrote of complaints
      5. E. The Paths of Conquest
        1. 1. Taking over Central Mexico – between 1519 and 1535
          1. a. Not a movement, but series of individual initiatives
          2. b. Cortez defeats Aztecs in Tenochtitlan
        2. 2. Taking over South America
          1. a. Pizarro and Incas – Peru by 1540
        3. 3. Further exploration
          1. a. Densely populated areas first, then went after semisedentary/nomadic
          2. b. Coronado searches for gold goes into US
          3. c. 1570 192 Spanish cities and towns
      6. F. The Conquerors
        1. 1. Motivation
          1. a. 1/5 of all treasure to crown
          2. b. Money then divided among men signed up, priority to friends/relatives
        2. 2. Types of people that were conquerors
          1. a. Hoping to improve selves
          2. b. Serve God by conquering heathen
          3. c. soldiers, gentlemen, some women
          4. d. saw selves as new nobility
        3. 3. Reasons for Spanish success
          1. a. Weapons – firearms/steel weapons
          2. b. Effective/ruthless leadership
          3. c. Epidemic diseases – smallpox, influenza, measles
          4. d. Internal divisions rivalries between Indians
          5. e. Mobile, nomadic tribes stiffer resistance than centralized states
        4. 4. Who replaced conquerors?
          1. a. bureaucrats, merchants, colonists
          2. b. sometimes conflict over transfer of power
      7. G. Conquest and Morality
        1. 1. Reasons why treatment of Natives justified
          1. a. Aristotle argument – freeing Indians from unjust lord
          2. b. Indians not fully human
          3. c. Born to serve
        2. 2. Reasons why treatment of Natives not justified
          1. a. Rational people
          2. b. Never done harm like the Muslims
          3. c. Admirable customs and accomplishments
          4. d. Conversion should take place peacefully – Indians our brothers
        3. 3. Spanish crown tried to make changes, but too late
    3. III. The Destruction and Transformation of Indian Societies
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Decline of population
          1. a. Caribbean population almost disappears – slavery, mistreatment, disease
          2. b. Mexico – 25 million > 2 million, Peru – 10 million >
          3. 1.5 million
        2. 2. Reasons for loss of population
          1. a. Disease
          2. b. Disruption of economic social structures – those left in chaos
          3. c. Cattle replaced Indian population on Spanish farms/unclaimed land
      2. B. Exploitation of the Indians
        1. 1. Native American life preserved
          1. a. Nobility kept in place to facilitate tax collection, labor demands
        2. 2. New methods of labor and taxation
          1. a. Encomienda system – use Indians as workers/servants/tax them
          2. b. Often arbitrary, excessive
          3. c. Without reciprocal obligation/protection – what have you done for me lately?
          4. d. Encomiendas ended because Spain didn’t want to compete with new nobility
          5. e. Thousands of Indians mobilized for state projects
          6. f. Some left towns and worked for Spanish – start of wage labor system
        3. 3. Resiliency to exploitation
          1. a. Some adapted and learned to use language, legal system, law courts
          2. b. Selective in their adaptation of European foods, technology, culture
    4. IV. Colonial Economies and Governments
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Agrarian society – 80% worked on farms
        2. 2. Precious metals – mining efforts/booty of conquest essential activity
      2. B. The Silver Heart of Empire
        1. 1. Mining labor and methods
          1. a. Potosi in Peru – 160,000 people lived/worked in town/mine
          2. b. Laborers
            1. a. American Indian slaves – early encomienda system
            2. b. Changed to large # of wage laborers eventually
            3. c. Used European method of amalgamation w/ mercury (ahhhh…of course)
        2. 2. Relation of mining to economy
          1. a. Gov’t profited 1/5 of profit + controlled mercury
          2. b. Service industries develop around mining towns
      3. C. Haciendas and Villages
        1. 1.Rural estates – basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy
          1. a. Some plantation crops sent overseas
      4. D. Industry and Commerce
        1. 1. Types of trade
          1. a. Sheep raising and textile manufacturing
          2. b. Mercantilism – only Spaniards allowed to trade w/ America
            1. 1. consulado in Seville controlled all goods – kept prices high
        2. 2. Fleet system
          1. a. Convoy system sent two fleets annually
            1. 1. Came from Philippines as well twice annually
          2. b. Galleons protected
          3. c. ports created to guard treasure
        3. 3. European reaction to supply of American silver
          1. a. ½ of silver remained in Spain
            1. 1. Paid for Spanish wars
            2. 2. Bought manufactured goods from elsewhere and then shipped
          2. b. Sharp rise in inflation
          3. c. Wealth of Spain still depended on taxation
          4. d. Bankers lended more money than they should have
      5. E. Ruling an Empire: State and Church
        1. 1. Determining sovereignty
          1. a. North/South line – Treaty of Tordesillas – Brazil vs. everything else
        2. 2. Method of control of Spanish kingdoms
          1. a. University trained bureaucrats – letrados
          2. b. Codified laws – Recopilacion
          3. c. Two viceroyalties – one in Mexico City and one in Lima
            1. 1. Viceroys controlled military, legislative, judicial powers
          4. d. Under viceroys – audiencias – professional magistrates at local level
        3. 3. Role of the Church
          1. a. Established churches in towns/villages
          2. b. Set up missions in frontier areas
          3. c. Recording and analysis of Indian culture – for conversion purposes
          4. d. Later, state appointed archbishops – subsequently, allegiance
        4. 4. Impact of the Church
          1. a. Stimulated architects with church/cathedral building
          2. b. printing presses high percentage of religious books
          3. c. Schools run by clergy, universities – law and theology
          4. d. Tribunal of Inquisition to judge heretics
    5. V. Brazil: The First Plantation Colony
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Early settlements
          1. a. At first, relations with Native Americans peaceful
          2. b. Sugar plantations established
          3. c. By 1600, 100,000 residents – 30,000 Europeans, 15,000 black slaves
      2. B. Sugar and Slavery
        1. 1. Labor intensive
          1. a. Sugar had to be processed on site
          2. b. Required large amounts of capital for machinery – plantation only viable
        2. 2. First great plantation economy
          1. a. Single crop produced by slave labor
          2. b. Social hierarchy reflected plantation/slave origins
            1. 1. White planter family as aristocracy
          3. c. Slaves at bottom of social hierarchy
          4. d. Mixed origin – became artisans, small farmers, herders, free laborers
        3. 3. Government structure
          1. a. Royal officials trained in law ruled by governor
          2. b. Jesuits – religious group supported by cattle ranches/sugar mills
          3. c. Didn’t have independent printing presses, intellectual life
            1. 1. Closer connection to Portugal than New Spain to Spain
      3. C. Brazil’s Age of Gold
        1. 1. Competition with Europe
          1. a. Affected by change in ruling monarchies
          2. b. French entrance into Caribbean lowered price of sugar, increased slave price
        2. 2. Gold rush begins
          1. a. 1695 gold discovered in interior regions
          2. b. 5000 immigrants a year, went to interior
          3. c. Used slaves for mining labor
          4. d. Wild towns initially turned into network of towns
          5. e. 1735>1760 Brazil greatest producer of gold in the world
        3. 3. Impact of gold discovery
          1. a. Opened interior to settlement
            1. 1. Hurt indigenous population
          2. b. Mining stimulated opening of new areas to ranching and farming
          3. c. Rio de Janeiro – closest port to mines – grew
          4. d. Hierarchy of color in new areas
          5. e. Portugal continued negative economic policies
            1. 1. Buy manufactured goods from abroad, not make
              1. a. Gold went from Portugal to England
              2. b. Trade imbalance
              3. c. Became economically dependent on England
    6. VI. Multiracial Societies
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Relation of different ethnic groups
          1. a. Europeans, Indians, slaves
            1. 1. All came for different reasons
            2. 2. Hierarchy based on
              1. i. master vs. servant
              2. ii. Christian vs. pagan
      2. B. The Society of Castas
        1. 1. Miscegenation
          1. a. Few European women available
          2. b. Sexual exploitation of women or marriage = mestizos
          3. c. Mestizos
            1. 1. Intermediary – higher than Indians, but not as respected as Spanish
            2. 2. Sociedad de castas
              1. a. Occupation important, but race at birth more instrumental
              2. b. Castas – people of mixed origin
                1. 1. Mulattoes – half African/half European
                2. 2. Mestizos – half Spanish/half Indian
              3. c. With marriage, hard to tell – someone lower could pass off as someone higher
            3. 3. Class privileges
              1. a. Peninsulares – whites born in Spain
              2. b. Creoles – whites born in New World
                1. 1. Dominated local economies
                2. 2. Sensitive to any suggestion of inferiority
                3. 3. Would be the leaders of future protest movements
                4. 4. Patriarchal society
                  1. a. Father has control of children to 25
                  2. b. Women – motherhood and household
                  3. c. Widow could assume direction of family
                  4. d. Lower-class could be involved in commerce
                  5. e. Marriages often arranged, came with dowry
                  6. f. Women full rights of inheritance
                  7. g. After a certain age, unmarried upper class women moved to convents
    7. VII. The 18th Century Reforms
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Changing ideas
          1. a. Amigos del pais – friends of the country – clubs that discussed reforms
            1. i. Goal – economic benefits
          2. b. Brief period of growth followed by decline
            1. i. expansion of European population
            2. ii. increased demand for American products
      2. B. The Shifting Balance of Politics and Trade
        1. 1. Competition with Europe
          1. a. Problems in Spain
            1. i. foreign wars
            2. ii. increasing debt
            3. iii. declining population
            4. iv. internal revolts
          2. b. Pressure from France, England, Dutch
            1. i. Buccaneers raided Caribbean ports
            2. ii. General process of colonization in Americas
        2. 2. Failure of Spanish mercantile and political system
          1. a. Annual fleets became irregular
          2. b. Silver payments became fewer
          3. c. Goods shipped to colonies not Spanish
          4. d. Colonies became self-sufficient
            1. i. Mfg needed products
            2. ii. Local gov’ts became more powerful
          5. e. Graft/corruption common
        3. 3. Legal division of Spanish properties
          1. a. Spanish king dies without heir – War of the Spanish Succession
          2. b. Treaty of Utrecht – 1713 – French merchants gain more control
            1. i. Bourbon (French) king, but can’t unite France/Spain
      3. C. The Bourbon Reforms
        1. 1. Causes of reform
          1. a. Age of enlightened despotism
          2. b. Strong central government
          3. c. economic nationalism
          4. d. Kicked out anyone who didn’t want to change – Jesuits tied to Rome
          5. e. Improvements
            1. i. French bureaucratic models
            2. ii. Tightened system of taxation
            3. iii. New navy
            4. iv. Fleet system abolished, new ports opened
            5. v. Try to get rid of graft
            6. vi. New methods of tax collection
        2. 2. Reform in the West Indies
        3. 3. Reforms in America
          1. a. Defense and military reforms
          2. b. Missions and outposts in frontier areas – California
          3. c. Resisted foreign competitors militarily
        4. 4. Changing trading regulations
          1. a. State monopolies established over tobacco, gunpowder
          2. b. Influx of cheap Spanish/English goods
            1. i. Conflict over free trade vs. locally made/more expensive goods
        5. 5. Impact of changes
          1. a. Spain - Revived Spanish Empire
          2. b. America – social tension
            1. i. removal of Creoles from gov’t
            2. ii. creation of Creole militia
            3. iii. dissatisfaction among elite
      4. D. Pombal and Brazil
        1. 1. Pombal’s reforms
          1. a. Fiscal reforms to eliminate – contraband, gold smuggling, tax evasion
          2. b. Creation of monopoly companies
              i. Sent to develop Amazon region
          3. c. Encouraged whites to marry Indians – don’t need to be military controlled
        2. 2. Impact of Pombal’s reforms
          1. a. Reduced Portugal’s trade imbalance
          2. b. Demand for Brazilian products low
          3. c. Hard to compete in European market
          4. d. Set stage for independence at end of 18th century
      5. E. Reforms, Reactions and Revolts
        1. 1. 18th century American boom
          1. a. Population increase
            1. i. lower mortality
            2. ii. increasing fertility
            3. iii. increasing immigration
            4. iv. rising slave trade
        2. 2. Changes in power
          1. a. Greater control from Spain/Portugal annoyed old power elite
          2. b. Urban uprisings, tax revolts, Indian uprisings
        3. 3. Tupac – not the rapper
          1. a. Tupac Amaru – mestizo in Peru
          2. b. Led 70,000 Indians, Mestizos and Creoles – eventually executed
        4. 4. What led to complaints and frustration
          1. a. Activism by mother country government
          2. b. Dissatisfaction of American colonies
          3. c. But…sharp ethnic divisions made it difficult to unify locals
    8. VIII. Global Connections
      1. A. Colonial Empires
        1. 1. Iberian nations transferred their culture, gov’t – recreated society
      2. B. Diverse societies
        1. 1. Some indigenous cultures survived – Peru, Mexico
        2. 2. Culture dependent on demographic breakdown – more slaves, Europeans, or Natives
        3. 3. Racial hierarchies
      3. C. Relation to Russian Empires
        1. 1. Development of coerced labor
        2. 2. Impact of gunpowder
        3. 3. Western forms imposed on populations, with resistance – Russia more selective
      4. D. Demand for Latin American products
        1. 1. World economic position as dependant and based on coerced labor
    Chapter 19 Early Latin America57 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 20 - Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

    Chapter 20
    Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua – symbol of slavery
        1. 1. Muslim trader > African slavery > African slave trade > Missionary
      2. B. Impact of outsiders on Africa
        1. 1. Islam first, then African developed at own pace, West had big impact
      3. C. Influence of Europe
        1. 1. Path of Africa becomes linked to European world economy
        2. 2. Diaspora – mass exodus of people leaving homeland
        3. 3. Slave trade dominated interactions
        4. 4. Not all of Africa affected to the same degree
      4. D. Effects of global interactions
        1. 1. Forced movement of Africans improved Western economies
        2. 2. Transfer of African culture > adapted to create new culture
        3. 3. Most of African still remained politically independent
      5. E. Trends
        1. 1. Islam increased position in East
        2. 2. Christianity stayed in Ethiopia
        3. 3. Growth of African kingdoms
    2. II. The Atlantic Slave Trade
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Portuguese voyagers
          1. 1. Set up forts – fairly low scale – not huge impact initially
        2. 2. Traders
          1. 1. Ivory, pepper, animal skins gold for slaves initially
          2. 2. Mulattos and Portuguese gradually spread inland
          3. 3. Commerce leads to political, social, religious relations
            1. 1. Impressed by power of many interior kingdoms – Benin
            2. 2. Attempts at Christian conversion
              1. a. Kongo most successful – king and kingdom converted
              2. b. Ambassadors/exchange of ideas
              3. c. Oddly, relationship ends when Kongo people get enslaved
          4. 4. First contact – preconceptions, appreciation, curiosity
            1. 1. Portuguese looked strange, some tribes started portraying them artistically
          5. 5. Portuguese exploration
            1. 1. Set up Portuguese settlements on the West coast
            2. 2. Goal primarily commercial/military, but also missionary
          6. 6. Patterns of contact – shared ideas
            1. 1. fortified trading stations
            2. 2. combination of force and diplomacy
            3. 3. alliances with local rulers
            4. 4. predominance of commercial relations - $ uniting factor – that’s odd
          7. 7. History of African slave trade
            1. 1. Slavery existed in Rome, replaced by serfdom in Middle Ages
            2. 2. Brought to Mediterranean intermittently by Iberian peninsula
            3. 3. After 1441, became common trading item
              1. a. trade more effective than raids
          8. 8. Added impetus
            1. 1. sugar plantations in Atlantic islands off Africa creates need
            2. 2. Later adapted to Americas
      2. B. Trend Toward Expansion
        1. 1. Numbers of slave
          1. a. 1450-1850 – 12 million slaves shipped
          2. b. Mortality rate 10-20% on ships
            1. a. Millions more die in capture process/resulting wars
          3. c. Largest period in 18th century – 7 million
        2. 2. Reason for high volume
          1. a. Mortality rates high
          2. b. Fertility low
          3. c. Reproduction level higher in S. USA
            1. a. Different labor – not sugar plantations, mining
            2. b. Reproduction encouraged
            3. c. Milder climate
            4. d. More concentration - 80-90% of pop in L. America, 25% in Brit America
          4. 3. Reasons for shifts in volume
            1. a. Sugar made Caribbean major terminal
          5. 4. Regions of concentration
            1. a. Brazil/Caribbean major destinations
            2. b. 3 million slaves also as part of Red Sea, Muslim trade, trans-Sahara
      3. C. Demographic Patterns
        1. 1. Types of captives
          1. a. Trans-Saharan focused on women
          2. b. Atlantic slave trade focused on men
            1. a. Heavy labor
            2. b. High mortality of children – didn’t want
            3. c. W/ capture – African tribes liked to keep women/children for self
        2. 2. Demographic effects
          1. a. Population cut by 50%
          2. b. Becomes skewed toward more women
          3. c. New crops – maize/manioc allowed numbers to recover
      4. D. Organization of the Trade
        1. 1. Relation to European power
          1. a. As Dutch/British emerge as power in Europe – want control of slave trade
            1. 1. British – Royal African Company
          2. b. Each has agents and forts
        2. 2. Merchant towns
          1. a. Mortality rates quite high – tropical diseases - malaria
        3. 3. Connections between Europeans and African traders
          1. a. Indies piece – basis of currency = adult male, everything related to that
          2. b. Brought to coast
            1. 1. African/mulatto agents purchased captives interior
            2. 2. Some taxed movement of slaves
            3. 3. Some states tried to establish monopolies
          3. c. Collaboration – European or African domination
        4. 4. Profitability of slave trade
          1. a. Yes, profitable
            1. a. Up to 300% for slaving voyage
          2. b. But…still dangerous, with risks
            1. a. On average 5-10% growth, better than other ventures
            2. b. Didn’t contribute a ton to $ for Industrial Revolution
          3. c. However…a huge part of triangular trade
            1. a. Led to increased production
            2. b. Economies needed cog in the cycle
            3. c. Huge part of increasingly integrated world economy
    3. III. African Societies, Slavery and the Slave Trade
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. African forms of servitude
          1. a. Variety of forms of servitude from peasant status to chattel (property) slavery
          2. b. Method of increasing wealth – land owned by state
          3. c. Variety of uses – servants, concubines, soldiers, administrators, field workers
          4. d. Some slaves part of lineage system
          5. e. Some exploited
          6. f. Denied choice about lives/actions
          7. g. Enslavement of women central feature
            1. a. Used to extend lineage
            2. b. Led to polygamy/harems
          8. h. Sudanic states - Muslim
            1. a. Slavery legal for nonbelievers, illegal for Muslims
              1. 1. But…still some Muslims were enslaved
          9. i. Rarely enslaved own people, usually neighboring tribes
            1. a. Expanding states major suppliers
        2. 2. Relation between preexisting slavery and new slave trade
          1. a. Pre-existing condition could be readily tapped by Europeans
      2. B. Slaving and African Politics
        1. 1. Intensified enslavement and altered nature of slavery
        2. 2. Many competing city-states
          1. a. Military importance
          2. b. Some historians argue that slavery led to more wars
        3. 3. Results
          1. a. Europe blocked coastal states from gaining to much political/economic power
          2. b. Interior kingdoms gained more power – turned to cycle of guns for slaves
      3. C. Asante and Dahomey
        1. 1. Asante on Gold Coast – example of empire that benefited from slave trade
          1. a. Controlled gold and slave trade
          2. b. Osei Tutu – 1717 – asantehene – supreme religious/civil ruler
        2. 2. Benin – controlled slavery, but never let dominate
        3. 3. Dahomey – controlled slavery by royal court – 1.8 million slaves
        4. 4. Creativity emerges with centralized states
          1. a. Leaders challenged by local officials
          2. b. Art flourished – oftentimes patronized by royal courts
            1. 1. Some art purchased by nobles
      4. D. East Africa and the Sudan
        1. 1. Swahili Coast – East Coast
          1. a. Commercial centers come under control of Ottomans and Portuguese
        2. 2. Slave trade existed
          1. a. Most to harems of Arabia
          2. b. Some to Portuguese plantations
        3. 3. Some island plantations emerged off coast of Africa
        4. 4. Interior area not as affected
        5. 5. Islamization enters violent phase in 18th century
          1. a. Reform movement
          2. b. Effects
            1. 1. New political units
            2. 2. New Islam eliminated pagan practices
            3. 3. Literacy spread
    4. IV. White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Southern Africa barely affected
        2. 2. Politically chiefdoms
          1. a. Process of expansion as relatives spread
        3. 3. Dutch East India Company creates plantations in the South – Cape Colony
          1. a. As Dutch farmers, Boers/Afrikaners, pushed further inland – conflict
          2. b. In great trek – Boers moved far north to be free of Dutch rule
      2. B. The Mfecane and the Zulu Rise to Power
        1. 1. Shaka Zulu – iron discipline + new tactics takes over surrounding areas
          1. a. Erratic, cruel behavior brought region under control – created enemies
        2. 2. Mfecane – wars of crushing and wandering
          1. a. Forced migrations and campaigns led to conflicts
        3. 3. Pattern of conflict in the South
          1. a. competition between settlers and Africans for land
          2. b. expanding influence of European government control
          3. c. desire of Europeans to use Africans as laborers
    5. V. The African Diaspora
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Trade
          1. a. Imports: European firearms, Indian textiles, Indonesian cowrie shells, American tobacco
          2. b. Exports: ivory, gold, slaves
            1. 1. Price of these items steadily grew – benefited traders
      2. B. Slave Lives
        1. 1. Separation from friends/family
        2. 2. Forced march to coastal pens
        3. 3. Middle Passage – traumatic – up to 20% mortality
          1. a. Poor hygiene
          2. b. Dysentery
          3. c. Disease
          4. d. Bad treatment
          5. e. Reaction – suicide/mutiny
        4. 4. Retained languages, beliefs, traditions, memories
      3. C. Africans in the Americas
        1. 1. Large plantations – sugar, rice, cotton, tobacco
        2. 2. Mining
        3. 3. Replaced indigenous people/indentured servitude
        4. 4. Most agricultural, but some artisans, street vendors, household servants
      4. D. American Slave Societies
        1. 1. Saltwater slaves – African-born
        2. 2. Creole slaves – American-born
          1. a. Mulattos
          2. b. Sexual exploitation
          3. c. Miscegenation
        3. 3. Hierarchy based on skin color – race
          1. a. Free whites down to darkest slaves
          2. b. Creoles/mulattoes given more freedom
        4. 4. Variety of slavery in Americas
          1. a. Peru – blacks outnumber
          2. b. Caribbean – vastly outnumbered
          3. c. Brazil – large population
            1. 1. More diverse
            2. 2. tradition of manumission
            3. 3. More miscegenation
          4. d. USA South – depended more on reproduction less on imports
            1. 1. less dependent on Africa
            2. 2. reduced degree of African cultural reinforcement
      5. E. The People and Gods in Exile
        1. 1. Family problems
          1. a. Males outnumber females – maybe 3 to 1
          2. b. Families sold away at whim
          3. c. Marriages not legally/religiously sanctioned
        2. 2. Afro-American roots – African culture + new reality
        3. 3. Religion
          1. a. Converted to Catholicism in Spain/Portugal
          2. b. But…maintained old
            1. 1. obeah - English islands – maintain African practices
          3. c. Adaptation of old
            1. 1. Don’t have all the priestly class immigrate
            2. 2. Held both beliefs
          4. d. Harder for Muslim Africans to maintain
        4. 4. Resistance and Rebellion
          1. a. Running away
            1. 1. Some create runaway kingdoms
          2. b. Direct confrontation
            1. 1. Most famous – Suriname – former Dutch plantation colony
          3. c. Feigned laziness
      6. F. The End of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery
        1. 1. Result of economic, political and religious changes
        2. 2. Based on factors beyond Africans control
          1. a. Enlightenment, age of revolution, Christian revivalism, Industrial Revolution
        3. 3. Africans begin to trade other items – peanuts, cotton, palm oil
        4. 4. Enlightenment – seen as backward and immoral – slave trade symbolized cruelty
        5. 5. England led change – William Wilberforce – abolitionist
          1. a. Pressured other countries
          2. b. 1888 finally abolished in Brazil
    6. VI. Global Connections
      1. A. Africa and the African Diaspora in World Context
        1. 1. Africa placed at a disadvantage in world markets
        2. 2. Movement of millions of people
        3. 3. Created vibrant new cultural forms
        4. 4. Altered political, economic structures
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 21 - The Muslim Empires

    Chapter 21
    The Muslim Empires

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Muslim world essentially destroyed by those pesky Mongols
      2. B. But then…out of nowhere…came the return of the Muslims
        1. 1. Ottoman Empire – the biggest
        2. 2. Safavid Empire – Afghanistan and Iran
        3. 3. Mughal – the northern part of India
      3. C. These “gunpowder empires” could be compared with Russia and the West
        1. 1. In fact…they probably will be on a test not far, far away
          1. a. All militarily important
          2. b. Interacted far less with west than Russia
          3. c. Maintained control over how much they wanted to deal w/ West
    2. II. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Turkic-speaking peoples
          1. a. Some fleeing Mongols, some looking for booty
          2. b. Osman leads one of these peoples – the Ottomans
        2. 2. Ottomans attack Byzantine Empire
          1. a. Finally Mehmed II defeats Constantinople
          2. b. Big bad guns too much for big bad walls
        3. 3. Extending the Ottoman Empire
          1. a. Scary naval power in Mediterranean
          2. b. Spread empire down to Egypt and across N. Africa
            1. 1. Looks kind of like what the Roman Empire looked like, w/out Europe
          3. c. Threatened Vienna, but didn’t take
          4. d. But…Europe afraid of Ottomans for centuries…always in back of mind
            1. 1. Near the hypothalamus area
      2. B. A State Geared to Warfare
        1. 1. Economy and social class based on warfare
          1. a. Warrior class goes to top…surprise…guess who got to make the rules
          2. b. Competed for power with religious leaders and administrators
        2. 2. Army of Janissaries
          1. a. aka “Really Good Christian Slave Soldiers that Fight For Us”
            1. 1. Some given by parents, some taken forcibly
            2. 2. Schooled and could become bureaucrats
            3. 3. Hey…this is another type of coerced labor…interesting
          2. b. Became more powerful than cavalry – threatened aristocracy
            1. 1. What’s scarier…Mr. Ed the Horse or a canon and gun?
      3. C. The Sultans and Their Court
        1. 1. Sultans control those beneath and economy
          1. a. Manipulated factions – aristocracy, religious, administrators
          2. b. Commerce given to Christians/Jews – “people of the book”
        2. 2. Sultans grow distant from the masses
          1. a. This will surprise you, but…sultans got richer
          2. b. Spent all their days blowing money on wives, rituals and palaces
          3. c. Viziers ended up taking control – think Prime Minister
        3. 3. Problems with succession
          1. a. Like the rest of the Muslim world (similarity), succession confusing
          2. b. When you have a harem, you have many sons
            1. 1. You die…they fight each other
            2. 2. Losing sons sometimes fled to enemy nations to stage revolt
      4. D. Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture
        1. 1. Changing Constantinople
          1. a. After destroyed/sacked – rebuilt
          2. b. Hagia Sophia converted from cathedral to mosque
          3. c. Aqueducts built, markets reopened, city’s walls repaired
        2. 2. Future sultans try to improve mosques, infrastructure
          1. a. Architecture blends best of Muslim/Byzantine world
            1. a. Mansions, rest houses, schools, hospitals, gardens
          2. b. Fun and exciting markets
          3. c. Coffeehouses became centers of socialization, literary sharing and ingesting of caffeinated beverages
        3. 3. Regulation of merchants and artisans
          1. a. Government inspectors monitored quality of goods/artisans
          2. b. Artisans joined together in guilds – that sounds just like Europe
        4. 4. Language shift to Turkish
          1. a. Ummm…they shifted language to Turkish – literature and official business
      5. E. The Problem of Ottoman Decline
        1. 1. Different perspectives of Ottoman Empire
          1. a. Some talk about how bad decline was
          2. b. Eventually became “sick man” of Europe
            1. 2. Long decline means actually quite strong
              1. a. How many other empires have are around for 600 years
                1. 1. US has been an empire for about 61 years…but we’ve been declining for 28 months
              2. b. By 17th century, they started retreat from Russia, Europe, Arab lands
              3. c. Too large to be maintained – gave regional autonomy
            2. 3. Breakdown of regional administration
              1. a. Officials became corrupt
                1. 1. Locals leaders hold back money from incompetent nincompoops
                2. 2. Some rebellions at the local level
            3. 4. Problems of imperial administration
              1. a. Future leaders not groomed, but hidden away for protection
                1. 1. Monarchs kept alive, but fairly unprepared/naïve
              2. b. Leaders no longer fierce military leaders, but pampered
              3. c. Power of military started to fade
      6. F. Military Reverses and the Ottoman Retreat
        1. 1. Ottomans fall further behind Europeans
          1. a. Reliance on super huge cannons
          2. b. Janissaries don’t want military change that threatens their position
            1. 1. Sounds a bit like the samurai…oohh…another connection
          3. 2. Muslim sea power ends in 16th century
            1. a. Battle of Lepanto – Spanish/Venetians wipe them out
            2. b. Fleet rebuilt, but damage done
              1. 1. Portuguese have head start on Africa
              2. 2. Spanish/Venetians control Eastern Mediterranean
            3. 3. Empire changes around world affect Ottoman finances
              1. a. Christian European rivals get rich off of new goods
              2. b. Tax collectors/merchants no longer making money
                1. 1. No need to go through Ottoman Empire
              3. c. Tons of bullion (aka silver) enters market
                1. 1. Too much bullion equals high inflation
            4. 4. Refusal to accept European ideas dooms empire
              1. a. Falling behind in scientific, technological, commercial transformations
              2. b. Also…in trade and warfare
                1. 1. Arab world believed Europe has nothing to offer
                  1. a. Ohhh…poor naïve little fellas
                2. 2. Conservative religious groups – nothing new
                  1. a. Want to protect position – remember Janissaries
    3. III. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. History of Shi’a/Sunni Conflict
          1. a. Like Ottomans
            1. 1. Rose from Turkic nomadic struggles
            2. 2. Also represent militant Islam
          2. b. However…they are Shi’a – Ali and Muhammad’s ancestors should rule
          3. c. Battle between Safavid Shi’a and Ottoman Sunni still lasts today
            1. 2. Origins of empire
              1. a. Started with Sufi mystic Sail al-Din wanted to purify/reform Islam
                1. 1. This led to a lot of enemies
              2. b. Eventually Isma’il took Tabriz and became emperor
            2. 3. Battle of Chaldiran
              1. a. N. West Persia – Shi’a vs. Sunni – battle for everything
                1. 1. This would be like if the Catholics and Protestants had one big battle to decide who will rule all of Europe
              2. b. Isma’il’s cavalry destroyed by Ottoman firepower
            3. 4. Significance of Chaldiran
              1. a. Ottoman’s couldn’t maintain empire
              2. b. Safavid empire can’t move further west
              3. c. Spread of Shi’a Islam doesn’t go further west
                1. 1. Shi’a mostly Iran and part of Southern Iraq
                  1. a. Yes…there are problems today because of that
      2. B. Politics and War Under the Safavid Shahs
        1. 1. Years of turmoil
          1. a. Isma’il depressed due to loss, started years of turmoil
          2. b. Relative piece/height of empire – 1587-1629
        2. 2. Attempts to bring Turkish chiefs under control
          1. a. Given warrior nobility status – like Ottomans
            1. 1. They would threaten Shah for power
          2. b. Turkic nobles balanced by appointed Persians
          3. c. Plus…army of slave boys brought in to be administrators
            1. 1. Yep…kind of like Janissaries
              1. a. And yep…they were part of power struggle
        3. 3. Using outsiders as advisors and warriors
          1. a. These “slave regiments controlled firearms
          2. b. Not reluctant to use technological info from Europeans
            1. 1. Learned about casting of cannons and slave infantry from England
            2. 2. Armed 40,000 troops…attempt to secure domain
      3. C. State and Religion
        1. 1. Relation to Persia
          1. a. Persian replaces Turkish as spoken language
          2. b. Opulent palaces
          3. c. Grand titles – padishah – king of kings
          4. d. claimed descent from Shi’a imams – successors of Ali
        2. 2. Full theocracy
          1. a. Shi’a becomes dominant sect taught
          2. b. Mullahs – religious/prayer leaders supervised by state
            1. 1. Taught must curse first three caliphs
            2. 2. Teaching in mosque schools regulated by government
            3. 3. Forced conversions to Shi’ism
              1. a. Iranian identity – Shi’ism
              2. b. Forced Jews, Sunnis, Sufi, Christians, Zoraster
              3. c. Shi’a Religious festivals
                1. 1. Public flagellation
                2. 2. Passion plays
                3. 3. Pilgrimages to shrine – Karbala in Iraq
      4. D. Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor
        1. 1. Restoring mosques and improving infrastructure
          1. a. 17th century - Abbas I safe roads with rest stops
          2. b. Merchants trade with China/India and Europeans
          3. c. Ishafan mosques proved glory
            1. 1. geometric shapes, floral patterns, verses from Qur’an
            2. 2. Oasis of arches, greenery, colorful designs contrasted land
      5. E. Society and Gender Roles
        1. 1. Similar social issues between Ottomans and Safavids
          1. a. Both led by warrior aristocracy
          2. b. Retreated to estates – put huge financial drain on peasants
          3. c. Peasants hurt by foreign invasions, civil strife, breakdown of services
        2. 2. Role of handicraft
          1. a. Both encouraged handicraft/trade
          2. b. Both encouraged workshops for miniature paintings, rugs
          3. c. Both paid engineers well
          4. d. Both encouraged trade
            1. 1. Ottomans had advantage – Jews/Christians already trading Europe
        3. 3. Role of women – negative
          1. a. Women subordinated to fathers/husbands – surprise/surprise
          2. b. Women kept secluded/veiled – always more strict in cities
        4. 4. Role of women – positive
          1. a. Some women fought restrictions
            1. 1. Colorful robes, refused to be veiled
            2. b. Wives/concubines influenced rulers

            3. c. Protected inheritance laws – divorce possible
      6. 5. Overall status of women
        1. a. Some lived better than India/China
        2. b.Most lived llife with limited contact and had to stay in house
    4. F. The Rapid Demise of the Safavid Empire
      1. 1. Causes of Decline
        1. a. Leaders kept in seclusion – become inept
        2. b. Eventually beat by nomads in 1722
        3. c. Become battleground for nomads/neighbors wanting to take over
  • IV. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Founding of the Mughal Empire
        1. a. Babur – said he was related to Mongols, but mostly Turkish
        2. b. Lost his kingdom in central Asia – Afghanistan
        3. c. Pushed around in Afghanistan – at 16
      2. 2. Babur takes over Northern India
        1. a. Can’t reclaim homeland, settles for ugly green subcontinent
        2. b. Beat Indians rather easily – 12,000 vs. 100,000 Lodi
          1. 1. Superior firepower
          2. 2. Scared the elephants, trampled Indians
          3. 3. Lodi’s men hated him, had no problem changing sides
        3. c. Babur pretty impressive guy
          1. 1. Wrote history
          2. 2. Fine musician, landscaper – gardens for capital
          3. 3. But…didn’t administer…kept old Mongol system in place
      3. 3. After Babur’s death a fight for power
        1. a. Humayan – son inherits kingdom – 18
        2. b. Pushed out and lives with Safavids for awhile
        3. c. Returns fights, back, then dies falling down stairs while carrying books
    2. B. Akbar and the Basis for a Lasting Empire
      1. 1. Successes of Akbar
        1. a. Though only 13, pretty impressive – fought back rivals
        2. b. Long rule, about the same time as Elizabeth
      2. 2. Military conquest and social/economic changes
        1. a. Realized need to administer properly
        2. b. Brilliant, illiterate – but great memory, slept 3 hours a night
      3. 3. Long term religious plan
        1. a. Reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes
          1. 1. Encouraged intermarriage
          2. 2. Abolished head tax - jizya
          3. 3. Promoted Hindus to highest ranks
          4. 4. Muslims must respect cows
        2. b. Tried to invent new religion – Din-I-Ilahi
          1. 1. Would forever end conflict in India
      4. 4. Connection between aristocrats and monarchy
        1. a. Military made nobility, but had to be prepared to fight
        2. b. Local leaders had relative autonomy
    3. C. Social Reform and Social Change
      1. 1. Attempts to alter daily life
        1. a. Improve calendar
        2. b. Living quarters for the poor
        3. c. Regulate consumption of alcohol – son 20 cups of wine a day
      2. 2. Attempts to improve role of women
        1. a. Encouraged widow remarriage
        2. b. Discouraged child marriages
        3. c. Legally prohibited sati
          1. 1. Even though it went against warrior class
        4. d. Relief for women trapped in purdah
    4. D. Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts
      1. 1. Initial European reaction to Indian cities
        1. a. Cities of Delhi, Agra, Lahore impressive
        2. b. Armies dwarfed European armies
        3. c. but…huge poverty and soldiers aren’t trained
      2. 2. Trade with Europe
        1. a. Trade gap – no interest in European products, but huge for textiles
      3. 3. Demand for Indian textiles
        1. a. Cloth fine…wondered in Europe – daughter see through – 3 layers
        2. b. Techniques of weaving and dying – madras, muslin, pajamas
    5. E. Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era
      1. 1. Rulers start living the good life
      2. 2. Jahangir and Shah Jahan patrons of the arts
      3. 3. Mughal Architecture
    6. F. Court Politics and the Position of Elite and Ordinary Women
      1. 1. Elite women gain power in politics
      2. 2. Role of women in rest of society declined
    7. G. The Beginnings of Imperial Decline
      1. 1. Domestic problems
      2. 2. Two ambitions of Aurangzeb
      3. 3. Military conflict drains treasury
      4. 4. Attempts to rid India of Hindu influence
      5. 5. Threats from new groups
  • V. Global Connections
    1. A. Failure to utilize European technology
    2. B. Failure to match European overseas expansion
    3. C. Attempts of Muslim empires to hold their own
  • AttachmentSize
    Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires50 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 22 - Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change

    Chapter 22
    Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change

    1. I. Introduction
      1. i. Importance of Vasco de Gama
        1. 1. Returned from Indies 1499 – first to find route
        2. 2. Turning point in W. Europe – Portugal takes lead
      2. ii. Asia not nearly as excited
        1. 1. Little interest in European goods
        2. 2. Little interest in converting to Christianity
        3. 3. Too numerous to do anything about it
      3. iii. Importance of Europe actually minimal
        1. 1. Had their own domestic and regional issues to deal with
    2. II. The Asian Trading World and the Coming of the Europeans
      1. a. Introduction
        1. i. No initial interest in European goods
          1. 1. de Gama reaches Calicut, India, but no market for goods
          2. 2. Gee…we really didn’t need any cast-iron pots, coarse cloth, or coral beads…thanks for asking though
          3. 3. Forced to give up silver for merchants to sell stuff
        2. ii. Problems with Asian trade
          1. 1. Little interest for goods
          2. 2. Muslims already firmly embedded
            1. 1. Difficulty in trading
            2. 2. Resistant to conversion
        3. iii. But…little did they know…they shouldn’t understand group of smelly Europeans
      2. b. Bonds of Commerce: The Asian Sea Trading Network
        1. i. Asian trading network established for centuries
          1. 1. West – Red Sea/Persian Gulf area
            1. 1. glass, carpet, tapestry making
          2. 2. Central – India
            1. 1. cotton textiles
          3. 3. East – China
            1. 1. paper, porcelain, silk textiles
          4. 4. Africa – supplied raw materials – metals, foods, forestry
        2. ii. Raw materials
          1. 1. Long distance - usually light weight/luxury items – spices/gems
          2. 2. Short distance – rice, livestock, timber
        3. iii. Routes determined by
          1. 1. Weather – monsoon winds
          2. 2. Coastal – unsafe open seas
        4. iv. Why Europe could make progress in trade
          1. 1. No central control to overthrow
          2. 2. No military force protecting trade
            1. 1. Exchanges relatively peaceful – each side had something to offer
            2. 2. But…they weren’t prepared for those smelly Europeans…
      3. c. Trading Empire: The Portuguese Response to the Encounter at Calicut
        1. i. Can’t risk using all their bullion – silver/gold
          1. 1. Mercantilism defined by not having bullion leave country
          2. 2. Don’t want to giver power to other nations
        2. ii. Option B – take by force – now how did they do that?
          1. 1. Superior vessels
          2. 2. Element of surprise – figure that – trade had been peaceful for 1000 yr
          3. 3. Asians couldn’t unite
        3. iii. Phases of control
          1. 1. Sea patrols (aka piracy) and raids on towns
          2. 2. Capture towns and build fortresses
            1. 1. Malacca, Goa, Ormuz - 1510
            2. 2. Naval bases
            3. 3. Factories – storing of goods
        4. 3. Create monopoly
          1. 1. control price of spices
          2. 2. licensing of merchant ships – any trader has to register
      4. d. Portuguese Vulnerability and the Rise of the Dutch and English Trading Empires
        1. i. Why weren’t the Portuguese successful – only first decades
          1. 1. Even though they cut off hands, amazingly they still lost power
          2. 2. Resistance of Asian rivals
          3. 3. Lack of soldiers/ships
          4. 4. Corruption among crown officials
          5. 5. Shipping losses
            1. 1. Overloading
            2. 2. Poor design
        2. ii. Dutch take over
          1. 1. Take Malacca in early 1600s
          2. 2. Set up port at Batavia – closer to source of spice islands – Indonesia
          3. 3. Why Dutch succeeded?
            1. 1. Also used fortified towns, factories, warships, monopoly
            2. 2. But…more numerous/better armed ships
            3. 3. Took control over all phases of production – harvesting
          4. 4. System evolved – eventually made money different ways
            1. 1. Regulated trade of other nations
            2. 2. Buying Asian products and selling to other traders
            3. 3. This is a much more peaceful, happy-joy-joy way of trading
      5. e. Going Ashore: European Tribute Systems in Asia
        1. i. Not the same military advantage on the interior
          1. 1. Don’t have numbers or superior strategy
          2. 2. Forced to kowtow to leaders
        2. ii. Some go more internally though
          1. 1. Dutch take over Java to control harvesting of raw materials – coffee/spices
          2. 2. Spanish take over Philippines
            1. 1. Northern part divided – one at a time
            2. 2. Southern part hard to take
        3. iii. Set up tribute system – like in the Americas
          1. 1. You can live how you want, but leaders must meet tribute quotas
          2. 2. Tribute paid by crops planted/harvested
      6. f. Spreading the Faith: The Missionary Enterprise in South and Southeast Asia
        1. i. Portuguese/Spanish much more excited about missionary work than Brits/Dutch
        2. ii. But…pretty hard to convert…curses…
          1. 1. Muslim already exists – 1000 years
          2. 2. Hindus have ideas/rituals – 2000 years
        3. iii. Now which group of Indians could Christians convert
          1. 1. Untouchables…but then once you interact with them, few options
          2. 2. Upper class – Robert di Nobili – has a great idea
            1. 1. Adopt Hindu practices and then convert – upper caste doesn’t
            2. 2. So…actually di Nobili was converted – not exactly the plan
        4. iv. Successful in Philippines – no world religion – animistic before
          1. 1. Leaders first, then peasants
          2. 2. Friars led religious congregation and acted as regional leaders
          3. 3. New brand of Christianity
            1. 1. Not taught in vernacular – many had no idea what they were agreeing to
            2. 2. Forced conversions
            3. 3. Clung to traditional ways – remember syncretism?
              1. i. Public bathing continued
              2. ii. Drinking continued
              3. iii. Talked to the dead
          4. 4. So…if this was the best, really not the good
            1. 1. Asia able to maintain identity
    3. III. Ming China: A Global Mission Refused
      1. a. Introduction
        1. i. Zhu Yuanzhang – military peasant commander who rebelled against Mongols
          1. 1. Declared Hongwu emperor in 1368
        2. ii. 30 year reign to ride China of barbarian Mongols
          1. 1. Got rid of dress, Mongol names dropped
          2. 2. Names removed from buildings/records
          3. 3. Mongol palaces/administrative buildings destroyed
      2. b. Another Scholar-Gentry Revival
        1. i. At first hesitant – peasant wary of scholar gentry, but needed
        2. ii. Civil Service Exam becomes ven more critical in determining future
          1. 1. 2 out of 3 years test given
          2. 2. Exams given in large compounds
            1. 1. Slept, ate, answered questions in cubicle
          3. 3. Competitive – thousands of positions for hundreds of spots – think you have to get a 2350 on your SATs to go to college
          4. 4. Most talented could run provincial then maybe imperial posts
            1. 1. Most respected people in land – next to royal family
      3. c. Reform: Hongwu’s Efforts to Root Out Abuses in Court Politics
        1. i. Tried to keep administrators in line
          1. 1. Got rid of chief minister position – took his powers
          2. 2. Publicly beat naughty administrators – como ce dice “caning”
        2. ii. Tried to get rid of conspiracy
          1. 1. All court wives must be relatively poor – gets rid of party politics
          2. 2. Exiled threats to the provinces – can’t stay in Forbidden City
        3. iii. Started censorship – thought control
        4. iv. Many of these plans were ignored by future leaders
      4. d. A Return to Scholar-Gentry Social Dominance
        1. i. Hongwu tried to help out the poor
          1. 1. public works, gave unoccupied lands to hard-working peasants
          2. 2. Supplemental income through cloth production/handicrafts
        2. ii. But…landlords got richer
          1. 1. Gambled, lent money and didn’t have to pay taxes
          2. 2. Bought more land from peasants who couldn’t pay debts
          3. 3. Gentry justified the income gap because they romanticized worked hard
        3. iii. Neo-Confucian thinking
          1. 1. Youths to elders, women to men
          2. 2. Some wanted draconian methods to keep people in line
            1. 1. For example, teacher cut off head of student that disagreed
              1. i. Note: This practice is currently illegal in 34 states, including California
          3. 3. Women kept inferior
            1. 1. Thousands came to the court hoping to be noticed – maybe a concubine
            2. 2. How can they get respect/independence
              1. i. Have male children – which is hard due to the XX chromosome issue
              2. ii. Become a mother-in-law and then treat daughter-in-law like garbage
              3. iii. Become courtesan – talented young lady who entertained men – step above prostitution
      5. e. An Age of Growth: Agriculture, Population, Commerce and the Arts
        1. i. Population increased due to improved diet
          1. 1. Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts – that’s why they have peanuts on the table in Chinese restaurants
            1. 1. Less susceptible to droughts
          2. 2. Could be grown on hilly, marginal land
        2. ii. Controlled terms of trade
          1. 1. Porcelain, silk textiles, tea, ceramics, lacquerware in demand
            1. 1. Tons of American silver ended up in China
          2. 2. Europeans could do trade in Macao and Canton
            1. 1. Merchants obviously benefited
            2. 2. But…gov’t got taxes and officials got bribes/favors
        3. iii. Money spent on the arts – patrons
          1. 1. Court, city, country life as focus – landscapes still important
          2. 2. Literature – novels start being created
      6. f. An Age of Expansion: The Zhenghe Expeditions
        1. i. Zhenghe – remember him – sent off on expeditions – 1405-1423 – why?
          1. 1. desire to explore other lands
          2. 2. proclaim glory of the Ming Empire – aka “show off”
          3. 3. Went to Southeast Asia and east coast Africa
        2. ii. A bit more impressive than Columbus and Vasco de Gama
          1. 1. 62 ships vs. 3 ships
          2. 2. 28,000 sailors vs. 150 sailors
          3. 3. 400 foot long ships vs. 60 foot long ships
      7. g. Chinese Retreat and the Arrival of the Europeans
        1. i. China becomes isolated, pulls back exploration
          1. 1. Quality of ships diminishes
          2. 2. Take off sails – can’t go as far
      8. h. Ming Decline and the Chinese Predicament
        1. a. Chinese dynasty fails…why?...same as always
          1. a. incompetent rulers in throne
          2. b. rampant corruption of officials
          3. c. growing isolation of weak rulers
          4. d. eunuchs start to dominate court politics
        2. b. Other reasons
          1. a. Public works start falling apart
          2. b. Peasants suffering
            1. i. sell kids to slavery
            2. ii. Some start eating each other (Note: Things have to be pretty bad for you to see your offspring as potential protein)
            3. iii. Turned to flight, banditry (aka stealing) or rebellion
          3. c. Same as always
            1. a. Internal disorder leaves China open to foreign invasion
          4. d. 1644 – toppled by rebels from within – last emperor hangs self
    4. IV. Fending Off the West: Japan’s Reunification and the First Challenge
      1. a. Introduction
        1. i. Daimyo stalemate – huge warring period for centuries
        2. ii. Nobunaga able to beat other daimyos
          1. 1. Utilizes gunpowder
          2. 2. Surprise attack
          3. 3. Strongest general Toyotomi Hideyoshi takes over
            1. 1. But he focuses on taking over Korea – dies in 1598
            2. 2. Warfare resumes after his death
        3. iii. And then enters…Tokugawa Ieyasu
          1. 1. Focuses on internal conquest
          2. 2. Started centuries of Tokugawa shogunate
            1. 1. Puts end to civil wars
            2. 2. Moves capital to Edo (aka Tokyo)
            3. 3. Daimyos pledged allegiance to shogun
      2. b. Dealing with the European Challenge
        1. i. Initial contacts
          1. 1. European traders accidentally show up on shores
          2. 2. Trade other Asian products
          3. 3. Important products
            1. 1. firearms, printing press, clocks
              1. i. Revolutionized Japanese warfare
          4. 4. Encouraged Japan to start trading overseas
        2. ii. Christian missionaries
          1. 1. Initially, seen as a great power contrast to important Buddhists
            1. 1. Shoguns actually encouraged their growth
            2. 2. Jesuits believed they were making great progress
              1. i. Nobunaga actually starts dressing Western
          2. 2. All changes when Nobunaga dies
            1. 1. Hideyoshi doesn’t really care/kind of lukewarm, but then
            2. 2. Buddhists not as powerful
            3. 3. Concern that Christian converts don’t obey orders – conflicts
            4. 4. Worried that Europeans might follow with military expeditions
      3. c. Japan’s Self-Imposed Isolation
        1. i. Why?
          1. 1. Fears of true European intentions?
            1. 1. Totally unfounded…would Europeans ever try to conquer and Asian land for their own benefit?
        2. ii. How?
          1. 1. 1580s – ordered missionaries off island
          2. 2. 1590s – started persecuting missionaries/converts
          3. 3. 1614 – banned the faith
            1. 1. kicked off island or hunted down and killed
            2. 2. rebellions persisted, but...
              1. i. Christianity becomes underground faith
        3. iii. Next step – banning foreign influence
          1. 1. Traders confined to few cities – Nagasaki Bay – Dutch - Deshima
          2. 2. Ships forbidden to trade/sail overseas
          3. 3. Western books banned
          4. 4. Foreigners could travel/live in only a few areas
        4. iv. School of National learning supported
          1. 1. Japan’s unique history
          2. 2. Indigenous culture more important than anything else
          3. 3. Members of elite followed European achievements
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. a. Affect of Europe on Asia
        1. i. Most Asians not affected
        2. ii. Sure…Europeans
          1. 1. Set up some bases – new more powerful, wealth port cities
          2. 2. Made some new trade routes
          3. 3. Muslim trade centers started to fall in value
          4. 4. Introduced sea warfare
        3. iii. But…realized best way to handle Asia was to adapt existing system
        4. iv. Few new exchanges, nothing catastrophic
          1. 1. They’d been trading for years
          2. 2. But…
            1. 1. New food from Americas go to Asia
            2. 2. Silver goes to Asia from Americas
            3. 3. Europeans get new strains of malaria and dysentery
          3. 3. Limited interest in goods
            1. 1. Seen more as novelties…oo
            2. h..what a cute little clock
      2. b. Different methods of reacting – hey…this is pretty important
        1. i. Touched most of Asia only peripherally – on the borders
          1. 1. Empires just too strong, too populated
          2. 2. Culture too established
        2. ii. East Asia
          1. 1. China and Japan just weren’t going to interact with Europeans
            1. 1. Missionaries contained
            2. 2. Limited trading contacts
            3. 3. China stopped trading and allowed Europe to take over
        3. iii. Because of isolation…failed to keep up with Europeans
          1. 1. And that…my friends…is how Europe finally…after 4000 years surpassed Asia technologically…only in the last 50 years has the balance started to go the other direction…this was a fateful time…a critical time…an important time…an essential time…a time of great consequence and magnitude…I am finally done with this chapter and am going to go buy a Smoothie.
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 23 - The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

    Chapter 23
    The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

    1. Introduction
      1. Introduction
        1. Major Themes
          1. Political Upheaval – age of revolution 1775-1848
          2. Exportation of western European institutions to settler societies
        2. Major Changes
          1. Monarchies replaced by parliaments (extensive voting)
          2. North America emerges as major force in world economics
        3. Series of disruptions
          1. New cultural forms – some challenge/support Enlightened thought
          2. New states – Germany and United States
          3. Led to new alliances – which led to the Great War
        4. Phases of Western transformation
          1. 1750-1775 – Period of growing crisis
          2. 1775-1850 – political revolution simultaneously with industrial revolution
          3. 1850-1914 – implications of industrial revolution
      2. Optimism in Chaos
        1. Marquis de Condorcet – “Progress of the Human Mind”
          1. Due to literacy/education – mankind on the verge of perfection
            1. This humble man died in jail
    2. The Age of Revolution
      1. Forces of Change
        1. Cultural change – change in intellectual thought – Enlightenment
          1. Political thought – challenged government
            1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – government based on general will
            2. Gap between leaders and thinkers – this isn’t a good precedent
          2. Also encouraged economic/social change
        2. New businesspeople challenged old aristocracy
          1. New power structure vs. old economic values
        3. Population revolution
          1. better border control – kept out those annoying immigrants with disease
          2. improved nutrition
          3. Effects
            1. upper class needed to control their position – feel threatened
            2. can’t inherit property > join working class
            3. rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing
              1. protoindustrialization – set foundation for future capitalism
                1. putting out system – capitalism out of your house
                  1. run by merchants – materials, work orders, sales
            4. altered behaviors
              1. consumer mentality – keeping up with the Joneses
              2. premarital sex
              3. parents lose control – can’t threaten inheritance anymore
              4. defiance of authority
      2. The American Revolution
        1. A Sortof Revolution – change of power from one group of elites to another
          1. Enlightened ideas used to justify switch, desire for political office
          2. Atlantic coast colonies win
            1. Why? - British blunders + French help
            2. Set up new government – incorporated Enlightened ideas
              1. Montesquieu – checks and balances – divided branches
              2. Civil liberties – but…kept that thing called slavery
            3. Voting rights
      3. Crisis in France in 1789
        1. This would set precedent that would transform all of Europe
        2. Causes
          1. Ideological factors – Enlightenment pressure – limit Church/aristocracy
          2. Social changes – merchant class wanted more power
          3. Peasants pressed by population issues – want freedom from aristocracy
          4. Catalyst – economic problems by French gov’t - series of wars/Versailles
        3. Louis XVI – calls Estates General
          1. Supposed to be three estates – but turns into National Assembly
          2. King gives this legitimacy after riots, women marching, and chaos
        4. Summer of discontent
          1. National Assembly – passes Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
          2. Storming of Bastille – symbol of repression – destroyed almost vacant prison
          3. Great Fear – riots on countryside lead to Great Flight
          4. Led to monumental changes
            1. Seizure of church lands
            2. New parliament to restrict king
            3. Freedom religion, press, property
      4. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases
        1. Enters Radical Phase in 1792
          1. Reign of Terror – get rid of monarchy
          2. Push revolution further
          3. Executed potential threats – guillotine becomes weapon of choice
        2. Maximilien Robespierre
          1. Leader of radical phase
            1. Lost touch with issues of the people
              1. Creates new religion – cult of the Supreme Being
              2. Doesn’t listen to issues of urban dwellers
            2. Eventually arrested himself
        3. New changes
          1. Proclaimed universal manhood suffrage
          2. Universal weights and measures – crazy dudes
          3. slavery abolished
          4. universal military conscription – loyalty to the state
            1. Now France has a huge, motivated army
            2. Makes Europe nervous – spread revolutionary ideals
        4. Nationalism – new spirit – national anthem
          1. replaced allegiance to locality and the Church
        5. Enter Napoleon – followed conservative phase – oligarchy
          1. Centralized system of secondary schools/universities
          2. Meritocracy – achievement based on skills, not birth
          3. Religious freedom
          4. Tries to conquer Europe
            1. Repelled in Russia
            2. Tore down local governments elsewhere
              1. They now gave loyalty to the nation
      5. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy
        1. Congress of Vienna – national lines drawn
          1. Tried to create a balance of power – create strong powers around France
            1. Prussia gains power in Germany
            2. Piedmont in Northern Italy
            3. Britain gains new territory around the world
            4. Russia maintains control of Poland
          2. Tried to restore the old days – conservative – monarchy
            1. But…liberals push for political change
              1. More say for the people
              2. Gov’t stays out of individual issues
              3. Constitutional rules for religion, press, and assembly
              4. Economic reforms
              5. Better education
            2. Then there was the…radicals
              1. Wanted way more power for people – universal suffrage
              2. Socialism – attack private property and divide equally
          3. Revolutions from students and urban artisans – most to gain
            1. Greece breaks away from Ottomans, Italy, Germany, Belgium, France
            2. U.S. takes away land rights – Jacksonian Democracy
            3. Britain – Reform Bill of 1832 – parliamentary vote to middle class men
            4. By 1830s Western Europe has solid parliaments
      6. Industrialization and the Revolutions of 1848
        1. Now factory workers are getting ticked off – whatever happened to skilled labor?
          1. Chartist movement – regulate technologies – slow down so we have a job
        2. Revolutions of 1848 – climax of protest
          1. France starts it up again – socialism – government supported jobs/women’s rights
            1. Ended up replacing with another authoritarian – Napoleon’s nephew
          2. Nationalism demands in Germany and Austria-Hungary – autonomy
        3. Revolution fails again
          1. revolution too drastic – need to choose more moderate methods
          2. better transportation reduces food crisis – the major catalyst
          3. Better riot control police
        4. But…industrial business class starts to replace aristocrats – new money vs. old money
          1. Now it became those with money vs. those without
    3. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914
      1. Introduction
        1. Infrastructure gradually improves
          1. Railroads, canals, urbanization
            1. Britain – 50% live in cities – first time in human history
          2. Handle city problems
            1. Sanitation, parks, regulation of food/housing facilities
            2. Crime rates drop/stabilize
      2. Adjustments to Industrial Life
        1. Family life changes
          1. Low birth rates/low death rates – kids more important – not source of income
          2. Better health for kids – only 10% are dying before 10 years old – yippee!
          3. Louis Pasteur discovers germs – better health/sanitation
        2. Consumer culture begins
          1. More money to buy products – living above subsistence
        3. Rise in corporations
          1. more stock owned companies
          2. labor unions created
            1. workers bargain for better pay/conditions’
        4. Farmer life improves
          1. More connected
          2. Developed staple crops
          3. Cooperatives to market crops/purchase supplies – can be done cheaper if work together
      3. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations
        1. Governments start to gradually enact reforms to avoid revolution
          1. Key issues – voting rights, freedom of religion, conserve wealth of old
        2. Promoting active foreign policy creates nationalist fervor
          1. Expanding empire – people forget domestic issues – no, really?
        3. Creating nations
          1. Count Camillo di Cavour – Piedmont unites Italy - alliance with France
            1. Fought Austria for Northern provinces – peninsula unites
            2. Revolution from control of the Church
          2. Otto von Bismarck – unites Germany
            1. Forced conflict with other nations to unify German people
            2. Defeated France in 1871 – new Germany
            3. Parliament has lower house based on universal suffrage
          3. America stays one nation – industrial North defeats rural-based South
            1. industrial weaponry and transport systems give hint of war to come
          4. Goal now becomes keeping political power and getting elected
            1. For the most part, status quo is kept whether liberal or conservative party
            2. Italy calls it trasformismo – basically the peaceful transfer of power in which there is no radical change, but you add the suffix “-mo” at the end
      4. The Social Question and New Government Functions
        1. West starts having civil service exams – just about 1000 years after Chinese
        2. New schools
          1. Increase literacy rates
          2. Teach domestic roles to women
          3. Preach nationalism – language, history, attack minorities/immigrant cultures
        3. Welfare programs to help old, injured, unemployed – Bismarck ahead of the game
        4. Social question – not political/economic equality, but social equality
          1. Socialism – Karl Marx
            1. who controls means of production?
            2. Middle class defeated aristocracy and now it was the workers turn
              1. Eventually class eliminated – proletariats vs. bourgeoisie
            3. Socialists parties grow in popularity across W. Europe
              1. Fiery speakers attract workers
            4. Revision – accomplish social equality peacefully – a compromise
        5. Feminist movements
          1. Equal access to employment, education, vote
          2. Middle class women led the charge
            1. Active, passionate leadership
            2. Window smashing, arson, hunger strikes, petitions, marches
    4. Cultural Transformations
      1. Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure
        1. Better wages + reduction in hours = free time, expendable income
        2. Also, factories produced tons of cheap goods
          1. Advertisement encouraged
          2. Bicycle fad of 1880s
            1. People line up – starts changing clothing of women
        3. Mass leisure culture
          1. Newspapers with fluff – bold headlines/human interest stories
            1. crime, sports, comics, crime, corruption, violence
          2. Live comedy and music
          3. Vacation trips – seaside resorts grow
        4. Team sports
          1. Discipline and coordination necessary
          2. Commercial industry grew – uniforms, rubber balls, stadiums
          3. Hypercommunity loyalties – Go 49ers!!!!
          4. Olympics reintroduced in 1896
        5. New priorities
          1. More secular – people turn to worldly entertainments
          2. Mass leisure allows passion, vicarious participation in sports – “We won!!!”
      2. Advances in Scientific Knowledge
        1. Rising prosperity led to more time for scientific/artistic exploration
          1. Improvements in medicine, agriculture
          2. Still used rationalist perspective – almost solely secular
        2. Charles Darwin – 1859 – Origin of Species
          1. animal/plant species evolve over time from earlier forms
          2. Nature worked through random struggle
          3. Conflicts with religious doctrine
        3. Physics expands – Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity - adds notion of time
        4. Expanding empirical knowledge of humans – statistics for everything
          1. Attempts to explain business cycles, causes of poverty, behavior of crowds
        5. Sigmund Freud – theories of human subconscious to explain behavior
      3. New Directions in Artistic Expression
        1. Some artistic approach reflected logic and daily lives
          1. Charles Dickens – novels on human behavior
          2. Georges Seurat – pointillism
        2. But…a lot of art went off on random tangents
          1. Romanticism – emotion/impression more important than reason/generalization
          2. Start breaking form – no more poetry rhyming, why plot, painting evocative
            1. If you want to be literal, use a camera
          3. Art becomes abstract – art for art’s sake
        3. So…basically…there is no one way of doing things – science, or art
          1. More debate over life – Conservatism vs. liberalism
          2. Tensions in the modern mind
    5. Western Settler Societies
      1. Introduction
        1. Causes of Western expansion
          1. new markets for processed goods
          2. created commercial agriculture in other regions
            1. satisfy need for raw materials, agricultural products
          3. communication/transportation facilitated expansion
          4. Nationalistic rivalries
          5. Businesspeople sought new chances for profit
          6. Missionaries sought chances for profit
          7. Massive European emigration
        2. Success of expansion
          1. Steamships brings technology inland
          2. Improved weaponry – artillery and machine gun
      2. Emerging Power of the United States
        1. First hundred years remained isolated
          1. Improved infrastructure, political system, internal growth, westward expansion
          2. New stream of immigrants in 1850s
          3. Success of America borrowed by Europeans during revolutions
        2. Civil War – industrial North vs. agricultural South
          1. Civil War freed slaves, but South eventually reenslaved through sharecropping
          2. Accelerated America’s industrialization
            1. Expand transportation networks
            2. Armaments manufacturers need markets after war
            3. American agriculture – mechanized – exported to world
          3. American military, art, technology had very little impact abroad
        3. European Settlements in Canada, Australia and New Zealand
          1. Borrowed heavily from Western Civilization
            1. Parliamentary legislatures and economies mirrored
            2. Cultural styles borrowed from Europe
          2. Remained part of British Empire
          3. Canada
            1. Tried to create gradual self-government to avoid revolution
            2. Quebec created to ease French tension
            3. New immigrants poor in during last part of 18th century
          4. Australia
            1. 1788-1853 – exported convicts
            2. Discovery of gold increases population in 1850s
            3. Unified federal nation claimed on January 1, 1900
          5. New Zealand
            1. Conflict with Maoris – attempts to convert to Christianity
            2. Agricultural population
            3. Parliament allowed to rule self without interference from mother country
          6. Connections
            1. All remained agricultural – necessitated exchanges with England
            2. Themes of liberalism, socialism, modern art, and science transported
            3. Received new waves of immigrants during 19th century
              1. Export of people huge issue
            4. Industrialization leads to rapid colonization
              1. Communication and transportation created quickly
    6. Diplomatic Tensions and World War I
      1. Introduction
        1. Germany becomes new power in Europe by 1880s – secured alliances
        2. World ran out of places to carve up by 1900
          1. Africa gone, only a few areas left
        3. Britain threatened by Germany’s industrialization and navy
        4. France more concerned with Germany – aligns self with Russia/Britain
      2. The New Alliance System
        1. Two alliance systems dominate
          1. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
          2. Triple Entente – Britain, Russia, France
        2. Arms race created to intimidate/defend against rivals
          1. military conscription during peacetime
        3. Each alliance had unstable partner
          1. Russia – revolution in 1905 – would it be crippled?
          2. Austria-Hungary – nationality disputes – want self-determination/autonomy
        4. Balkan states only adding to difficulty
          1. Balkan nations broke away from Ottoman Empire
          2. Serbia expanding – this threatens Austria-Hungary that has Serbian population
            1. Gabrio Princip kills Archduke Ferdinand
            2. Austria vows to punish Serbia – Russia comes to aid
            3. Germany attacks France then Russia before they can mobilize
      3. Diplomacy and Society
        1. Nationalist competition got out of control – no other civilizations to threaten
        2. Governments attempts to distract population through foreign actions
          1. But…once imperialism was too easy, then what?
        3. Plus…military build-ups – need buyers for products
        4. Mass newspapers shape nationalist pride
        5. Initially people excited about war
          1. Some people thought it was a nice break from stability of the world
    7. Global Connections
      1. Imperialism and redefinition of world economy put Europe interests everywhere
      2. Russia tried to avoid situation – warned against parliamentary politics
      3. European ideas of socialistm liberalism, radicalism were exported to other regions around the world – later used to overthrow oppressors
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 24 - Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

    Chapter 24
    Industrialization and Imperialism:
    The Making of the European Global Order

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Change in Europe’s relationship with world
        1. 1. Change in goods – no longer spices/mfg goods, but natural resources for machines
        2. 2. Trade balance shifts
          1. a. Need for markets for Europe mfg products
          2. b. 1840 exported more than imported – finally, people want to buy Europe stuff
        3. 3. Reasons for expansion
          1. a. Missionaries no longer state sponsored
            1. i. Europe no longer threatened by anyone
          2. b. European rivalries now fueled expansion
        4. 4. Ability to control empire
          1. a. Industrialization gave Europe power to control center
          2. b. Steamships/railways put everyone in reach of European landgrab
    2. II. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Initially limited interest of Europeans to control regions – too expensive
        2. 2. Communication realities prevented centralized control – led to local administration
      2. B. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java
        1. 1. Initially Dutch paid tribute to Mataram sultans
          1. a. Dutch East India Co. worked w/in system
        2. 2. Later - backed Mataram sultans in intertribal conflicts
          1. a. Every time Dutch helped out, they demanded more land
            1. i. Dutch backing needed due to their organization, weapons, discipline
            2. ii. Finally in 1750s, they’d given up everything
      3. C. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India
        1. 1. Initially British East India Company worked with rulers
        2. 2. Later – backed territorial claims, princes used Europeans to settle disputes
          1. b. The usees then become the users
        3. 3. Unlike Dutch however, British Raj (gov’t) came from French/British rivalries
          1. a. 1700s – France/Britain in 5 wars, British won them all, but US
        4. 4. Key battle – 1757 Plassey
          1. a. 3000 British under Robert Clive defeat 50,000 Indians
          2. b. Victory not merely based on numbers issue
            1. i. Brits used Hindu banker money to pay off Indians
            2. ii. Method of getting back at Muslims
          3. c. Teenage nawab Siraj doesn’t have control of force
            1. i. they defect or refuse to fight
      4. D. The Consolidation of British Rule
        1. 1. Mughal Empire gradually breaks down under wars with East India Company
          1. a. As Brits took more land, Indian princes fought other lands to get territory
            1. i. India reduced India
        2. 2. British control
          1. a. Madras, Bombay, Calcutta – administrative centers of three presidencies
          2. b. Local leaders of princely states had to report to British administrators
        3. 3. Reasons for British takeover
          1. a. Muslims/Hindus don’t unite under national identity
          2. b. Some Indians liked fighting for British – uniforms, weapons, pay, treatment
            1. i. 5 to 1 Indians serving British to actual British soldiers
        4. 4. India’s large population made it the key to great empire
          1. a. Indian soldiers used to conquer surrounding areas
          2. b. Became market for investments, manufactured goods
          3. c. Major source of raw materials
      5. E. Early Colonial Society in India and Java
        1. 1. Initially maintained existing social structure
          1. a. Just placed traders/officials above existing system
        2. 2. Tried to bring Europe over to Asia, but not always with success
          1. a. Can’t do the whole Dutch canal thing in Indonesia with mosquitoes
          2. b. Adapted to varying degrees dress, eating, work habits
            1. i. Some refused…bad idea…wool clothes in S. East Asia
            2. ii. Adopted food, hookahs/water pipes, Indian dancing
        3. 3. Racial divide
          1. a. Society had racial discrimination
          2. b. But also…Europeans/Asians mixed – miscegenation – mostly men colonize
      6. F. Social Reform in the Colonies
        1. 1. Initially – maintained religion of existing group
          1. a. Kept Hindu caste system – refused entry to missionaries
        2. 2. But…nabobs – corrupt British leaders who made money while overseas
          1. a. in 1770 Bengal famine kills 1/3 population – obvious reforms needed
          2. b. Lord Charles Cornwallis – took out local autonomy – report directly to Britain
            1. i. But…also mistrusted Indians, made wholesale changes
        3. 3. Why the push for change?
          1. a. Utilitarians – England has best system – why not share?
          2. b. Evangelical religious revival – reform the heathens
        4. 4. How?
          1. a. Push for education
          2. b. Language
          3. c. Infusion of Western technology
          4. d. Get rid of sati – 1830s
            1. i. w/ help from western educated Indian leaders – Ram Mohun Roy
            2. ii. Threatened with physical punishment if they applied sati
        5. 5. Changes – transplanted Western industrial/political revolutions
          1. a. Western ideas, inventions, modes of organization, technology
          2. b. Drawn into global network
          3. c. At schools, model behavior on European exercise, reading, scientific learning
          4. d. Ironically…values taught to Indians, used against them later
    3. III. Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Science/industrial advantages led to European competition between states
          1. a. Beginning 19th century – Britain’s navy makes dominant
          2. b. Belgium, France, Germany, US competing for power
        2. 2. Reasons for colonial expansion
          1. a. Status as great power
          2. b. Raw materials
          3. c. Markets for manufactured goods – needed to keep economies growing
            1. i. European countries suffering from overproduction and unemployment
          4. d. Colonies could be destinations for unemployed
            1. i. markets for surplus goods
        3. 3. Central political leaders took more direct control over running colonies
          1. a. improved communication – telegraph
          2. b. No longer could an explorer alone ratify agreements
            1. i. led to fierce parliamentary debates
        4. 4. Public opinion important
          1. a. mass journalism
          2. b. extension of the vote – universal manhood suffrage
      2. B. Unequal Combat: Colonial Wars and the Apex of European Imperialism
        1. 1. Advances due to Industrial Revolution
          1. a. Access to minerals others didn’t know existed
          2. b. Chemists create even more powerful explosives
          3. c. Metallurgy – mass production of mobile artillery
          4. d. More accurate hand weapons
          5. e. Machine gun as effective battlefield weapon
          6. f. Improved ships
            1. i. Steam engines, iron hulls, massive guns
        2. 2. Areas of Africa/Pacific Islands fought with spears, arrows, leather shields
        3. 3. Some areas resisted
          1. a. Vietnamese guerillas fought back when leaders refused
          2. b. Zulus defeated British at Isandhlwana in 1879
          3. c. But…eventually they would lose…win the battle, but no way they can win war
        4. 4. Only successful methods of resistance
          1. a. guerrilla warfare, sabotage, banditry only match for superior weapons
          2. b. Sometimes spiritual leaders gave encouragement to locals
    4. IV. Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Tropical dependencies – small # of Europeans rule a ton of locals
          1. a. Brought under rule suddenly late 19th/early 20th century
        2. 2. Settlement colonies –
          1. a. White Dominions – huge % of land, low % of population
          2. b. Small # of natives, whites majority
            1. i. Natives killed by disease/wars of conquest
          3. c. US, Canada, Australia, Chile, Argentina
        3. 3. Third type – settlement colony variation
          1. a. Large indigenous population + large # of immigrants
            1. i. S. Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, Algeria, Kenya
          2. b. Numerous clashes over land rights
      2. B. Colonial Regimes and Social Hierarchies in the Tropical Dependencies
        1. 1. Followed pattern of India
          1. a. Played ethnic/cultural divisions against one another
          2. b. West/East Africa – Animists and Christians vs. Muslims
          3. c. These divisions called “tribes” – dehumanizing
        2. 2. Whites lived in capital/provincial cities
          1. a. Local leaders then reported to Europeans
            1. i. Some Western educated
        3. 3. But…education not as pushed in Africa – racism
          1. a. Lack of college graduates – lack of a middle class
            1. i. Learned from mistakes – educated classes in other colonies start revolts
              1. a. Want jobs beyond their capacity and get annoyed
      3. C. Changing Social Relations Between Colonizer and Colonized
        1. 1. As time passed, Europeans became more isolated from locals
          1. a. Women were brought over
            1. i. Safer conditions – health care/segregated living quarters
            2. ii.Discouraged interaction with locals – brothels attended less
          2. b. Whose fault, female or male?
            1. i. Males
              1. a. Passed laws against miscegenation
              2. b. Kept contacts between white women and locals to minimum
            2. ii. Women
              1. a. Had native nannies or servants
          3. c. Only interaction with high ranking natives was at formal occasions
          4. d. Notions of white racial superiority – late 19th century
            1. i. Ranking of races put whites on top – Darwinism gone wrong
            2. ii. Differences between ruler and ruled was inherent
            3. iii. So what’s the point in interacting – you really can’t change them
          5. e. Recreated European life, and spent summers in hill communities
      4. D. Shifts in Methods of Economic Extraction
        1. 1. Attempts to expand export production
          1. a. Teach natives scientific management and encourage to work harder
          2. b. Incentives
            1. i. More money to buy cheap consumer goods
            2. ii. Head/hut taxes must be paid from ivory, palm nuts or wages
              1. a. Congo – flogged and killed if didn’t reach quotas
              2. b. Women and children held hostage
              3. c. Infrastructure created for sole purpose of moving natural resources
              4. d. New areas of cultivation and mining
          3. 2. Raw materials shipped by merchants to be processed in Europe
            1. a. Finished goods sold to Europeans
            2. b. Local economies don’t benefit from entire process
            3. c. Exist for the purpose of making Europeans able to buy cheap, cool stuff
          4. 3. So…not only were they subjugated politically and socially, but also economically
            1. a. Hey…that would be a great essay question
      5. E. Settler Colonies in South Africa and the Pacific
        1. 1. Adopted many of the economic/political practices of tropical dependencies
        2. 2. Settler colonies before 19th century usually wiped out native populuations
          1. a. Disease and battle
        3. 3. Those formed after 19th century had much larger native populations
          1. a. Not killed off by disease – immunities built up over time
          2. b. Settlers had far more clashes with locals over territorial claims
      6. F. South Africa
        1. 1. Dutch colony initially set up as way station/halfway point to India
        2. 2. But…Boers (farmers) started moving inland
          1. a. Subjugated local Khoikhoi peoples
            1. 1. Miscegenation ensued creating “colored” population
        3. 3.When British take over in 1800s they are totally different than Boers
          1. a. Boers more rural, speak different language
            1. 1. Didn’t have all the benefits of scientific, industrial, urban revolutions
          2. b. Had slaves, British missionaries trying to get rid of slavery
        4. 4. Boers felt pressure and move further inland
          1. a. Come into contact with established Bantus – Zulus and Xhosa
          2. b. British forced at times to come in on side of the Boers
          3. c. Boers try to create to Boer Republics in 1850s
            1. 1. Orange Free State and Transvaal
            2. 2. Ran themselves until diamonds were discovered - 1867
              1. i. Amazingly…British now very interested
              2. ii. Initially Boers won first war in 1881
            3. 3. But…more British moved in when gold discovered in 1885
            4. 4. All out Boer War from 1899-1902
              1. i. Who would control access to the mines?
              2. ii. British eventually win, but feel guilty for treating Boers like garbage
            5. 5. Settler minority then controls native Africans
      7. G. Pacific Tragedies
        1. 1. Introduction
          1. a. Demographic disasters/social disruptions similar to European first contacts
            1. 1. Lived isolated, no immunities to diseases
            2. 2. Vulnerable to outside influences
              1. a. New religions, sexual behaviors, weapons, cheap goods
              2. b. Led to social disintegration and widespread suffering
                1. 1. Agents of change – whalers, merchants, missionaries, administrators
                2. 2. New Zealand/Hawaii – large native populations
              3. c. Solutions
                1. 1. Accommodation – combined some old with new
                2. 2. Revival of traditional beliefs/practices
        2. 2. New Zealand
          1. a. Maori tribes destroyed
            1. 1. Prostitution, alcoholism, superior deadly weapons disrupted warfare
            2. 2. Smallpox, TB, and cold killed them
            3. 3. Changed agriculture – used Western tools/practices to farm
          2. b. Europeans return in 1850s to take over
            1. 1. Dominate farm areas
            2. 2. Maori fight back, but defenseless against weapons/disease
            3. 3. Eventually survived by using British laws/legal system
            4. 4. Became a multiracial society
        3. 3. Hawaii
          1. a. Claimed by British in 1843, but US in 1898
            1. 1. Discovered by Captain James Cook – Spanish
              1. i. Eventually killed over nails in ship
            2. 2. King Kamehameha used Western weapons/methods to take kingdom
          2. b. Women had power until Christian missionaries encouraged conservatism
          3. c. Population declines from ½ million to 80,000
            1. 1. Chinese laborers imported
          4. d. Turned to commercial crops – sugar
            1. 1. Some missionaries turned to capitalism
          5. e. American planters/naval base encouraged US to annex
            1. 1. Protect American lives by posting troops in Honolulu
          6. f. Unique status of Hawaii
            1. 1. not enslaved – racism not as big a deal
            2. 2. arrival of Asian immigrants
            3. 3. colonization finalized
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. Industrial Revolution gave motives and means for taking over Asia and Africa
        1. 1. If they didn’t directly control it, the indirectly controlled through threat of military
          1. a. Global order based around helping their industrialized societies
        2. 2. Communication, commercial and transportation networks key
        3. 3. Unprecedented flow of food/materials from Africa, Asia, Latin America to N. America and Europe
          1. a. Existed to support Europe
          2. b. Europe/West provided capital and machines to control local industry
          3. c. Western culture exported – manners, fashions, literary forms, entertainment
      2. B. Europeans believed it was their God-given right
        1. 1. Initially put down revolts with violence
        2. 2. But…western trained locals became leaders of future revolts – nationalists
          1. a. Used language/communication to organize resistance
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 25 - The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920

    Chapter 25
    The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920

    1. Introduction
      1. Maximilian I – Austrian emperor – firing squad in 1867
        1. Killed after years of Civil War
        2. Proved need for Latin America to figure out future w/ out Europe
      2. Early 19th century – Latin America created new nations
        1. Problems…many divisions over how to address the following
          1. Role of religion
          2. Type of society
          3. nature of economy
          4. form of government
        2. Plus…always threatened by
          1. Foreign governments
          2. new imperialist regimes
          3. neighbors seeking territory/economic advantage
      3. Is it a “developing nation” or part of European Enlightenment?
        1. Enlightenment
          1. Shared virtues of progress, reform
          2. Representational government
          3. Constitutional government
          4. private property rights
        2. Problems of colonial government
          1. No history of participatory government
          2. Dependence on invasive central authority
          3. Class/regional differences divided nation
          4. Huge wealth/income disparity
          5. European industrialization made Latin America a dependent nation
    2. From Colonies to Nations
      1. Introduction
        1. Shared resentment of creoles and others (Natives/mestizos/mulattos)
          1. new taxes and administrative reforms
          2. Creoles – Enlightened ideas
        2. But…still…class differences too much to overcome
          1. Many attempts at independence failed – wealthy worried about losing power
      2. Causes of Political Change
        1. Events encouraging change
          1. American Revolution – 1776
          2. French Revolution – 1789
            1. But…regicide, rejection of Church, social leveling too much
          3. Haitian Revolution – 1791
            1. Toussaint L’Overture overthrows French colonial control
              1. Makes local wealthy very hesitant to enlist the masses
          4. Confused Iberian political situation
            1. Napoleon’s appointed brother vs. juntra central
            2. Independent juntas self-servingly set up own juntas
      3. Spanish American Independent Struggles
        1. Mexico
          1. Father Miguel de Hidalgo encourages Indians and mestizos - 1810
            1. Later captured and executed after early victories – threat to elite
          2. 1820 – Augustin de Itubide – creole captures Mexico City w/ mestizo/Ind help
            1. Proclaimed emperor of Mexico
            2. Initially all of Central America attached, but by 1838 all had split off
        2. South America/Caribbean – break away in reverse order of exploration
          1. Argentina/Venezuela first and Caribbean last
            1. Fearful of slave resistance – bonjour Haiti
            2. 1820-1833 Gran Colombia – then broken to Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia
          2. Creole Jose de San Martin fights for Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay independence
            1. Conservative creoles eventually supported after a ton of victories
          3. By 1825 all Spanish South America had gained its independence
      4. Brazilian Independence
        1. By end of 18th century Brazil economically important
          1. European demand for sugar, cotton, cacao
          2. Creoles, upper class unwilling to risk change – lose to lower classes
        2. Portuguese king and queen flee Portugal and head to Brazil
          1. After Napoleon’s invasion
          2. Rule Portugal from Brazil
          3. Brazil not seen as inferior – equal to Portugal
          4. Rio de Janeiro becomes imperial city
            1. Leads to immigration of bureaucrats – threatens authority
          5. By 1820, things change – king moves back – Brazil pathetic again
            1. Dom Pedro – Dom Joao VI’s (king of Portugal’s) son
      5. Final conclusions
        1. So…Mexico becomes monarchy, Brazil monarchy under Portugues ruling family, rest of South America a parliament
    3. New Nations Confront Old and New Problems
      1. Introduction
        1. Initially people think there might be reform
          1. meritocracy
          2. representative government
          3. right to private property
          4. individual as basis to society
        2. Issues
          1. Should Catholicism be national religion?
          2. Free slaves/egalitarian vs. economic focus as priority – Cuba, Puerto Rico, Brazil
          3. Color distinction
            1. Many mestizos/Natives concerned that political offices won by same corrupt aristocracy
      2. Political Fragmentation
        1. nations divide due to political divisions, regional rivalries, economic competition
        2. Gran Colombia only held together under leadership of Simon Bolivar
          1. his death puts out fire of protest
        3. Why did uniting fail?
          1. Geographic barriers
          2. Great distances
            1. Poor roads
          3. Regional differences/political divisions too much
          4. Mass of population outside political process
          5. Becomes 18 separate nations
      3. Caudillos, Politics and the Church
        1. Problems for new nations
          1. Decade of warfare had destroyed economies/devastated land
          2. Caudillos gain power
            1. Independent warlords able to organize army
            2. These caudillos could make/unmake governments
            3. Leads to government reaction of needing to hyperfinance military
            4. Interested in power for own sake, not for country
            5. Support different groups – some elite, some mestizos, some Indians
          3. Centralists vs. federalists
            1. Central government controls everything or strong regional governments
          4. Liberals vs. conservatives
            1. rights of individual vs. maintenance of status quo
            2. secular nation vs. Catholic nation
            3. Conservatives wanted to maintain order – not encourage competition
            4. Leaders still come from elite class – regardless of position
          5. Role of the Church
            1. Role in education
            2. Should role in civic life be limited
            3. What are problems of mixing Church and state
          6. Constitutions
            1. Too specific, overturned with each new government
            2. More successful gov’ts gave more power to monarch/president
          7. defects in the “Latin” character?
            1. personalism, lack of civic responsibility
    4. Latin American Economies and World Markets, 1820-1870
      1. Introduction
        1. Spain/Portugal want to refocus colonization in Latin America
          1. But…US and Britain w/ Monroe Doctrine keep L. America independent
        2. Britain benefiting from Latin America w/ out colonization
          1. L. America gets loans from Europe
          2. Britain market for L. American goods
            1. dominated market in early 19th century
        3. Nation’s economies hurt by foreign goods
          1. Port cities benefit and landowners benefit, but…
          2. Mfg. can’t compete – not as cheap/as quality
        4. Reliance on foreign markets/foreign imports mimics colonial economic heritage
      2. Mid-Century Stagnation
        1. Exports eventually increase
          1. Coffee > Brazil, Hides > Argentina, Guano > Peru, Minerals > Chile, Sugar > Cuba
            1. Increase in wealth allowed some social changes
              1. Abolish slavery
              2. End American Indian tribute
            2. Also made more vulnerable to world markets
              1. Patterns of economic change
                1. Remember…still differences for each nation
                2. Independence
                3. 1820s/1830s attempts at radical reform – end colonial heritage
                4. Economies can’t handle these social changes
                5. Conservatives retake control in 1840s
                  1. Landowners/peasants vs. middle class/urban modernizers
      3. Economic Resurgence and Liberal Politics
        1. Liberal changes do work end of 19th century
          1. Based on Auguste Comte’s positivism
            1. observation + science to make changes – scientific management
          2. Second industrial revolution made mfg. more efficient
          3. Populations doubled
          4. As people made money through new industrialization, people accepted liberal
        2. Sometimes these “ideas out of place” – implementing European models on L. America
        3. Negatives of economic growth
          1. Immigrants treated horribly – tenancy, peonage, disguised servitude
          2. Small farmers displaced
          3. Church lands seized
          4. Peasant lands taken
      4. Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention
        1. Problems of Mexico’s 1824 Constitution
          1. Maldistribution of land
          2. Status of American Indians
          3. Problems of Education
          4. Vast numbers of poor
        2. Liberals attack on Church not appreciated
        3. Santa Anna in control during middle of century
          1. Northern territory of Texas wants independence then is annexed by US
          2. US wants a coast to coast empire – manifest destiny
            1. Mexican-American War ended w/ unfair Treat of Guadalupe Hidalgo
              1. Gets ½ of Mexico’s land – all the way to California
              2. Mexico loses economic potential
              3. Mistrust of USA by Latin America
          3. Benito Juarez – intellectual who pushes for secular nation
            1. Not influenced by military/church
        4. Liberal revolts – La Reforma began in 1854
          1. Wanted to redistribute land – took Indian communal lands and Church lands
            1. But…just bought up by land speculators
            2. Rich get richer and poor get poorer
        5. Conservatives look to Europe for help
          1. France – Napoleon III sends in troops
            1. Shared Latin culture
            2. Please Catholics in France
            3. Economic benefits
          2. Austrian archduke Maximilian von Hapsburg rules
            1. But eventually assassinated
      5. Argentina: The Port and the Nation
        1. Originally a backward, rural area
        2. Hesitant to enact reforms to church or government – don’t want to centralize
        3. 1862 Argentine Republic – Balances central government and federalist
          1. Domingo F. Sarmiento
            1. Political/economic reforms
            2. Deplores caudillo influence of region
          2. Political stability leads to foreign investment
          3. Expansion of economy – exported beef, hides, wool
            1. With money, could implement reforms
        4. War between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay led to heightened nationalism
        5. Defeat of Indians allowed expansion
      6. The Brazilian Empire
        1. Transition to nationhood relatively smooth – kept slavery, large landholding, export economy
          1. Conflict between conservative monarchy vs. liberal faction
        2. Economy based on exports – coffee primarily – fazendas – coffee estates
          1. Intensification of slavery – staple crop like cotton in S. USA
            1. Abolitionist movement didn’t start until 1870
          2. Nobles/courts bound to success of government
          3. Industrial/communication revolution encourages foreign investment
          4. Following 1850, huge immigration boom
        3. Monarchy starts to fall with abolition of slavery – remember, they supported owners
          1. 1889 – bloodless military coup starts Republic
          2. Peasant unrest with resulting transition
            1. Antonio Conselheiro leads rebellion from community of Canudos
            2. Represented battle between traditional values and modernization
    5. Societies in Search of Themselves
      1. Cultural Expression after Independence
        1. Borrowed heavily from neo-Classical traditions of Europe – especially elite
        2. Next generation turned to Romanticism and national indigenous culture
        3. Politicians began writing histories of nation
        4. With industrial revolution – new writers dealt with corruption, prejudice, greed
        5. Popular dance, art, folk music differed from the elite – oh…really…
      2. Old Patterns of Gender, Class, and Race
        1. Though politically a time of change, much of society kept the same
        2. Women
          1. Though they participated in independence movements – kept patriarchal
          2. Under father – then husband’s – control
            1. Can’t work, enter into contracts, control estates w/out permission
          3. Lower class have more activity in markets, but still not equal
          4. But…public education
            1. Teach women, they can then teach their children properly
            2. Some compulsory education, but only 10% of women literate
            3. Women became teachers
        3. Caste system
          1. Stigma of skin color, former slave status still limits options
          2. Indians/mestizos still frustrated with position
            1. Though they did make gains in army, professions, commerce
          3. Small, white Creole upper class controls most of economies/politics
          4. d. Even with rapid urbanization, still remained rural, agrarian cultures

  • The Great Boom, 1880-1920
    1. Introduction
      1. Eventually had an export-led expansion
        1. Liberal ideology of individual freedoms
        2. Open market
        3. Limited government intervention
        4. Traditional aristocracy and urban elite work together to control economies
      2. Focus on staple crop for each nation creates money to import goods
        1. But…world market prices beyond their control – boom and bust
        2. Rivalry, hostility or war between neighboring countries
      3. Rapid economic expansion led to more foreign investment
        1. Britain dominates, but US and Germany moving in, US especially
        2. Provided capital and services for key industries
          1. But transportation, service, industries in foreign hands
    2. Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation
      1. Central control prioritized over Liberal expansion– Mexico and Porfirio Diaz
        1. Liberal democracy put on back burner to maintain central power
          1. Arrested any dissidents who might hurt transition
        2. Positivists – cientificos – suppressed political opposition
          1. Believed they could improve economic growth through scientific approach
        3. But with economic advancement, peasants/urban workers suffer
          1. Leads to strikes and labor unrest
          2. When joins with middle class demands for more power
            1. Mexican Revolution in 1910
      2. Liberal expansion an option - Argentina
        1. Native American population conquered
        2. Technological innovation, economic prosperity allowed them to implement reforms
        3. Fusion of cultures with widespread immigration – “Paris of America”
          1. Violent strikes by European inspired immigrants
          2. Culmination of strikes in 1910s
        4. Oligarchy in charge gives more power to middle class, not peasants/laborers
      3. Governments that push for change/modernization ignore some of the problems created
        1. Leads to Messianic religious movements/revolts
    3. Uncle Sam Goes South
      1. US gets heavily involved in L. America after Civil War
      2. 1898 war between Spain and US over Cuba/Puerto Rico independence
        1. US market for Cuban sugar
        2. Spanish-American War – began era of US direct involvement in L. America
      3. US interested in Panama Canal
        1. Supported Panamanian independence movement from Columbia – thanks
        2. US taking over the world
      4. L. America becomes weary of US materialistic interests
        1. nationalism
        2. Catholic defense of traditional values
        3. socialist attacks on capitalism
  • Global Connections: New Latin American Nations and the World
    1. Difficult to revive economies after independence
    2. Ran against current of 19th century age of imperialism
      1. Ended colonial controls
      2. But…hard to develop economies/govts with European expansion always a threat
      3. L. America distances itself from world in attempt to develop L. American identity
    3. Conservatism vs. Liberalism
      1. Yes…there was change in progressive politicians, modernizing military, growing urban population, dissatisfied workers, disadvantaged peasants
      2. But…revolutions not totally effective, elite still controls the majority of resources
    4. Demonstrated difficulties of decolonization
      1. Ongoing ties to the west
      2. Growing influence of US
      3. Dependent economy on Western goods
  • Subject: 
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 26 - Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China

    Chapter 26
    Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. By mid-18th century, looked like China was doing great
        1. 1. Controlled interaction with European “barbarians” – missionaries/traders to specified ports
        2. 2. Population, trade, agricultural production growing
        3. 3. Territory largest since 7th century Tang
      2. B. By mid-18th century, Ottoman looks like it’s falling apart
        1. 1. Austrian Hapsburgs/Russians chipping away at empire
        2. 2. African Muslim kingdoms broke away
        3. 3. Economic problems – rising inflation, European imports
        4. 4. Social problems – crime, rebellion
        5. 5. Military can’t keep back Europeans
      3. C. But by 19th century, they’re both falling apart
        1. 1. China shows how vulnerable they are
          1. a. Impact of European industrialization huge
          2. b. Overpopulation, paralyzed government, massive rebellions – internal problems
        2. 2. Ottomans still hanging in there
          1. a. New leaders/new Western reforms
      4. D. By 20th century
        1. 1. China imploding with ½ century of foreign invasions, revolution, social/economic collapse
          1. a. Suffering on scale unmatched in human history
        2. 2. In Ottoman Empire
          1. a. New leaders take over power from sultanate
          2. b. Turkish area becomes a nation
          3. c. But…Middle East now exposed to Europe ***
    2. II. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Problems due to series of weak rulers
          1. a. Power struggles between ministers, religious experts, Janissaries
          2. b. Local leaders + landowners (ayan) cheat sultan of money due to him
          3. c. Role of artisans/merchants declines with European impact
            1. 1. Merchants survived through European contacts
        2. 2. Can’t defend outer areas
          1. a. Limited money for military, inferior technology
          2. b. Russians push for warm-water port in Black Sea
          3. c. Throughout 1800s European holdings revolt
            1. 1. Greece, Serbia, Balkans
      2. B. Reform and Survival
        1. 1. But… “sick man of Europe” still survives – Europeans afraid to break up – power struggle
          1. a. British actually help Ottoman Empire to counter Russian advance
            1. 1. Concerned Russians might hurt British naval dominance
        2. 2. Question becomes – how to reform?
          1. a. Attempts at reform squashed by competing groups
            1. 1. Sultan Selim III pushes for improved bureaucracy, navy, army
              1. a. Janissary corps, powerful bureaucrats feel threatened – he dies
            2. 2. Mahmud II – 1826 gets rid of Janissaries
              1. a. Great soup kettle debacle of 1826
              2. b. Sultan’s secret military force slaughters Janissaries
              3. c. Limits powers of ayan
              4. d. What reforms to make?
                1. 1. Ulama – religious leaders = push for conservative theocracy
                2. 2. Mahmud chooses option B – Western reform
                  1. a. Creates ambassadors to Europe
                  2. b. Westernizes military
            3. 3. Next…Tansimat reforms
              1. a. Westernized university education
              2. b. State run postal, telegraph, railroad
              3. c. Legal reforms
              4. d. Effect of reforms
                1. 1. Killed artisans – no import taxes – people buy European
                2. 2. Women no effect – ignored cries for end to
                  1. a. Seclusion, veiling, polygamy
                  2. b. uneducatedness (not a word) – want education
      3. C. Repression and Revolt
        1. 1. Irony – once you’ve westernized, then your western administrators want to end sultanate
          1. a. New elites compete with older conservatives (ulama and ayan)
        2. 2. Abdul tries to end reforms by becoming a despot – the old liberal vs. conservative backlash
          1. a. Abdul Hamid restricts civil liberties – freedom of the press
          2. b. “troublemakers” imprisoned or killed
          3. c. but…still pushed for Westernization
            1. 1. Especially Western military techniques/technology
            2. 2. Judicial reforms, education, railroad, telegraph
        3. 3. Ottoman Society for Union and Progress “Young Turks” – push for reform
          1. a. Want 1876 Constitution and more reforms
          2. b. Eventually assassinate Abdul Hamid in 1908
            1. 1. Sultan becomes figurehead
            2. 2. Elite officers come to power
              1. a. Begin reign by fighting back battles in Balkans
              2. b. Survive by playing European rivalries against each other
          3. c. World War I in 1914 makes this revolution irrelevant
          4. d. Arab world suffers
            1. 1. They thought 1908 revolution would give them more freedom – wrong
            2. 2. Turks want to subjugate Arabs even more
    3. III. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Different ways of reversing decline of Islamic world
          1. a. Return to Islamic past
            1. 1. Some rose up to lead jihads, holy wars, against Europeans
          2. b. Large-scale adaptation of Western ways
          3. c. Combine two approaches
            1. 1. Egypt’s Muhammad Ali will try to combine both
        2. 2. Arab world growingly frustrated with Turkish/Ottoman rule
          1. a. But…can’t stop European threat
          2. b. Muslims at one point had destroyed/evenly matched Christendom
          3. c. Annoyed that they’d been displaced as the leading civilization
      2. B. Muhammad Ali and the Failure of Westernization in Egypt
          1. 1. 1798 Napoleon tries to invade Egypt
            1. a. Squares off against Mamluk (slave) regime
            2. b. Napoleon able to defeat tens of thousands of Mamluks w/ firepower
              1. 1. Medieval armor and spears vs. Napoleon’s artillery
            3. c. Symbolic of how far behind Muslim world was
            4. d. Eventually British sink Napoleon’s navy – Napoleon returns w/out conquering
          2. 2. Albanian Muhammad Ali rises and realizes strength of West
            1. a. Tries to adapt European style military force
              1. 1. Hired French officers
              2. 2. Conscription for peasants
              3. 3. imported French weapons
              4. 4. Adopted Western tactics/methods of supply
            2. b. Built best fighting force in Middle East & navy
            3. c. But…didn’t totally transform economy to pay for military
              1. 1. Told peasants to increase production…hey thanks…
              2. 2. Some new harbors, canals, irrigation
              3. 3. Can’t build industry because European goods so much cheaper
            4. d. After death, Egyptians intermarried with Turks
              1. 1. Khedives – Ali’s descendants – rule until 1952
      3. C. Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Strategies of Resistance
        1. 1. Economic problems
          1. a. Making cotton one staple crop leads to market fluctuation – rely on imports
            1. 1. See US South…
          2. b. Wealth wasted on expensive pastimes
            1. 1. What…rich people wasting money on their entertainment? Unprecedented
          3. c. Egypt goes into debt to European financiers
            1. 1. Europe wants access to cheap cotton
            2. 2. Europe wants access to Suez Canal – 1869
            3. 3. From then on, France/Britain continually involve selves
              1. a. Want debt repaid – start influencing more
            4. 4. British troops end up supporting puppet governments – khedives
              1. a. Justified after British fought back revolt of Ahmad Orabi – 1880s
              2. b. Begins direct British rule of Islamic heartland
        2. 2. Strategies of resistance
          1. a. Muslim thinkers start meeting to discuss options
            1. 1. Jihad – drive infidels from Muslim lands
            2. 2. Return to religious/social life under Muhammad (perceived) - Revivalists
            3. 3. Borrow scientific learning and technology from West
              1. a. Logic – they only made them from Muslim knowledge
      4. D. Jihad: The Mahdist Revolt in the Sudan
        1. 1. Egyptian rule over Sudan resented
          1. a. Egypt conquers sedentary people, but trouble with nomads
            1. 1. Taxes high
            2. 2. Leaders corrupt
            3. 3. Favoritism of some Sudanese tribes over others
            4. 4. Egyptians tried to get rid of lucrative slave trade – how dare they?
        2. 2. Enter Muhammad Achmad
          1. a. Get spiritual visions – could he be the promised one – Mahdi
            1. 1. Escapes from kidnapping, has visions – this guy must be a prophet
          2. b. Attacks Egyptians, then plans for Ottoman Empire and Europe – easy buddy.
            1. 1. Guerilla warfare
            2. 2. Blessings and magical charm given confidence
          3. c. Land conquered they reform
            1. 1. Control drink and smoking
            2. 2. Severely punish theft, prostitution, adultery
        3. 3. Finally defeated by British General Kitchener – machine guns, artillery just too much
          1. a. Europeans threatened by biggest threat to their dominance of continent
          2. b. 1898 – British win – expand control to interior Africa
        4. 4. Is there nothing that can stop the new masters of the world?
    4. IV. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. China’s isolation and disdain for outside world comes back to haunt them
          1. a. After century of successful Manchu rule, government turns corrupt/ineffective
        2. 2. Manchus – Nurhaci – 1559-1626 organized nomads, unites tribes, attacks Northern China
          1. a. Elite begin adopting Chinese ways
          2. b. Manchus actually invited in by the Ming to help put down a rebellion
            1. 1. They end up invading Beijing in 1644, and then pushed South
            2. 2. Forced submission of nomadic peoples on west, tribute from south Kingdoms
            3. 3. Took on dynasty name of Qing
          3. c. Allowed Chinese scholar gentry to maintain influence
            1. 1. Though Manchus – only 2% of population – clearly took over power
          4. d. Unlike Mongols…
            1. 1. Retained examination system
              1. a. Let sons take courses
            2. 2. Most recent Son of Heaven – adopted ideology
            3. 3. Practiced traditional Confucian virtues
            4. 4. Patrons of the arts
      2. B. Economy and Society in the Early Centuries of Qing Rule
        1. 1. Manchu maintained Chinese social structure
          1. a. Respect/acceptance for rank/hierarchy
          2. b. Suspicion of other social organizations – guilds/secret societies
          3. c. Women treated poorly
            1. 1. Infanticide increases – men actually outnumber women
              1. a. A financial drain on the household – dowry
            2. 2. Males marry women below them in social status – male control
            3. 3. Only power in elite households – maybe control other women/younger men
        2. 2. Focused on making lives better for farmers
          1. a. Tax breaks for those that resettle lands
          2. b. Tax/labor demands lowered
          3. c. Money spent on repairing infrastructure
        3. 3. But…landlords become dominant
          1. a. Supply and demand – more peasants than land – owners control terms
          2. b. Nobles prove status by clothes/carried in sedan chairs
            1. 1. Some even grow nails long – don’t have to work – not nasal cleansing
        4. 4. Loosen control of commerce – actually makes gains
          1. a. New ways of financing
          2. b. Lucrative markets for traders
            1. 1. Wealthy new group of merchants – compradors
      3. C. Rot from Within: Bureaucratic Breakdown and Social Disintegration
        1. 1. But then things start to fall apart
          1. a. Exam system riddled with cheating/favoritism
            1. 1. Bribes examiners, scholars paid to take exam for the rich
            2. 2. Sons of officials put in places of power – nepotism vs. meritocracy
            3. 3. Merchants/landowners put in power
              1. a. Lack the Confucian values
            4. 4. Bureaucracy became means of improving lives of wealthy/not poor
          2. b. Money given to wealthy families, not for infrastructure
            1. 1. Money taken from military – left unprotected
            2. 2. Unrepaired dikes destroy land > famine and disease
          3. c. Widespread migration – banditry, vagabonds
        2. 2. Why wasn’t this dynasty merely replaced by another? Key points!!!
          1. a. Ming era brought in American crops – population explosion
          2. b. Refusal to bring in technological innovations to satisfy this population
          3. c. Corruption and conservative Manchus prevented needed changes
          4. d. Also, different “barbarians” - Westerners
      4. D. Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium War and After
        1. 1. Europeans larger threat than nomads – technology makes up for numbers
        2. 2. Europeans had to find a way to balance trade
          1. a. Bad – silks, fine porcelains, tea for silver bullion
          2. b. Good – let’s get them addicted – how about to Indian opium? Yeayyy!!!
        3. 3. Chinese a bit upset about opium trade
          1. a. Sapping economy of bullion – can’t pay for public works
          2. b. Plus – people get addicted – 1% addicted to drug, opium dens, officials useless
        4. 4. For years, laws against opium not enforced until…
          1. a. Lin Zexu enforces the laws
          2. b. Blockades Canton from European traders – warehouses searched
            1. 1. Opium confiscated and destroyed
          3. c. Surprisingly, Europeans annoyed – property rights being infringed
            1. 1. Easily won naval, land war of 1839-1841
          4. d. From victory – China forced to open ports – not just Canton/Macau anymore
            1. 1. 90 ports – 300,000 traders by 1890s
        5. 5. China treated as subservient to Europe after 1850
          1. a. No protective tariffs to protect Chinese manufacturing
          2. b. Had to accept European ambassadors in court – as equals
          3. c. Opium trade rolls in unchecked
      5. E. A Civilization at Risk: Rebellion and Failed Reforms
        1. 1. Rebellions go on across the land
          1. a. Christian, yet psycho prophet Hong Xiuquan leads the Taiping Rebellion
            1. 1. Promised social reform, land redistribution, liberation for women
            2. 2. Attacked Confucian values – wanted to create simpler script
              1. 1. Make literacy more possible for everyone
            3. 3. Eventually local landowners create military that stops rebellion
              1. 1. Plus…Hong Xiuquan losing his mind
          2. 2. Manchu rulers refuse to institute necessary reforms
          3. 3. End of dynasty – final straw was Cixi – powerful empress
            1. a. Imprisons nephew in Forbidden City
            2. b. Spends money on fancy marble boat, not on military
          4. 4. Boxer Rebellion – 1989-1901 – European, American, Japanese put down
            1. a. Boxers trying to end foreign economic/political control
            2. b. Insult to injury – gov’t then has to pay EAJs for their losses
      6. F. The Fall of the Qing: The End of a Civilization?
        1. 1. Secret societies start popping up
          1. a. Yes…you’ve all heard of the dreaded White Lotus, Triads and Society of Elders and Brothers
            1. 1. Failed amazingly – no $ and poorly organized
            2. 2. But…set precedent…became training ground for future rebellions
        2. 2. Some Western-educated leaders support a Europeanesque political reform
        3. 3. Rising middle class
          1. a. Mad at Manchus and foreigners
            1. 1. Cut off queues – no not a bank line – that insulting little ponytail thing
        4. 4. Finally in 1911 – students + mutinies from imperial troops + secret socities uprising
          1. a. Puyi forced to abdicate thrown – last emperor anyone?
        5. 5. 1905 – Civil service exam given for last time – don’t cry…it’s over
          1. a. Can’t solve China’s problems with Confucian ideals from 2500 years ago
          2. b. End of the Confucian system – violently destroyed
            1. 1. Massive civil bureaucracy
            2. 2. Rule by educated/cultivated scholar-gentry
            3. 3. Artistic accomplishments of old now criticized
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. Why did Islamic civilization survive, but Chinese civilization fall?
        1. 1. China – domestic upheavals and foreign aggression
        2. 2. Western threat nothing new for Muslims – warring for centuries
          1. a. China – threat was sudden, brutal
        3. 3. China…so we’re not the center of the world? Shattered in a few decades
        4. 4. Muslims actually shared elements of civilization with Westerners – ironic
          1. a. Muslims actually played role in rise of the West
            1. 1. Easier to accept technology from the West
          2. b. But for Chinese…we can’t accept anything from the hairy barbarians
        5. 5. Muslims have many centers that needed to be conquered not just one
        6. 6. Gradual nature of Western advance
        7. 7. Chinese lost faith in their civilization formula
        8. 8. Chinese have no great religious tradition to fall back on
          1. a. Oh yeah…well at least we have…whoops
          2. b. Muslim faith became basis of resistance
        9. 9. Muslims only partially colonized
      2. B. Different from Latin America – already connected to the West
      3. C. Different from Russia and Japan
        1. 1. Retained fuller independence…but we’ll have to read about that in next chapter
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 27 - Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West

    Chapter 27
    Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Both Russia and Japan reacted differently to Western industrialization
        1. 1. Though behind the West, were able to remain economically autonomous
        2. 2. Unlike China/Middle East, not fully resistant to reform
      2. B. Japanese reforms not expected
        1. 1. Pulled away from the West with limited contacts
        2. 2. Japan pulled away from Asia
        3. 3. Russia continued to interact with eastern Europe/Central Asia
      3. C. Japanese/Russian similarities
        1. 1. Both had prior experience of imitation – Japan < China, Russia < Byzantium/West
        2. 2. Learning from outsiders profitable, doesn’t destroy culture
        3. 3. Both proved political effectiveness
          1. a. State would sponsor changes, not private corporations like in the West
        4. 4. Both expansionist – eventually run into each other
          1. a. Russo-Japanese War – Japan on right course, continue policy
    2. II. Russia’s Reforms and Industrial Advance
      1. A. Russia before Reform
        1. 1. Concerned with isolationism
          1. a. Invasion by Napoleon 1812 – concern with defense
          2. b. Enlightened ideals encourage insurrection
          3. c. Patriarchal comfort provided by feudalism
            1. i. Sponsor Holy Alliance at Congress of Vienna – defend religion/order
        2. 2. Elites sponsor inclusion of the arts
          1. a. But with Decembrist revolt in St. Petersburg 1825
            1. i. Czar Nicholas I represses political opponents – defends conservatism
        3. 3. Unlike West – Russia’s heavy handed approach prevents revolts
        4. 4. More conservative and continues to expand in 19th century
          1. a. Pushed into Poland and the Ottoman Empire
            1. i. Even though Ottoman Empire propped up by Britain and France
              1. a. Keep that “sick man of Europe” alive
      2. B. Economic and Social Problems: The Peasant Question
        1. 1. Expansion not matched by internal improvements
          1. a. Trade deficit lessened by increasing serf output, not improving industry
          2. b. Remained agricultural society based on serfdom
        2. 2. Crimean War 1854-1856
          1. a. Russia fights Ottoman Empire to protect Christianity – how nice of them
          2. b. France/Britain aid Ottoman Empire eventually win
          3. c. Russia learns that
            1. 1. West has industrial advantage in weaponry and logistics
            2. 2. Alexander II – reform essential to survive militarily
        3. 3. Must deal with serfdom
          1. a. Need mobile labor force to encourage industrialization
            1. 1. So…Western humanitarian standards, but also…need for cheap, flexible labor
          2. b. But…initial reforms cause more problems than create solutions – open Pandora
      3. C. The Reform Era and Early Industrialization
        1. 1. Emancipation of serfs more liberal than slaves in Americas
          1. a. Serfs got bulk of land, slaves got zero
          2. b. But…preserved aristocratic power
          3. c. Serfs receive no new political rights – US 13th, 14th, 15th amendments
        2. 2. Serfs tied to villages until they could pay for land
          1. a. Money went to aristocrats
          2. b. This redemption payments increased suffering, maintained aristocracy’s power
        3. 3. Changes from Emancipation
          1. a. Large urban work force
          2. b. More peasant uprisings – want more – life still sucks
          3. c. But…agricultural production doesn’t increase…same tools/methods
        4. 4. New political power
          1. a. Local rulers – zemstvoes regulate roads, schools, regional policies
          2. b. Military – officers based on meritocracy, not birth
            1. i. Recruitment extended
        5. 5. Social behaviors change
          1. a. Increased literacy
          2. b. More loose values sexually – granted, still pretty strict
          3. c. Some upper class women have access to new careers
        6. 6. Industrialization
          1. a. Required state support
          2. b. trans-Siberian railroad – pushed iron/coal sectors
            1. a. More active Asian role
            2. b. Able to send more grain to Europe
          3. c. 1892-1903 – Count Sergei Witte – finance minister
            1. a. High tariffs to protect industry
            2. b. Encouraged Western investors
            3. c. Debtor nation – industrial loans pile up to other countries
          4. d. By 1900 leader – top 5 in world in steel, oil, textiles
            1. a. But…leader due to size/population not efficiency
            2. b. Agricultural still inefficient – illiterate peasants have no desire/ability
          5. e. Different from the West
            1. a. Military officers still seen as aristocracy
            2. b. No growing middle class
              1. i. Can’t increase money/influence because most state-sponsored
    3. III. Protest and Revolution in Russia
      1. A. The Road to Revolution
        1. 1. Effects of Alexander II’s reforms – leads to nationalistic beliefs
          1. a. Economic change
          2. b. Greater population mobility
        2. 2. Factions start wanting change
          1. a. Angry peasants
            1. 1. Frequent famines
            2. 2. Annoyance at having to pay redemption payments
          2. b. Business/professional voice
            1. 1. Want freedom in schools/press/liberal reforms
            2. 2. Not so aggressive
          3. c. Intelligentsia – most radical/articulate
            1. 1. Intellectual radicalism inspired terrorism
              1. a. First modern terrorist movement
                1. i. Bombings and assassinations
              2. b. Leads to more strict tsarist regime
                1. i. censorship press/political meetings
                2. ii. Alexander II assassinated
                3. iii. repression of minority groups
                  1. a. Pogroms against Jews - emigration
            2. 2. Want to continue to industrialize, not become materialistic like West
            3. 3. Anarchists – abolish all formal government
            4. 4. Vladimir Lenin
              1. a. Major ideas
                1. i. proletarian revolution w/out middle class
                  1. a. Conditions different than Marxist’s ideas
                2. ii. disciplined revolutionary cells
              2. b. Encouraged ironically named “Bolsheviks” – majority party
          4. d. Working class
            1. a. Formed labor unions/strikes
            2. b. Want more political outlets
            3. c. Encouraged by peasants
            4. d. Negative working conditions of industrialization
          5. e. Revolution inevitable, but…
            1. a. Not united
            2. b. Conservative government able to repress harshly
      2. B. The Revolution of 1905
        1. 1. Stilled tried to expand empire
          1. a. Russians don’t focus on domestic problems
          2. b. Tradition of expansion
          3. c. Compete with imperialist powers
          4. d. Pan-Slavic movement
            1. a. Unite Slavs – Slavic protector
              1. i. This would be large cause of WWI
            2. b. Access to Mediterranean – warm water port
          5. e. Expansion comes to abrupt end when embarrassed by Japanese
            1. a. Fleet to slow to mobilize
            2. b. Organization to difficult to move
        2. 2. Loss to Japan became catalyst to protests
          1. a. Peasant revolts and severe police repression
        3. 3. Government begins reforms (don’t last too long)
          1. a. Duma – national parliament
          2. b. Stolypin reforms
            1. a. Freedom from redemption payments
            2. b. Buy and sell land more freely
          3. c. kulaks – minority entrepreneurs – richest landowners increase power
          4. d. But…eventually central gov’t regains power, ignores duma, police brutality
      3. C. Russia and Eastern Europe
        1. 1. Comparison of the two regions
          1. a. Both have monarchies with newly established parliaments – limited power
          2. b. Landlords have extensive power – more so in Eastern Europe
          3. c. Eastern Europe not as industrialized as Russia
            1. 1. Far more dependent on Western markets
          4. 2. But…culturally they go through impressive movement – largest contributions
            1. a. Nationalist pride through dictionaries, histories, folktales, music
            2. b. Composers/authors contribute to Western arts
            3. c. Science – Mendel and some peas, Pavlov and his dog
    4. IV. Japan: Transformation without Revolution
      1. A. The Final Decades of the Shogunate
        1. 1. 19th century – Shogunate falling apart
          1. a. Difficulty combining central bureaucracy with regional alliances
          2. b. Only tax agricultural products
          3. c. Have to pay stipend to samurai – pretty expensive
        2. 2. Japan becomes more secular – prevents religion-based revolution
        3. 3. Japan starts pushing nationalism
          1. a. Terakoya schools – Confucianism, reading, writing – literacy rates 40% - high
        4. 4. Common pattern of traditionalists vs. reformist intellecturals
          1. a. Japanese traditions/Shinto vs. Dutch Studies – let’s learn from the West
        5. 5. Monopolies grow to control new commerce
        6. 6. Rural riots – not political, but aimed at annoying landlords – see pattern
      2. B. The Challenge to Isolation
        1. 1. Commodore Matthew Perry – 1853 – can I introduce you to my big guns?
          1. a. American threat opened Japanese markets
            1. i. West’s military superiority
            2. ii. Need more foreign markets for growing economy
            3. iii. Dutch schools begin to expand
        2. 2. Emperor brought out of religious/ceremonial isolation
        3. 3. Samurai begin attacking foreigners
        4. 4. Crisis stopped when Mutsuhito – Meiji “Enlightened One” – advisor’s push reforms
      3. C. Industrial and Political Change in the Meiji State
        1. 1. Abolish feudalism
          1. a. Abolished samurai class
            1. i. Samurai become poor
            2. ii. Final samurai uprising in 1877 – watch Tom Cruise’s movie
          2. b. Tax expanded past agriculture
        2. 2. Expand state power
          1. a. Expand bureaucracy – welcome back civil service exam
          2. b. Create Diet – upper house, lower house
          3. c. Emperor commands military
          4. d. But…only 5% eligible to vote
          5. e. Meiji advisors pull all the strings – keep Diet under control
          6. f. Unlike Russia…business leaders took leadership role
        3. 3. Expand domestic development
          1. a. State sponsored industrialization
            1. i. need capital
            2. ii. unfamiliarity with new technology
            3. iii. need someone to restrain foreign advisors
          2. b. Private enterprise helps economy
            1. i. Huge industrial corporations – hands in different spheres – zaibatsu
          3. c. Difficult industrialization – Japan resource-poor nation
            1. i. At disadvantage, must import
            2. ii. Women enslaves, still using putting out system, factories not as big
            3. iii. Labor not able to organize like in the West
        4. 4. Prevent conflict with West
      4. D. Japan’s Industrial Revolution
      5. E. Social and Cultural Effects of Industrialization
        1. 1. Increased class tensions
          1. a. Growing population due to health
            1. i. Large cheap labor source
        2. 2. Schooling – science, technical subjects, loyalty to state/emperor
          1. a. Resist individualism teachings of Western advisors
          2. b. Intense government inspection of textbooks
        3. 3. Embraced some of the West
          1. a. Clothing/haircuts/hygiene/medicine
        4. 4. Ignored some of the West
          1. a. Don’t convert in large #s to Christianity
          2. b. Kept manners
          3. c. Encouraged Shintoism
        5. 5. Social changes
          1. a. Divorce rate increases
          2. b. Women kept inferior
        6. 6. New expansive militarization
          1. a. Take minds off domestic issues
          2. b. Job for samurai
          3. c. Resource poor nation
          4. d. Easily defeats China in Sino-Japanese War – 1894
            1. 1. Attacks Russia – how dare you tell me to give pack land
      6. F. The Strain of Modernization
        1. 1. Conflict result
          1. a. Annoyance at acceptance of Western style
          2. b. Traditional old vs. liberal new
          3. c. Diet vs. Emperor for policy control
            1. 1. Led to assassinations
            2. 2. Dissolution of the Diet
          4. d. What was Japan? Western or traditional – how much of both?
        2. 2. Solution – we are unique because of emperor
          1. a. Obedience and harmony that West lacks
          2. b. Preserve independence and dignity in hostile world
          3. c. Tradition of superiority/deference to rulers
        3. 3. Avoided revolutions of the West
          1. a. Meiji reforms
          2. b. Intense repression of dissent
        4. 4. But…tough to follow Japanese model
    5. V. Global Connections
      1. A. Russia extended influence into Asia/Europe
        1. 1. Entered Europe in defeating Napoleon
      2. B. Japan’s economic/military strength gave it a unique position in East
      3. C. Growing competition between Europe, and emerging US, Japan, Russia
        1. 1. New colonial acquisitions scare West
        2. 2. Ahhhh…the “yellow peril” – nations are colonizing and they’re not from Europe…
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 28 - Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order

    Chapter 28
    Descent into the Abyss:
    World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. WWI – Great War – key turning point in world history
        1. 1. Due to imperialism, European war spread throughout world
          1. a. Resources and manpower sucked in from across globe
          2. b. Japan/US join struggle for global dominance
        2. 2. Weakened or shattered existing global systems
      2. B. What led to conflict in different theaters
        1. 1. Western Front
        2. 2. Central/eastern Europe
        3. 3. Middle East
        4. 4. Sub-Saharan Africa
      3. C. To what extent did war undermine colonial empires and lead to end of European dominance?
    2. II. The Coming of the Great War
      1. A. Hostile Alliances and Armaments Races
        1. 1. Fear of Germany
          1. a. Industrial strength, military potential, aggressive leader – Wilhelm
          2. b. Led to alliances
            1. i. Triple Entente – Russia, France, Britain – two front war
            2. ii. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
              1. 1. Italy not that excited – doesn’t like Austria-Hungary
                1. i. Switches sides in 1915
        2. 2. Imperial rivalries getting stronger
          1. a. Prestige of nation linked to size of empire
            1. i. Ran out of areas to colonize
              1. 1. Climax – Morocco annex French – Germany tries stop
            2. b. Jingoism – super warlike nationalism – middle/working class caught up
        3. 3. Arms race
          1. a. Intense/costly
          2. b. Germany’s navy threatens Britain’s centuries control of seas
          3. c. Arms limitations agreements failed
          4. d. Constantly practiced maneuvers – moved troops – always prepared
            1. i. Pushed for preemptive strike
          5. e. Russia getting stronger
        4. 4. Foreign policy connected to domestic problems
          1. a. Business classes challenged by labor/lower classes
          2. b. Foreign wars distracts from domestic problems
            1. i. Can always say “Let’s ignore labor problems, for sake of nation”
          3. c. Proletariat/business owners benefit
            1. i. Poor/disenchanted have jobs
            2. ii. Industrialists get to make more products – win/win
      2. B. The Outbreak of the War
        1. 1. Balkans become center of crisis
          1. a. Ethnically diverse, wants independence, Russia supports Serbs
          2. b. July 1914 Gavriel Princip assassinates heir Archduke Ferdinand
        2. 2. Austro-Hungary assumes Germany will support – “blank check”
          1. a. Forces war – trying to maintain unquestioned monarchical status
        3. 3. Russians support Slavic brothers
        4. 4. Regional conflict turns continental – armies mobilized
          1. a. Inept diplomacy – letters from Wilhelm to Nicholas II
          2. b. War inevitable
          3. c. War could sort out tensions
        5. 5. Confusion – mobilization a threat or actual war
          1. a. Germany decides to strike first – avoid two-front war – Von Schlieffen
        6. 6. Germany goes through Belgium – Britain declares war
          1. a. All of Britain’s colonial holdings brought into war
    3. III. A World at War
      1. A. The War in Europe
        1. 1. Leads to stalemate – Germany’s quick strike fails
          1. a. German speed not enough for Belgium fighting, British support, France regroups
          2. b. Trench warfare – protection from artillery/machine guns
          3. c. Impossible to win
          4. d. New ways of dying – machine guns, artillery, poison gas, barbed wire
            1. 1. Rats/Lice-infested trenches
            2. 2. Senseless slaughter – life uncivilized in trenches
          5. e. Generals using outdated strategies – no imagination – aged officer corps
      2. B. The War in the East and Italy
        1. 1. Russian weaknesses – highest casualty numbers
          1. a. Aristocratic generals – not meritocracy
          2. b. Illiterate/poorly trained peasants
          3. c. Uncoded commands
          4. d. Russian artillery controlled by upper class
        2. 2. Nicholas II goes in to leave – bad idea – while cat’s away
        3. 3. Austro-Hungarians
          1. a. Soldiers not that excited to fight for emperor
        4. 4. Common theme
          1. a. Incompetent leaders
          2. b. Annoyed/fatalistic soldiers
          3. c. Corrupt/stupid politicians
      3. C. The Homefronts in Europe
        1. 1. Soldiers annoyance with civilians
          1. a. Leaders safe from harm
          2. b. Civilians overly patriotic, unrealistic about realities of war
          3. c. Inexhaustible supply of civilians to mobilize to troops
        2. 2. Governments take control
          1. a. To avoid protests/labor strikes, companies taken over by state
          2. b. Newspapers censored – propaganda departments
            1. 1. Enemy dehumanized
            2. 2. Weaknesses/defeats ignored – eventual defeat shocking
        3. 3. Civilian population becomes targets
        4. 4. Changes sped up
          1. a. Trade union chiefs given power - they can mobilize working class
          2. b. But eventually labor begins protesting/uniting against war
          3. c. Shortages of food/fuel lead to mass protests
          4. d. Women get more power
            1. 1. Capable of working in heavy industry – destroys domain notion
            2. 2. Better wages/experience/confidence sparked movement
            3. 3. Independence – clothes, smoking, unchaperoned – “new woman
            4. 4. Gained right to vote in Britain, Germany, and US
      4. D. The War Outside Europe
        1. 1. Except Austria-Hungary – all Europe had colonies
          1. a. Used colonies for manpower, resources
            1. 1. Resources – food, natural resources, textiles – U-boats try
            2. 2. Colony’s citizens
              1. a. Settler colonies – used to enforce manpower
              2. b. India fought Middle East and Africa
              3. c. French use Vietnamese/African laborers
        2. 2. Fighting spreads to Middle East, West/East Africa, China
          1. a. Only S. America not really involved
        3. 3. Britain’s navy
          1. a. Cut off Germany from food, raw materials
          2. b. Controlled trans-Atlantic cable lines
        4. 4. Japan – allied with Britain 1902
          1. a. Excuse to kick Germany out of Shandong peninsula
            1. 1. Led to imperialistic ambitions later on
              1. a. German islands taken became launching centers WWII
        5. 5. Germany’s support
          1. a. African soldiers – East Africa
          2. b. Ottoman Empire – main support – Young Turks enter in 1915
            1. 1. Defeated in campaign against Russia – blamed on Armenians
              1. a. Some Armenians supported Russians, others neutral
              2. b. Genocide kills one million
        6. 6. US becomes global power
          1. a. American businesses profited – food, raw materials, weapons
          2. b. Becomes world’s largest creditor
          3. c. Supported British – Angolphile
          4. d. By 1918, #s forced Germany to launch offensive
      5. E. Endgame: The Return of Offensive Warfare
        1. a. Early 1918, Germany on the roll
          1. a. Million troops from Eastern front – Russia out of war
          2. b. But…US soldiers, new weapons – tanks, casualties, exhaustion
        2. b. Generals surrender – fear of army collapse + home rebellion
          1. a. Generals blame on new government
          2. b. Must accept treaty rules of British and French
          3. c. Propaganda left German civilians shocked
          4. d. Hitler would later claim Germany stabbed in the back
        3. c. Costs - Millions died in war
          1. a. Millions more died of influenza after – thanks for sharing
          2. b. Land and economies destroyed
    4. IV. Failed Peace – “A Peace to End All Peace”
      1. A. Different perspectives
        1. a. French – punishment – Georges Clemenceau
          1. a. Germany take all blame, pay reparations, shrink size of country
        2. b. US – Woodrow Wilson - peace for everyone - optimist
          1. a. Self-determination – call for rights of people
          2. b. 14 points
          3. c. League of Nations
        3. c. Britain – David Lloyd George
          1. a. If Germany weak, communist revolution possible
      2. B. Peace of Paris – diktat – dictated peace – Germany has no say
        1. a. Austro-Hungarian Empire broken up – Germanic Austria cut off
        2. b. New nations get chunks of Germany
      3. C. Problems
        1. a. Russian Bolsheviks not invited
        2. b. Wartime promises to Arabs ignored – divided up empires
        3. c. China left on its own
        4. d. Ho Chi Minh – Vietnamese leader ignored
        5. e. US Congress vetoed – League of Nations
    5. V. World War I and the Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Subjugated peoples of colonies question status
          1. a. Europeans fighting each other
          2. b. Industrialized to help out war effort – India becomes industrialized
          3. c. Europeans ordered Africans/Asians to kill other Europeans
          4. d. Colonial leaders went to battlefield – left void
            1. i. Gave administrative responsibility to natives
          5. e. Initially made promises from British/French – then reneged
          6. f. Questioned racial superiority theory – wait, these guys are bright
          7. g. Social/economic problems make it easier to motivate mass protests
      2. B. India: The Makings of the Nationalist Challenge to the British Raj
        1. 1. India subjugated longer than Africa
          1. a. Educated elite organized politically
          2. b. Due to size, importance – their efforts pioneer other efforts
        2. 2. Egypt will also be center of nationalistic organization
        3. 3. Key themes in independence movements
          1. a. Western-educated elites
          2. b. charismatic leaders take message and spread to masses
          3. c. reliance on nonviolent forms of protest
        4. 4. Indian National Congress Party
          1. a. Started as educated study clubs
          2. b. Started in 1885 with consent from British – method of dialogue to prevent protest – little did they know
          3. c. Ineffective at first
            1. i. Focused on elite Indian issues
            2. ii. Few if any full-time members
            3. iii. Didn’t have support of the masses
            4. iv. Members loyal to British
          4. d. Gradually realized they were treated in racist manner
          5. e. Many were lawyers
          6. f. Gradually created common Indian identity
            1. i. Tough to do since more diverse than all of European continent
            2. ii. Amazing what having a common enemy/foreign ruler can do
      3. C. Social Foundations of a Mass Movement
        1. 1. What would be issue to galvanize support?
          1. a. Preferential treatment for British investors
          2. b. Drain of Indian resources
          3. c. Indian money spent for British wars or pay for British government
          4. d. Infrastructure built using British manufactured goods
            1. i. Only reinforced colonial dependency relationship
          5. e. Decline in food production to make cash crops for Britain
            1. i. Poverty increased under British rule
            2. ii. British can’t help indebtedness and small landowner
      4. D. The Rise of Militant Nationalism
        1. 1. Religious based issues – aka cow – ignored by Muslims
          1. a. Some believed Muslim perspective should be ignored – BG Tilak
            1. i. Believed in restoration of Hindu traditions
            2. ii. Lower wedding age, no women’s education,
          2. b. Used Hindu festivals as political meetings
          3. c. Tilak’s militant Hinduism confined to Bombay region
            1. i. Imprisoned by British when his violent writing found
            2. ii. Exiled to Burma
        2. 2. Hindu communalist terrorists
          1. a. Bengalis – secret terrorist societies
            1. i. Get strong, tough, learn firearms and bombs
          2. b. Bomb British buildings/officials/ sometimes expats
          3. c. Essentially controlled by World War I
        3. 3. Issues calmed with government reforms
          1. a. Morley-Minto reforms – 1909 – voting rights/Indian councils
      5. E. The Emergence of Gandhi and the Spread of the Nationalist Struggle
        1. 1. India helped a ton during WWI
          1. a. soldiers, bankers loaned money, sold British War Bonds – Gandhi
          2. b. Eventually Indians became annoyed with situation
            1. i. Wartime inflation hurts products
            2. ii. Products can’t be shipped – blockades
            3. iii. Laborers wages don’t go far – but bosses getting rich
        2. 2. British promised India eventual independence if they helped war effort
          1. a. Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms – 1919
            1. i. Indians could control issues in provinces
          2. b. But…Rowlatt Act
            1. i. Prevented power of these groups
            2. ii. Censored press
        3. 3. Mohandas Gandhi enters scene
          1. a. Appealed to educated and the masses, moderates and radicals
            1. i. Nonviolent but aggressive methods of protest
            2. ii. Peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, mass demonstrations
              1. 1. Satyagraha – term given to his methods – truth force
              2. 2. Weakens British control
              3. 3. British can’t legitimately employ superior weapons
              4. 4. Bring negative press to British – international community
          2. b. Western-educated lawyer – understood strengths/weaknesses of Brits
            1. i. Great negotiator
          3. c. Hindu ascetic/guru
            1. i. Appealed to masses – tradition of following mystic
            2. ii. This appeal to masses made him important to nationalists
      6. F. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East
        1. 1. Nationalism already existed in Egypt – double-mad – Brits and Turks
        2. 2. Lord Cromer tried to reform to solve problems
          1. a. But…Turkish khedives too in debt
          2. b. Tries economic reforms
          3. c. Tries new public works projects
          4. d. But…poor still starving to death, landlords/elites getting wealthy
            1. i. Ayan – landlords get rich
              1. 1. Get paid money for infrastructure building
              2. 2. Build larger and larger estates
              3. 3. Moved to cities and let estates be run by hired managers
        3. 3. So…khedives and ayans useless – sold out to British
          1. a. Enter middle class – small, but growing
            1. i. Sons of middle class (effendi) led way
            2. ii. Many were journalists
              1. 1. Printed problems in society – like US muckrakers
                1. a. British racist arrogance/monopolization of jobs
          2. b. Congress party formed in 1890s, but many other groups exist as well
            1. i. Nationalist parties can’t unite
        4. 4. Dinshawi incident – showed tendency of Brits to overreact violently to signs of protest
          1. a. While hunting pigeons, British accidentally shot wife of prayer leader
            1. i. Riots ensue, shots fired, British hang four villagers and floggings
          2. b. Became catalyst to unite groups – common enemy enough to put aside different
        5. 5. In 1913, Egypt granted constitution for wealthy classes to run
          1. a. Messed up due to WWI, Brit gov’t had to take over control
          2. b. But…precedent had been set
      7. G. War and Nationalist Movements in the Middle East
        1. 1. Ottoman Empire destroyed by WWI – the sick man is dead
          1. a. Greeks try to carve up Turkey, but Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) – rallied forces
            1. i. Leads to new Turkish republic nation in 1923
              1. 1. New Latin alphabet
              2. 2. Women’s suffrage
              3. 3. Attempts to secularize nation
          2. 2. Middle East – Brits/French promised independence
            1. a. Instead they occupied region – Syria, Lebanon, Iraq
            2. b. Hussein – sherif of Mecca looks stupid – sided with infidels against Tukish Muslims
              1. i. Not very pleased with new mandate system – run by Brits/French
          3. 3. And then there’s Palestine…the big problem
            1. a. British promised different things to both sides during WWI – just support us
              1. i. Balfour Declaration
              2. ii. Hussein-McMahon correspondence
              3. iii. Churchill White Paper
            2. b. Zionist movement (Creating Jewish Homeland) pushing for decades for emigration to Palestine
              1. i. Russian Pogroms – kicked out Jews
              2. ii. Diaspora – Jews wandering without a homeland for thousands of years
              3. iii. Jews can’t be assimilated into Christian nations – Lord Pinkser
              4. iv. Prior to 1890s, most Jews didn’t support creation of Jewish nation
                1. a. Happy with their citizenship/civil rights
              5. v. But…after Dreyfus Affair…French Jew blamed for being a spy
                1. a. Journalist Theodor Herzl forms World Zionist Organization
                2. b. Want Jewish nation – problem #s – must have emigration
            3. c. Arabs feel betrayed > Brits pull back support > Jews feel betrayed
            4. d. Arabs never mount formidable opposition – Jews highly organized
              1. i. Set up pattern of foreign Arabs speaking for Palestinian Arabs
              2. ii. Palestinian Arabs should have been educated
      8. H. Revolt in Egypt, 1919
        1. 1. Egyptian peasants destroyed by war
          1. a. Resources drained to feed soldiers protecting Suez Canal
          2. b. Food shortages, starvation, confiscation of animals
        2. 2. Insulted by Versailles ignoring of delegation – wafd
        3. 3. Riots began across nation
          1. a. Started by students
          2. b. Women joined – some western educated wearing veils
          3. c. Eventually Brits regain control, but precedent set
        4. 4. Wafd Party – Sa’d Zaghlul – started
        5. 5. Brits pulled out between 1922 and 1936
          1. a. But…could still come back if foreign power threatened – Suez Canal
        6. 6. Egypt spent next 30 years spiraling into chaos
          1. a. Wealthy classes only improved their lives, plunged nation into despair
            1. i. peasants - 95% of eye disease, 98% illiterate
      9. I. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa
        1. 1. Educated Africans initially loyal to Brits/French
        2. 2. War changed all that
          1. a. Rebellions due to forced recruitment/labor
          2. b. Starvation to feed soldiers
          3. c. Merchants suffer from shipping shortages
        3. 3. Britain doesn’t come through on all promises after war – jobs and public honors
        4. 4. Attempts to create pan-African Movement
          1. a. But…started by African Americans or West Indies
          2. b. At least pushed anti-colonial spirit
        5. 5. Negritude literary movement – life actually better before – women, ole people, sex
        6. 6. Political organizations created – though with little impact
        7. 7. Some nations gave representative gov’t
        8. 8. Newspapers used to win support
    6. VI. Global Connections
      1. A. WWI hurt Europe’s economy, helped rival, growing powers
      2. B. Wartime hardships increased already existing tensions
      3. C. Labor parties get more powerful
      4. D. New place for women and scientific theories – challenge conservative ideas
      5. E. Some nations increase empires, but…nationalist sentiment also increases
      6. F. White men superior argument losing its value
      7. G. Russia, US and Japan all had vested interest in bringing down Western Europe – diff reasons -->
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 29 - The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance

    Chapter 29
    The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance

    1. Introduction
      1. Introduction
        1. Responses to Crisis
          1. Revolutionary regimes
          2. Authoritarian Political Systems
        2. Three major patterns
          1. Western Europe - economically/politically incomplete
            1. But culturally creative
          2. Growth of Japan and the United States
          3. Impact of 1920s Revolutions in China, Mexico and Russia
      2. Diplomatic Deafness
        1. Methods of protest
          1. India - Gandhi - Hinduism tradition + criticized caste/gender
          2. Turkey - military force + diplomacy
            1. Deaf guy uses disability as negotiating technique
    2. The Disarray of Western Europe, 1918-1929
      1. Introduction
        1. War messed up European economy, diplomacy, governments
          1. Hapsburg and German empire end
        2. Devestating material and psychological impact - lost generation
          1. Huge deb - not enough taxes - not a popular war idea
      2. The Roaring Twenties
        1. Happy joy joy feelings in mid-1920s
          1. Germany wants to be friends
          2. Nations agree to never go to war again - Kellogg-Briand Pact
        2. Clash of values
          1. Right wing - return to authoritarian regime
            1. Good ol' days of national honor
          2. Left wing splits - authoritarian or...
            1. Let's try that fun communism idea
          3. Ummm...what happened to the middle - why polarization
        3. But...people getting wealthy and can buy more stuff - radios/cars/appliances
        4. New art - film, geometric art (cubist), new play styles, books w/ funky plots
          1. Defiance of traditional styles - conflict conservatives vs. radicals
        5. Science advances - people can't even understand it - too specialized
        6. Women - critical gains
          1. Women suffrage in Britain, Germany, US
          2. More fashion/leisure freedom - prosperity + declining birth rate
          3. Sexual promiscuity on rise - some even dance - naughty
            1. Conservative backlash - women's place in the home
        7. Industrialization - cult of efficiency - manager's organize/discipline masses
      3. Fascism in Italy
        1. Benito Mussolini creates fascio di combattimeno (union for struggle)
          1. Nationalistic, strong leader, violent methods appropriate
          2. Don't want inefficient parliament or socialist class struggle - need leader
          3. Catalysts - anger over Italy's gains after WWI
            1. Plus...labor problems...have to control crabby workers
        2. Italian King eventually asks Mussolini to help - best option
          1. Parliament inefficient, but communism was scary
        3. Mussolini takes power - steps to victory
          1. Eliminate opposition - suspend elections
          2. State control of economy
          3. Glories of military conquest
        4. Demonstrated that parliamentary rule not the best idea
      4. The New Nations of East Central Europe
        1. Tougher to fix situation in Eastern Europe - more rural based
        2. Fixated on nationalistic issues
          1. Waahh...I want more territory, I don't want to focus on domestic issues
        3. Tried parliamentary structure, but ended with monarch or dictator
          1. Ahhhh...notice the cycle of revolution
          2. Supported by huge landlords who needed to put down peasant revolts
    3. III. Industrial Societies Outside Europe
      1. Introduction
        1. 1921 - Commonwealth of Canada, Australia and New Zealand considered as equals
          1. United by crown, but no hierarchy - no subjugated peoples
          2. Canada finds economic success
            1. Immigration, transnational railroad, exported food, natural resources
          3. Australia started on social legislation agenda
            1. Government involved in solving labor problems
            2. Government contols infrastructure
            3. New international pride
      2. The Rise of the American Colossus
        1. America - isolationist or interventionist
          1. Enters war late, but still active in Latin America
          2. Severely anti-communism - Red Scare
          3. Senate ignores League of Nations
        2. Economic boom in 1920s
          1. Gov't supports business at expense of labor
          2. High tariffs/low taxes
          3. Small companies combine > big conglomerates - return to monopoly
          4. Huge consumer culture - installment buying
        3. Industrialization innovators
          1. Research and development departments + assembly line
          2. Most efficient ways to boost output
        4. Cultural innovation
          1. Jazz, marketing, Hollywood
          2. Hollywood stars begin to symbolize sexual ideal
          3. Western Europe now follows US styles
      3. Japan and Its Empire
        1. A bit like Germany and Italy
          1. Parliament tested w/ Depression – fails test
          2. Fewer people vote
          3. Solution to problems – hey…let’s take over the region
        2. Interwar period – life getting better for Japan
          1. Rice production increases – population growth
          2. Growth in consumer culture, industrialization, zaibatsu
          3. More education
        3. Problems – vulnerable to trade issues
          1. Resource poor – imported a lot
          2. If people don’t buy few products, in trouble
          3. Tradition of oligarchy still ruling
            1. Military leaders educated part from civilians
              1. Not big fans of parliament/political parties
      4. A Balance Sheet
        1. Who gains?
          1. Creativity, “settler societies”, Japan
        2. Who loses?
          1. Democracy, US isolationism
    4. IV. Revolution: The First Waves
      1. Mexico’s Upheaval
        1. Latin America heads into new age of revolutions
          1. Mexican Revolution
          2. European markets for goods dry up – have to be self-sufficient
          3. US becomes dominant global power
        2. Problems in Mexico – huge industrial growth, but…
          1. Foreign ownership
          2. Small elite dominate land
          3. Political system corrupt
          4. Gov’t repressive against resistance
        3. Mexican Revolution Events
          1. Francisco Madero runs for office > arrested > calls for rebellion
          2. Pancho Villa leads band of rebels in North
          3. Emiliano Zapata leads rebels in the South
          4. Madero eventually wins > but then removed from power/killed
          5. Cycle of Revolution – guess what we get?
            1. General Victtoriano Huerta pushed for dictatorship
            2. But now Villa, Zapata control regions still
              1. Villa eventually defeated by Alvaro Obregon
        4. How is Mexico like other agrarian nations?
          1. Try to industrialize w/ foreign capital – bad idea
            1. Problem – when money dries up, problem
            2. Citizens annoyed – become nationalistic
        5. Changes due to Mexican Revolution
          1. Mexican Constitution – 1917 – land reform, foreign ownership, workers
            1. Educational reforms
            2. Restricted clerical education/property ownership
            3. Changes come slowly
      2. Culture and Politics in Postrevolutionary Mexico
        1. Nationalism, indigenism – helping natives
          1. We’ve treated them like garbage for centuries, let’s change our depiction
            1. Changes art, education
              1. Communism + Christianity + Indian past
          2. Patriotic/Nationalistic songs
        2. Ideology
          1. Some communist-like, anti-religion – want to secularize
          2. Conservative backlash – Cristerors and Catholic Church resist
        3. US intervenes
          1. Pancho Villa Invades the United States!!!!!
          2. Fear of Germans – access to oil
        4. Attempts to maintain continuity – no more chaos
          1. One party system – Party of the Institutionalized Revolution
          2. Presidents look like a caudillo, smell like a caudillo, but only 6 year terms
      3. Revolution in Russia:
        1. Liberalism to Communism
      4. Stabilization of Russia's Communist Regime
        1. How did Russia restore order?
          1. Trotsky improves army – generals and soldiers (taken from the lowest low)
          2. Lenin’s New Economic Policy – middle option before communism
            1. Gave freedom to small businesses and peasant landowners
              1. Yeayy…we now have a reason to work
            2. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
              1. Federalist system made of socialist states
              2. Many nationalities given say, but…central gov’t still calls the shots
            3. Is this a republican government?
              1. Well…it has a parliament and voters, but…
              2. No second political party
              3. In reality, just an updated authoritarian structure
                1. New and improved secret police
      5. Soviet Experimentation
        1. How was civil society created?
          1. Youth, women’s, worker’s groups discuss topics/influence management
          2. Education started to spread > literacy
          3. Conflict between conservative old and new values/teachings
        2. Who succeeds Lenin?
          1. Stalin is brilliant, beats out frontman Trotsky
        3. How was Stalin different than Lenin?
          1. Believed in protecting Russia, not spreading communism
            1. Unlike Comintern’s goals
          2. Rival leaders/visions killed/expelled
          3. Collectivized farms from peasants
        4. Was it a revolution?
          1. New types of leaders at army, bureaucracy, central gov’t
          2. Gone was the aristocracy
      6. Toward Revolution in China
        1. Puyi abdication symbolic end to century of peasant uprisings and foreign control
        2. Who would rule next?
          1. Coalition of students, middle class, secret societies, military split apart
          2. Military commanders have best chance
            1. Made alliances and ruled regions for decades
              1. Yuan Shikai – primary example
        3. Merchants/bankers in Shanghai/Canton had power
        4. University students/intellectuals – great ideas, no power
        5. Secret societies want return to Chinese monarchy
        6. Foreign powers want to take advantage of situation – Japan for example
      7. China's May Fourth Movement and the Rise of the Marxist Alternative
        1. How successful was China at a republic?
          1. Sun Yat-sen – father of China – tries parliament with cabinests, but…
            1. Outside cities, no one really in favor
        2. Warlord Yuan Shikai has more power
          1. Kills opposition, but…
          2. Eventually, Japanese and rival warlords topple him
            1. Yuan doesn’t deal with WWI Japanese threat
            2. 1916 gives up presidency > power vacuum
            3. Post WWI
              1. Japan takes N. China, Chinese angered
              2. May 4th Movement – students + intellectuals go for democracy
                1. Favored Westernization over Confucianism/Chinese tradition
                2. Rights to women, easier Chinese script, individualism
              3. Hey…do you notice a class of culture yet again?
                1. Liberal changes vs. conservative backlash
            4. Why didn’t liberal reforms work?
              1. Warlords control everything
              2. People dying, need immediate change, not promises
                1. Democracy takes a long time – debate
            5. So…what about Communism?
              1. Maybe take Marxist ideas and modify them
              2. Hard to have a revolution against industrialization, when its peasant
              3. Li Dazhao sees power of organizing youth
                1. So…proletariat now equals – peasants + workers
                2. Why was Li attractive?
                  1. Those felt betrayed by imperialist powers
                  2. Anti merchants/commerce
                  3. Return to social reform/social welfare
                3. So…summer 1921, meet and form Communist party
      8. The Seizure of Power by China's Guomindang
        1. Nationalist Party hanging on to control through early 1920s
          1. Build an army, start making alliances with social groups
          2. Unfortunately, focused on political/foreign issues, forgot to feed the people
          3. Made pact with Communists, used them for connection to peasants
        2. Enter the Whampoa Military Academy
          1. Chian Kai-shek in control
            1. Gradually increased power
            2. Hopes to be able to confront communists and warlords
            3. Umm…did people forget about the peasants?
          2. 90% of population starving to death after century of exploitation/neglect
      9. Mao and the Peasant Option
        1. Chiang Kai-shek starts defeating warlords one at a time
          1. Takes over regions, becomes head of warlord hierarchy
          2. Attacks Communists – detaches heads from torsos
          3. And…gets support from Europe and United States…why?
            1. Because he’s not communist
            2. But Mao takes a Long March north
              1. Mao becomes undisputed leader of Communists
            3. Eventually Chiang Kai-shek has to ask Communists for help pushing out Japanese
    5. Global Connections:
      1. Globalization retreated, but world still connected through:
        1. League of Nations – potential meeting ground to settle disputes
          1. International Labor Office tried to help working conditions
        2. Hollywood, culture spread across region
    6. But…
      1. US and Russia becoming isolated – set up barriers from rest of world – tariffs
      2. Japan expands army
      3. Nationalism increases – more rivalries with other nations
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 30 - The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response

    Chapter 30
    The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response

    1. Introduction
      1. What in the world is this chapter about?
        1. The Great Depression only worsened existing issues
          1. Decline of globalization, flaws in Western democracies
        2. New reactions to the Great Depression – and they’re not democracies
          1. Nazi Germany
          2. Semifascist Japan
          3. Stalinist Russia
          4. China
          5. Authoritarian regimes in Latin America
    2. The Global Great Depression
      1. Causation
        1. 1929 Stock Market Crash + new problems w/ industrialized + weak econ.
        2. Inflation – prices of items go up, but value doesn’t
        3. Overproduction of farm goods – cheap prices
          1. Farmers buy more equipment, but…that’s bad
          2. Market dies and then you have supply and demand issues
          3. Third world countries push up production levels – prices drop again
            1. So…they can’t buy industrial goods either
        4. Reliance on US loans to Europe
          1. Pays off debts, helps buy new products
        5. Inability to look at the big picture, outside own country
          1. Protectionism - High tariffs to protect home industry
          2. Insist on repayment of debts
      2. The Debacle
        1. Stock Market Crash effects
          1. Banks – lose money they had invested
            1. Call in loans from Europe
              1. Can’t pay loans, where’d they get the money from
            2. Creditors have no money to invest
              1. Investors lose money
          2. No money to invest, no money to keep industry going
            1. Employment falls, lower wages
          3. Low wages > can’t buy goods…do you see the spiral
          4. Unprecedented depression/recession
            1. Global impact
            2. Length – not until World War II pulled out
          5. Social effects
            1. Suicides
            2. Educated can’t get jobs
            3. Family roles disrupted – husbands can’t get jobs – kids/mom work
          6. Popular culture
            1. Women’s fashions more sedate
            2. Escapist entertainment – Superman can save the day
          7. So is Europe falling apart? Two crises in two decades
            1. Economic system not the best
            2. Parliamentary democracies can’t solve problems
          8. And what about Russia?
            1. Stays out of Depression – socialism in one country
            2. Not a huge part of global trading world – doesn’t effect them
          9. Other countries aren’t buying nations primary exports
            1. Japanese silk industry
            2. Latin American natural resources
          10. And then things get worse?
            1. Drought, poor harvest
          11. How do nations solve the problem?
            1. Latin American gov’t get more involved in economic decisions
            2. Japan conquers region – West can’t be trusted
            3. West – new welfare programs
            4. Italy/Germany fascism
      3. Responses to the Depression in Western Europe
        1. Bad ideas – just protect self
          1. High tariffs bad – other nations respond, stop buying
          2. Gov’t cuts off funding of programs
        2. Solutions – useless parliament or overturning of parliament
        3. Struggling parliaments
          1. Communist/socialist parties became more popular
            1. France – they unite create Popular Front – wins 1936
          2. But…conservative Republicans hesitant to change
          3. So…how about a welfare state
            1. Scandinavian countries pump $ into social welfare programs
      4. The New Deal
        1. Hoover’s ideas failed – tariffs + debt repayment
        2. Roosevelt’s New Deal
          1. Provided jobs, unemployment insurance, social security
          2. Economic planning – control rate of supply to regulate demand
        3. Change for U.S. – government grows – later military grows
          1. Doesn’t go as far as Scandinavia, but not revolution either
      5. Nazism and Fascism
        1. Why was life worse in Germany?
          1. Shock of loss
          2. Treaty arrangements – blame
          3. Veterans of war attacked weak parliament
            1. Need strong nation with strong leader
        2. Why are Fascists/Nazis a solution
          1. Appeal to landlords/business groups – anti-communist
          2. Preach need for unity
          3. Return to traditional past
            1. Guilds for artisans – yeah right
            2. No department stores
            3. No new woman – feminism
          4. Foreign policy to right the wrongs of Versailles
          5. Scapegoat in the Jews
          6. So many parties in parliament – don’t need a majority
        3. Totalitarian state – control all elements of society
          1. eliminated political parties
          2. purged bureaucratic/military – put in Nazis
          3. secret police – Gestapo – arrested anti-Nazis
          4. Got rid of trade unions – gave jobs/welfare to everyone
          5. Propaganda department – constant
            1. Nationalism
            2. Attacks on Jewish minority
              1. Blamed for socialism, capitalism
        4. Jewish policy – gradually more restrictive
          1. wear stars > seized property > sent to concentration camps
            1. Elimination of Jews
        5. Hitler’s foreign policy
          1. Lebensraum – land empire
          2. Ignored elements of Versailles – but appeased
            1. ignored disarmament
            2. Anschluss with Austria
            3. Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia – Munich Conference
              1. Appeasement – “peace in our time”
              2. If you give in now, psycho guy will keep taking
          3. Made secret deal with USSR
            1. Divide Poland, don’t fight each other
      6. The Spread of Fascism and the Spanish Civil War
        1. Nazi success inspires neighbors
          1. Eastern Europe takes fascist/authoritarian shift
          2. Italy inspired to actually spread empire – dreaded Ethiopia
        2. Spreads to Spain – Spanish Civil War
          1. Parliamentary republic vs. military backed authoritarian state
            1. General Francisco Franco supported by Nazis
            2. Republicans supported by US, USSR, and W. Europe
          2. Franco wins – next 25 years authoritarian
            1. Ruled by landlords, church, and army
    3. Economic and Political Changes in Latin America
      1. Introduction
        1. Social and cultural tension
          1. Growing middle class threatens old oligarchy
          2. Increased urban population
            1. Immigration + urbanization
          3. New political parties – nationalist and populist – push for change
        2. How did World War I affect L. America economies?
          1. Forced to industrialize quickly – no markets
            1. Import substitution industrialization
          2. Same continuities
            1. Limited markets, low technological skill, low capital
          3. WWI demand for some goods artificial – led to overproduction
      2. Labor and the Middle Class
        1. Political stability through alliance of landlords and urban middle class
        2. But coalition of frustrated emerge
          1. Annoyed that import-export capitalism leads to income gap
          2. Military officers, state politicians, bandits, peasants
        3. Urban workers wanted to use power to
          1. Anarchism – destroy state control
          2. syndicalism – use strikes to break down state
          3. Gov’t makes sure they repress rebellions
            1. Violent strikes/repression symbol of class conflict
      3. Ideology and Social Reform
        1. L. American middle class can only have power if linked w/ oligarchy/military
        2. Liberalism not working
          1. Industrialization, education not helping landless destitute
          2. By 1920s, looks like liberal reforms going nowhere
        3. Communists want to get rid of liberal governments
        4. Roman Catholic Church also annoyed with secular capitalist values
      4. The Great Crash and Latin American Responses
        1. Problems facing Latin America w/ Crash
          1. Export sales drop/liberal democracies look like failures
        2. Reaction from right – church + military leaders
          1. Corporatism – state acts as mediator between power groups
            1. Shared some ideas of fascists
        3. Mexico – Lazaro Cardenas attempts land reform
          1. 40 million acres of communal farms + credit system
          2. State controls oil
        4. Theme – need a new government – nationalism + new players
      5. The Vargas Regime in Brazil
        1. Getulio Vargas tries to set up strong central government
          1. Has to fight communists on right and fascists on left
          2. Sets up what kind of gov’t…you guessed it…authoritarian
            1. Nationalism + economic reforms
            2. Eliminated immigration
          3. No opposition to gov’t
            1. no political parties
            2. labor unions minimal power
          4. Later he changes to be more liberal
        2. Eventually supports allies
          1. Arms and $ for bases and troops
        3. Eventually kills self in 1954 – opposition from both sides – becomes martyr
      6. Argentina: Populism, Peron and the Military
        1. With failure of depression, tries new gov’t
          1. Weird coalition of nationalists, fascists and socialists
        2. Military takes over in 1943
          1. Juan Peron uses power but supports people – raises to the poor
            1. Creates coalition of workers, industry, labor
              1. But hard to hold together in tough times
                1. Military and Industrialists scared
            2. Went too far when he went against Catholic Church
            3. Exiled, but then returns in 1973, wins presidency - dies
          2. Very popular guy – wife Eva asks as intermediary
            1. Used press, radio, speeches to get support
            2. Champion of the poor, labor unions
    4. The Militarization of Japan
      1. Introduction
        1. How was Japan Similar to Europe
          1. aggressive military – take over Manchuria w/out civilian support
        2. Political response
          1. Nationalistic movement – return to Shinto/Confucian past
          2. Protest against parliament reforms
          3. Guess who feels left out
            1. Military leaders want someone to just call the shots
              1. Actually killed prime minister - 1932
                1. Moderate military leaders
                2. More severe military try in 1936
        3. So…by 1936, if you’re not a militaristic prime minister, you could die
        4. Conflict w/China
          1. Feared that China would push for Manchuria/Korea
            1. Take them out before they can have strong army
        5. Economy gets tied to newly conquered areas
          1. Korea, Manchuria, Tawian (Formosa)
            1. 50% exports go there, 40% imports from there
        6. Japan keeps expanding – Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
          1. Need control of resources
          2. Kick out Europeans
          3. Japanese culture forced on Koreans
      2. Industrialization and Recovery
        1. Japan’s reaction to the Depression
          1. Government steps in immediately
            1. Spending to provide jobs
              1. Created demand for food/manufactured items
              2. Unemployment over basically by 1936
            2. Supported military manufacturing
        2. Recovery more impressive than west
          1. Iron, steel, chemicals, electricity soar
          2. Assembly line makes more efficient
            1. World worried about Japanese export force
        3. Choices that inspire patriotism
          1. Lifelong contracts to skilled workers, entertainment
        4. Foundation of machines and scientific knowledge
    5. Stalinism in the Soviet Union
      1. Introduction
        1. Experimenting with new ideas is cute and all, but the man of steel is in charge
        2. Stalin – back to the basics – hurt wealthy people so he can benefit
          1. Take land from kulaks – wealthy landowners
          2. Industrialize w/out private initiative – he controls everything
            1. But…he will borrow some Western engineers/science
      2. Economic Policies
        1. Collectivization – put all land into mass holdings by government
          1. Everyone would share equipment and work in harmony…ahhh
          2. Plus…get to keep eyes on naughty peasants
            1. And…need to get taxes from peasants to industrialize
        2. What were the reactions to collectivization?
          1. Laborers – yeayy…we get to take stuff from kulaks
            1. But…what’s the motivation…life is still just D-
              1. Why put forth extra effort
              2. Kulaks…boo…we don’t want to give up stuff
                1. So…Kulaks introduced to blistery conditions of Siberia
        3. Was collectivization successful?
          1. Kulaks killed/exiled, labor not efficient, but industrial workers freed
            1. Urbanization – unskilled workers to the cities
        4. Now…the five-year plans for industry
          1. Massive factories for metallurgy, mining, electric power
          2. Like Peter the Great – modernize w/ minimal Western help
          3. Goods produced were heavy industry, not consumer goods
            1. So…not a lot of cool stuff to buy in the shops
          4. Not capitalism
            1. Government decides on resources and supply quantities
              1. So…supply numbers too low or too high sometimes
          5. Between 1927 and 1937…industrialization increases 1400%
            1. US, Germany, USSR – third largest industrial power
            2. Sure…40 million people died in process, but…end justifies
          6. Toward an Industrial Society
            1. What were the effects of industrialization?
              1. Crowded cities
              2. Workers help
                1. publicly rewarded/given bonuses for production
                2. Welfare services – healthcare, illness/old age protection
                3. Worker grievances analyzed
              3. Strikes not allowed
      3. Totalitarian Rule
        1. But…like gets pretty boring – Stalin must control everything
        2. Controls intellectual life
          1. Western culture, artists, writers exiled/killed
          2. Instead you get Socialist realism – heroic ideals of worker
        3. No scientific free inquiry – study only practical science
        4. Government police
          1. Punish anyone – real and imagined opponents
            1. Great purge of party leaders – 1936-1937 – kangaroo court
              1. Confess to crimes didn’t commit
          2. News monopolized – let’s just say there was a bit of propaganda
        5. Congresses + executive committee (Politburo) really have no power
        6. Foreign policy
          1. Killed all the good generals – puts a damper on foreign policy
          2. Pretty much stays isolationist in 1920s
          3. But…that Germany looks a bit dangerous
            1. Ally selves w/ US, French and UK in Spanish Civil War
            2. But…not enough
            3. USSR signs peace pact w/ Germany – prepares for war
              1. Gets part of Poland
              2. Two liars lying to each other
      4. New Political and Economic Realities
        1. Introduction
          1. Thanks Depression – options – weak parliament or fascist state
            1. Forces new political reactions
              1. Latin America tries new initiatives
              2. Japan goes militaristic
              3. Russia goes totalitarian
          2. Middle East reaction
            1. Turkey goes anti-Muslim traditions
              1. Women can vote, upper class can’t wear fancy hats – fez
            2. Turkey/Persia try to be self-sufficient – don’t need western imports
            3. Arab nationalism forces Europeans to grant independence
    6. Global Connections
      1. Depression and Retreat
        1. Western European countries go protectionist – things get worse
        2. Japan annoyed at Western tariffs – wants to control sphere, not be vulnerable
        3. Germany wants to be self-sufficient – pulls out of world community
        4. Soviet Union – yeah, yeah…workers of the world unite, but in reality
          1. Let’s just protect our own borders – isolationist/nationalist

    The world is just falling apart, and all the kings horses and all the kings men couldn’t be humpty together again.

    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 31 - A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order

    Chapter 31
    A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order

    1. Introduction
      1. World War II
        1. Officially started in 1939 after decade of aggression
        2. Aggression of Axis powers went unchecked - appeasement
      2. Failure to unite
        1. Nationalism plus Red Fear/Scare of Soviets prevented early alliance
        2. W/in each government disagreement on how to respond
          1. Some actually felt guilty about Versailles
        3. League of Nations a joke
          1. Italy and Japan merely left the League after censured
        4. Axis/Fascist leaders laughed at treaties - diplomacy a joke
          1. Brilliant method of delaying intervention of enemy
    2. Old and New Causes of a Second World War
      1. China vs. Japan
        1. China looking stronger - Chiang Kai-shek uniting/defeating warlords
          1. Could Nationalist (Guomindang) party pose a threat
          2. Afraid Chinese would retake Manchuria
        2. Japan gradually becomes militaristic
      2. Germany - Weimar Republic weak - blamed for Versailles
        1. Great Depression made life look worse
          1. Adolf Hitler takes advantage
          2. Nazis made a ton of promises
            1. German people back to work
            2. Ignore diktat of Versailles
            3. Turn back Communist push
              1. Actually wants to enslave Slavic peoples
        2. Steps to taking over Europe/becoming poweful
          1. Destroy parliament/political system > totalitarian
          2. Ignore diplomacy of Versailles
          3. Rearm/remilitarize
            1. Not afraid to bomb cities/use poison gas
          4. Forced union with Austria
          5. Annexation of Czechoslovakia
      3. Mussollini - big, bad Italian man gets courage to take over Ethiopia
      4. Spanish Civil War - becomes training ground for new weapons
        1. Franco wins with Axis support, but doesn't help Axis in war
    3. Unchecked Aggression and the Coming of War in Europe and the Pacific
      1. Introduction
        1. US, Britain, France appeasment
          1. Sacrifice small nations to protect themselves
          2. Fear of another world war
          3. Want to focus on welfare states, not military states
        2. Japan first to attack - invaded China from Manchukuo
          1. Japanese moderate political leaders silenced
            1. Fear of assassination from military officers
          2. Initially quite successful, but when they lose, they get medieval
            1. Rape of Nanjing - horrific treatment of Chinese civilians - 1937
              1. Symbolic beginning of horrific war of suffering
          3. Japan and China in war for Asia far before 1941
        3. Japan, Germany, Italy did not coordinate attacks
        4. Germany needs to attack Soviet Union - lebensraum - living space
          1. First, signs nonaggression agreement with Soviets
            1. Buys time, splits Poland, can now invade from Poland
        5. British/France declare war once Poland is attacked
          1. Prepare for another trench warfare, unfortunately Hitler doesn't play fair
    4. The Conduct of a Second Global War
      1. Introduction
        1. Hitler's victories stunningly fast
          1. West's reluctance to arm/react decisively
        2. War shifts once Germans get stuck in Russian winter
          1. Anglo-American, Soviet alliance has more #s, industry, technology
      2. Nazi Blitzkrieg, Stalemate, and the Long Retreat
        1. Blitzkrieg - lightning fast war
          1. Coordinate tanks, mechanized troop carriers, fighter aircraft/bombers
          2. Penetrate deep into nation - hit capital hard
          3. Severely punished civilian population that didn't surrender
          4. In months, French defeated, British pushed back across the Channel
        2. Why did France lose so quickly?
          1. Gov't couldn't agree on what to do - left vs. right argued
          2. Weapons painfully outdated
          3. Civilian population demoralized
          4. Only Vichy France in South exists - puppet government
        3. Turns to invasion of Britain - strong air force + growingly powerful army
          1. Battle of Britain - Britain actually holds off
            1. Strong leadership of Churchill/war cabinet
            2. Radar detection discovered Nazi flight plans
            3. Bravery of Britain's royal family
            4. High morale of citizens
          2. Land invasion called off, can't fight off British Navy
        4. But Germany had taken over W. Europe, Scandinavia, Mediterrenean, N. Africa
          1. Conguered areas must provide
            1. War materials, soldiers, slave labor
      3. Hitler turns on Soviet union
        1. Soviets easily pushed out of Finalnd, Poland, Baltic states, but then winter kicks in
          1. Soviets just won't surrender - body for bullet
          2. Just kept retreating eastward
          3. Nazi mass killings inspire guerilla warfare behind front lines
          4. Stopped at Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad
        2. Fought most severe battles - Kursk, Stalingrad
          1. Momentum shifts - Germany on the run
          2. 1943 Soviets push west, 1944 on doorstep of Berlin
          3. Sacrifices of Soviet soldiers/women/civilians led to victory
      4. From Persecution to Genocide: Hitler's War Against the Jews
        1. First years of war Hitler persecuted non-Aryans
          1. Gypsies, leftist politicians, homosexuals, Jews, Polish intellectuals, communists
        2. Once war seemed lost, and on defensive
          1. Turned to "final solution" - Wannsee Conference - 1942 - extermination camps
          2. Resources from front used or transportation, imprisonment, mass murder
          3. Shipped from all over empire to the East
            1. Physically fit > hard labor
            2. Women, children, ill - murdered immediately
          4. Used for scientific experiments
        3. Holocaust - 12 million killed, 6 million Jews
          1. Armenian genocide the root
          2. Horrific - premeditated, systematic, carried out by the state
          3. Essentially allowed by occupied countries
            1. Only really Danes and Italians resisted in any degree
          4. Also, allied countries refused Jewish emigrants/refugees
            1. Also didn't attack railway lines or extermination camps
        4. Effect - creation of Zionist state in Israel
          1. Emigration to Palestine only option
            1. Some even made deals with Nazis to take to Palestine
      5. Anglo-American Offensives, Encirclement, and the End of the 12-Year Reich
        1. American interaction
          1. Primarily supplies at first - US gov't hesitant, Roosevelt sympathetic
          2. Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 - US enters
          3. Tank divisions and infantry join in Africa
          4. Next attacked Sicily, Italy
            1. Eventually Mussolini toppled, assassinated
          5. June 1944, Western front - invasion of Normandy
            1. Moved East to Germany, stopped only briefly at Battle of the Bulge
        2. By June 1945 US and Soviets divisive over how to divide Germany
          1. Hitler kills himself - goes down believing he was betrayed by German people
      6. The Rise and Fall of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific War
        1. 1/3 of Japanese forces fight in China throughout war
        2. After Pearl Harbor, Japan takes over Asia
          1. Thailand becomes neutral, cooperates
          2. Australia and New Zealand provide support
          3. But...US on its own
        3. Took over too much, angered all of the European Allies
          1. Colonial regimes worse than European
            1. Needed natural resources, raw materials
          2. Led to resistance movements - requires even more soldiers/resources
            1. Guerrilla forces harassed Japanese
              1. Coordinated w/ Americans and British
        4. Main theaters of conflict islands - "island hopping"
          1. Vicories at Battle of the Coral Sea and Midway Island
          2. Joint air, sea, land assaults against Japan
        5. 1944 America begins firebombing Japanese cities
          1. Destroyed wooden homes, hundreds of thousands of civilians killed
        6. Demanded unconditional surrender
          1. Atomic bombs - August 1945
            1. Threat that Japanese would fight to the death
    5. War's End and the Emergence of the Superpower Standoff
      1. Introduction
        1. Wanted to avoid failed peace treaties of World War I
        2. Established United Nations
          1. More representative of world than League of Nations
            1. US actually decides to participate
          2. Security Council made up of victors - US, France, Britain, China, USSR
            1. Though China is really represented by Taiwan, communist gov't not acknowledged
          3. Colonies and defeated powers granted membership
          4. Europe retained control of post-war global policy through 3 votes on security council
          5. Forum for negotiating international disputes
          6. World Court of Justice
          7. Human Rights organizations - food, labor, women
          8. Unsuccessful at times - large and small nations resent role
          9. But...played important role in humanitarian, refugee relief
          10. Sponsored conferences to deal with social issues
            1. Child labor, women's rights, environmental protection
      2. From Hot War to Cold War
        1. USSR vs. USA - no direct conflict, but tons of related global conflicts
        2. Began with how to decide post-war Europe
          1. USSR wanted territorial gains - tired of getting invaded
        3. Tehran Conference - 1944
          1. By setting up Western front in France, USSR takes over Eastern Europe
            1. USSR doesn't pull out of many occupied lands - Iron Curtain
          2. Doesn't allow nations to "self-determine" themselves
        4. Yalta Conference - 1945
          1. USSR gets Manchuria and northern Japanese islands
          2. Divide Germany into 4 spheres of influence
          3. Germany industry allowed to continue - needed to control Soviets
          4. USSR wants friendly gov'ts in small European nations
            1. West wants democratic gov'ts
            2. Stalin lies
        5. Problems still after Potsdam
          1. Austria divided, occupied then independent in 1956
          2. Poland gain East Germany, but lose land to Russia
          3. USSR/USA sign separate treaties with Japan
          4. German peace treaty not even agreed upon until 1980s
          5. Korea divided between USSR and USA
          6. European colonies returned to Europeans
            1. But...independence movements start right away
          7. China war starts
            1. Soviets aid communists
            2. US aids Nationalists
        6. Independence movements
          1. Middle East, Africa, India want independence
            1. Europe fought nationlism during war, but had to revisit after
        7. Soviet Union pushes boundaries West
          1. New independent nations created in 1918 gobbled up by USSR
        8. US heavily influenced W. Europe
          1. Occupied troops, economic aid (Marshall Plan), policy manipulation
        9. Two movements roots
          1. Occupied people push for independence/decolonization
          2. World's allegiances divided between US and USSR
    6. Nationalism and Decolonizatino
      1. Introduction
        1. No more illusions of European dominance
          1. Destroyed by Nazis and Japanese
          2. Japanese victories over Europeans destroyed myth - Pearl Harbor, Singpaore
          3. "death marches" of Europeans
        2. Harsh rule of Japanese inspired nationalism - want to control fate
        3. Harsh total war sapped European desire to maintain empires
        4. US propagandizes notion of anticolonialism
        5. Atlantic Charter of 1941
          1. Roosevelt and Stalin persuaded Churchill to sign clause
            1. Recognize "right of all people to chooce the form of government"
      2. The Winning of Independence in South and Southeast Asia
        1. Indian National Congress demands independence in exchange for fighting
          1. Sir Stafford Cripps sent to India to get a deal, doesn't work
          2. Quit India movement - civil disobediene campaigns 1942
            1. Gandhi, Nehru thrown in jail
          3. British have backing of Communists and Muslim League
            1. Muslim League - Muhammad Ali Jinnah - wartime support
              1. British like him, he wants separate Muslim India
        2. Churchill loses 1945 election, Labor Party ready to deal
          1. 1945-1947 - what type of India
            1. Muslims propagandize that Hindu dominated India would persecute Muslims
            2. Must create Pakistan in northwest and east India
            3. Communal rioting spreads across nation
          2. To avoid civil war, Pakistan and India gain independence in 1947
          3. Summer of violence - Hindu-Muslim and Muslim-Shikh violence
            1. Led to massive refugee movement - moving to safe area
        3. India and civil disobedience inspired independence movements across globe
          1. French and American empires start to fall
            1. Filipino independence comes after help during WWII
          2. Dutch and French fight to keep colonies
      3. The Liberation of Nonsettler Africa
        1. Africa more dramatically affected by WWII
          1. Forced labor
          2. Confiscation of crops/minerals
          3. Inflation/controlled markets > less money for Africans
          4. More chances to kill Europeans with European weapons
          5. Fight for freedom, return to oppression
          6. France controlled by Nazis and Vichy French – who to listen to
        2. Change in colonial policy
          1. Industrialization created in colony
          2. Rapid urbanization to take advantage of work
            1. But…few jobs…millions of people living together and angry
        3. Paths to independence
          1. Kwamee Nkrumah – radical African leader – British Gold Coast
            1. Establishes Convention People’s Party
            2. Mass rallies, boycotts, strikes
            3. Doesn’t back down regardless of threats, imprisonment
            4. By 1957, Ghana created – after decade of gradual concessions
          2. Peaceful devolution of power
            1. Worked with French, tired of fighting, maintaining colonies
            2. France gradually pulls out and leaves moderate leaders in place
          3. Belgian get out and run plan
            1. No western educated elite to lead – 16 college graduates/13 million
            2. Heads into chaos
      4. Repression and Guerrilla War: The Struggle for the Settler Colonies
        1. Gradual withdrawal tough in settler colonies – Europeans live there
          1. Blocked nationalistic movements and concessions on part of overlords
          2. Fought attempts to turn power over
          3. African leaders forced to turn to violent, revolutionary struggles
        2. Kenya – Land Freedom Army – 1950s – guerilla warfare against British
          1. British react with violence
          2. Kenyatta forms Kenya in 1963 – British tired of fighting
        3. Algeria – French – National Liberation Front
          1. French fight back – make up for defeat in Vietnam
          2. After years of fighting Charles de Gaulle – France – wants to get out
            1. Huge financial drain on country
          3. But…unlike in Kenya, Algerian residents fight back
            1. Secret Army Organization
            2. Eventually Parisian gov’t overthrown – end of 4th Republic
          4. Settlers + Algerian sympathizers have to move to France
            1. Too much hatred violence between them
      5. The Persistence of White Supremacy in South Africa
        1. Why did South Africa remain white dominated?
          1. Larger white settler population – Afrikaners + British
          2. Afrikaners have no nation to return to – two centuries in S. Africa
          3. White racist supremacy ideology
            1. Afrikaner racism elaborate and explicit – written, detailed
          4. British made concessions to Afrikaners – felt guilty after Boer War
            1. Gave political control to Afrikaners
          5. Afrikaner National Party
            1. Independence from Britain
            2. Establish lasting white domination
        2. Apartheid
          1. Thousands of laws to separate
            1. Best jobs for whites
            2. Africans/colored denied vote/political representation
            3. Limited educational opportunities
          2. Vigilant/brutal police force to enforce
          3. Kept populations geographically separated
      6. Conflicting Nationalisms: Arabs, Israelis, and the Palestinian Question
        1. Egypt, Syria, Iraq gained independence during Interwar Period
          1. Others all liberated by 1960s, but…
        2. Palestine
          1. Zionist movement gains momentum due to Holocaust
            1. International sympathy
            2. US/Britain reluctant to accept Jews
            3. Palestinian violence forces British to try and slow immigration
          2. Jews/Zionists create military – Haganah + terrorist organizations to fight Brits
        3. Deadly stalemate
          1. Zionists want independent Jewish nation
          2. Palestinians want multireligious nation w/ Palestinians dominating
          3. Britain just wants to get out of unsolvable situation
        4. United Nations suggests partition
          1. But…all out war ensues…Jews win – 1) better weapons, 2) better prepared
          2. Led to thousands of Palestinian Arab refugees
    7. Global Connections
      1. Were there really revolutions?
        1. Or merely transfer of power from one elite group to another w/ new nation name attached
          1. Western-educated African and Asian classes merely took over
            1. Both jobs and homes
          2. For the most part big landholders kept land and didn’t redistribute
            1. Acceptions – Algeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe
        2. Culturally kept many Western ideas
          1. Western sciences now taught
          2. Administration often conducted in English
        3. Western dominance of trade maintained
          1. One of criteria for independence was protection of existing merchants/traders
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 32 - Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

    Chapter 32
    Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

    1. Introduction
      1. After World War II
        1. Soviets create an empire that dominates Eastern Europe
        2. Western Europe recovers, but not totally dominant
        3. US breaks from isolationist and turns international
      2. Cold War - democratic capitalism vs. communism
        1. Led to alliances and arms race
      3. Western Europe
        1. Turned to service based economy
        2. Social transformation > more roles for women
        3. Democracy had firm roots - unlike decades before
        4. Europe started to work together not as indepedent nationalistic nations
      4. Soviet Union turns industrialist
        1. New world role
        2. Science exploration and sports achievement
    2. After World War II: International Setting for the West
      1. Introduction
        1. Infrastructure of Europe destroyed - bombings
        2. Boundary changes + forced labor = refugees
        3. USSR and USA size/industrial strength dwarf European nation-states
      2. Europe and Its Colonies
        1. Two major changes - decolonization and cold war
          1. Colonies
            1. Only maintainable at a high cost
            2. French finally give up Vietnam in 1954 - costly defeats
            3. French finally give up Algeria in 1962 - almost civil war
            4. Most independence achieved peacefully
              1. France/Belgium actually intervened/helped later
            5. West continues to economically exploit Africa
        2. Decolonization's Effect on Europe
          1. Returning settlers ticked off
          2. Europe's role in world affairs minimal
            1. Suez Canal crisis of 1956 symbolic shift
            2. War ends only after US and USSR end it
            3. Europe goes on without colonies
          3. The Cold War
            1. Lines drawn immediately after WWII
              1. Eastern bloc emerges
                1. Soviet troops remained
                2. Communist governments amazingly elected
                3. USSR gets more Western lands
                4. Having base in East Berlin - Soviets in heart of W. Europe
              2. US and Britain respond
                1. Churchill claims iron curtain has descended - free/repressed
                  1. Britain no power to defend views
                2. US takes more active stance - having bomb helps
                  1. Refuses loans to rebuild eastern Europe
                  2. Gives money to Iran, Turkey, Greece to avoid communism
                  3. Marshall Plan - tons of money to W. Europe
                    1. US now has tons of influence
            2. Focal point in early years - Germany
              1. US wants to build economically successful W. Germany - combat commies
              2. US tries to stabilize German currency - USSR bitter at US for being nice
                1. Cuts off all roads into Berlin - even West Berlin
                2. US responds with Berlin Airlift
            3. NATO created - W. Europe plus Canada
              1. Military alliance
              2. Rearms W. Germany
              3. Goal - combatting communism
            4. USSR responds with Warsaw Pact and gets the bomb
            5. Cold War effects on W. Europe
              1. US influences policy of Europe
                1. Larger military budgets for France/Britain
                2. Rearm W. Germany
              2. Why would they listen to US?
                1. Hold rebuilding money
                2. Stationed troops throughout Europe
                3. Protected by nuclear umbrella
              3. USSR scared the bejeepers out of W. Europe
                1. Even sent money to forment communist movements
              4. Cold War issues move to Middle East and East Asia after 1950s
                1. France pulls out of NATO - looks like Britain/US calling all the shots
                2. W. Germany wants to reopen trade with Eastern bloc in 1970s
              5. US military power increases, allowing Europe to devalue military
                1. Europe puts values on civilian values/goals - sure...US paying the tab
    3. The Resurgence of Western Europe
      1. Introduction
        1. Europe made progress post WWII
          1. Exentending democratic systems
          2. Modifying nation-state rivalries
          3. Rapid economic growth
            1. Took care of many gender/social problems
      2. The Spread of Liberal Democracy
        1. Notion of revolution faded
          1. Fascism proved a failure
          2. Communists started working within the system
        2. Focus became government planning for welfare
        3. New West Germany - Federal Republic of Germany
          1. Combined 3 zones
          2. New gov't outlawed extremist political movements
        4. New European gov'ts had universal suffrage - and women
          1. Remain stable
            1. Only France gets new constitution - 1958
          2. Spain/Portugal democratize when dictators die
        5. Most similar government systems in history of Europe
      3. The Welfare State
        1. Shift leftward in political spectrum
        2. New parties after WWII push for welfare
          1. Britain - Labour Party
          2. France/Italy - Christian Democrats
          3. US tentative to adopt welfare wholesale
            1. Added to Roosevelt's New Deal - Great Society
        3. Welfare programs
          1. Unemployment insurance
          2. Medical care - state funded insurance
            1. State run medical facilities
          3. Family assistance - $ if you have children
          4. Public housing
            1. Britain - "council housing" - mixes classes
        4. What does welfare state change?
          1. Citizens don't have to worry about huge expenses
          2. Improved health
          3. Poor can still make purchases
          4. Interaction between govt and individual
        5. Government bureaucracy gets huge/expensive
          1. Technocrat - engineering/economics trained civil servant
          2. Military spending goes down
        6. Governments gain more control of economy
          1. Create long term/short term economic plans
          2. Decided where money went from state banks
          3. Helped determine path of agriculture
    4. Political Stability and the Question Marks
      1. Introduction
        1. 1960s had massive demonstrations - race/student
          1. Materialism
          2. Civil rights legislation + police repression
            1. Almost revolution in France
          3. Feminism - economic equality and dignity
          4. Green movement
            1. Hostile to uncontrolled economic growth
        2. Economic growth slowed - leads to new governments
          1. Margaret Thatcher/Ronald Reagan cut back welfare
      2. The Diplomatic Context
        1. Europe tried to deal with traditional problems
          1. French-German hatred/tension
          2. Christian-Democrat movement - push for harmony
        2. US Marshall Plan encourages Europe to reconsider tariffs
        3. France/Germany begin discussing linking up
          1. Tie Germany's economy internationally - they won't fight
          2. 1958 W. Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxemb, Netherlands
            1. European Economic Community, Common Market
              1. Today called European Union
            2. Tariffs reduced for interstate trade
            3. Uniform tariff policy for outside Europe
            4. Court system in Brussels, Belgium to solve disputes
            5. Economic fund to encourage financial growth
          3. Failed attempts to have single government - wouldn't that be strange
          4. Arguments sometimes over agricultural policy
          5. 2001 - single currency - Euro
          6. Other nations gradually join - even proud British
        4. Nationalistic tensions die off - currently in longest periods of peace
      3. Economic Expansion
        1. Long period of economic expansion
          1. Welfare state gives more purchasing power
          2. Agricultural product becomes extremely efficient - technocrat driven
            1. N. America farming still more efficient > high tariffs
          3. Weapons, appliances, automobiles
          4. GNP growth surpasses US
          5. Based on technological change
        2. Changing workforce
          1. Less industrial jobs - turns post-industrial
          2. Service-based jobs
            1. teachers, clerks, medical personnel
            2. insurance, bank workers, performers
            3. "leisure industry" personnel
          3. Low unemployment - single digits
          4. Demand for low-skilled labor comes from immigrants
        3. Per capita disposable income increases
          1. Household appliances, TVs, shopping malls
          2. Efficient, huge stores replace traditional specialty shops
        4. Advertisement huge in US
          1. TV advertising - commercial based
            1. Vs. Europe...fewer commercials - state-owned
        5. Goal becomes combining efficient work with indulgent leisure
        6. Negatives of expansion
          1. Inflation - demand outstrips production
          2. Immigrants - "guest workers" living on subsistence wages
          3. Economic inequality - income gap increases
        7. Europe's economic success = social reform + global involvement
    5. Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand
      1. Introduction
        1. Less social innovation because less crisis from first half of century
        2. US takes dominant military lead in alliances
        3. Other nations - Canada, Australia, New Zealand attach selves
      2. The Former Dominions
        1. Canada begins to worry about US investments/dominance of resources
          1. 1988 - sign a free trade agreement
          2. Quebec wants regional autonomy, limited English
          3. 1982 - new constitution - more power to provinces
        2. Australia/New Zealand
          1. Moved away from Britain, toward US militarily
            1. Supported Korean War/Vietnam War
            2. Mainly for Cold War, anti-communist purposes
          2. 1980s/1990s move away
        3. Investment/trade focused around Pacific
        4. Increasing immigration from Asian countries
          1. Against Asians at first, white-only immigration
      3. The "U.S. Century"?
        1. US steps up to dominate internationally
          1. Britain unable to defend militarily
          2. USSR expansion
          3. Truman Doctrine - America protect peoples from Communism
          4. Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe
          5. Both parties agreed to this policy initially
        2. US policy changes
          1. Red scare in 1950s
          2. Defense Department - 1947 - increased budget
          3. CIA worldwide information gathering - aka - spies
        3. Containment policy - let Communism go no further
          1. Sets up alliances with various Middle Eastern/Asian nations
          2. US supports non-communist regimes
            1. Even when sometimes they're bad guys
              1. Military regimes or dictators
          3. Attempted to keep Vietnam from going Communist
            1. But...after tons of bombs and dead people - still communist
        4. New policies after Vietnam
          1. Can guerilla's stalemate US military?
        5. Reagan/Bush reemphasizes weapons/military - interventionist policy
          1. Involved in Grenada, Middle East terrorists, Saddam Hussein
        6. Some resented America's huge military/economic role, but what is option B?
    6. Culture and Society in the West
      1. Social Structure
        1. Workers, propertyless, but have more buying power
        2. Social mobility possible – white-collar jobs possible
        3. Unskilled labor goes to immigrants
        4. Peasants became commercial
        5. But…tensions still exist
          1. Middle class have more leisure options
          2. Crime rate goes up
          3. Race/immigrant riots increase
      2. The Women's Revolution
        1. Family relations changed
          1. Leisure activities increase
          2. Telephone/automobile – new contacts with extended family
          3. Importance of parents declines – peers become more important
        2. Women take on new role in working world
          1. Service jobs available to men/women – strength irrelevant
          2. Entry into workforce to buy consumer goods
          3. New trend – women sphere separate from work sphere not possible
        3. Gains in higher education – women stay away from science/math
        4. Gains in right to vote
        5. Women can regulate birth rate – the pill, abortion
        6. Demographic shifts
          1. Brief baby boom after WWII, then decline in birth rate
          2. Want income for higher consumer purchases
          3. Children go to day care at earlier age
        7. Family satisfaction not kid centered, but marriage centered
        8. Divorce rates grow higher – women’s work, legal freedom, changing roles
          1. Led to impoverished women that combine work with child care
        9. New Feminism
          1. Want literal equality, no specific domain, roles
          2. Some value family, some not…main point is they want choice
      3. Western Culture
        1. Cultural focus shifts to the US
          1. “Brain drain” – top scientists lured to facilities, salaries of US
          2. Money related to art – US has more money to blow on art
        2. Europe still has role
          1. DNA and human genome work
          2. Nuclear research
          3. Space research w/ resulting satellites
        3. Modern art
          1. Public begins to gradually accept this new art, though they prefer old
          2. New forms of sculpture – abstract
          3. New art – combining consumer culture w/ art
          4. Art films more from Europe
        4. New research
          1. America takes lead in economics
          2. Social history – history from the eyes of civil society institutions
      4. A Lively Popular Culture
        1. “Coca-cola-nization” of Europe – spread clothes, food, films
        2. US TV far more attractive – has a ton more money to make quality TV
        3. British music comes to dominate – Beattles
          1. Unconventional color/cut – punk styles
        4. Relaxed views of sexuality
          1. Sex shops
          2. Premarital sex more common
        5. Some negative reaction – pop culture dulls senses, forget real problems
          1. But nothing like Nazi book burning, ultra conservative
        6. Increased Western influence of the world
    7. Eastern Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empire
      1. The Soviet Union as Superpower
      2. The New Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe
      3. Evolution of Domestic Policies
    8. Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutions
      1. Introduction
        1. New policies of Soviet Union
          1. Focused on industrialization
          2. Reached out for direct loyalty of people
          3. More culturally focused than under church-state tsar situation
            1. Though they’re cultural focus was anti-religion
              1. No church services to under 18
              2. Schools preached religion as superstition
              3. Anti-semitism still strong
              4. Muslims given most freedom
              5. Only elderly still interested in church
            2. Scientific/Marxist focus
              1. Scientists highly respected
              2. Research heavily funded
              3. Direction/research determined by gov’t – want applied science
              4. Linked to weaponry/aerospace
            3. Art/literature must follow party line
              1. Attack western styles – decadent
              2. Classical arts – rigid standards of excellence
              3. Literature walked line of angering gov’t
                1. Still discussed patriotism/Russian soul
            4. Education system – technicians, bureaucrats, propaganda state
          4. Fear of cultural pollution material always present
      2. Economy and Society
        1. Rapid industrialization/urbanization
        2. Key features of Eastern Europe
          1. State control of all economic sectors
          2. More heavy industrial goods than consumer goods
            1. Didn’t receive research funding
            2. Consumers had few options
            3. Not enough money to fund military and consumer goods
            4. Common complaints about lack of goods and long lines
          3. Environmental damage
            1. Agricultural mining – ¼ of Russia
            2. Industrialization air/water pollution
          4. Agricultural backwardness
            1. No money for more advanced farm equipment
            2. Weather made it difficult
            3. Constaints + lack of incentive = why work harder
            4. So…larger # of people stay farmers – inefficient
        3. Similarities to Western society
          1. Work rhythm/cycle mirrored West
          2. Incentive systems
          3. Entertainment – sports
            1. But…sports part of political/propaganda program
            2. East Germany/USSR dominated w/ state sponsored programs
          4. Social structure
            1. Urban areas divided by class – workers vs. white collar, middle class
              1. But…wealth divisions not as great
          5. Demographic similarities
            1. Birth rate dropped
              1. Education + more consumer products
              2. Wartime dislocations – where’s my husband
              3. But…some minority groups had high rates - Muslims
            2. Falling infant death rates
          6. Child rearing
            1. Important, but more discipline than West
              1. Emphasis on authority
          7. Women
            1. Still worked, performed heavy tasks
            2. Larger role in medicine
            3. Soviet propaganda champions role of women
      3. De-Stalinization
        1. System held together after Stalin’s death
          1. Bureaucratic experience
          2. Resistance to strike out in radical new direction
          3. Ruling committee replaces Stalin
        2. Nikita Khruschev
          1. Condemned Stalin for dictatorship/arbitrary rule
            1. Treatment of political opponents
            2. Narrow treatment/misunderstanding of Marxism
            3. Poor preparation for WWII
          2. Though it looked like time of change, not must changed
            1. Critics – trials not as server, nor punishments
          3. Downfall
            1. Fails to open Siberia to agriculture
            2. Offends many by insulting Stalin
          4. Cold War policy – “we will bury you”
            1. Tests limits of cold war – Cuban Missile Crisis
            2. Soviet space program threatens US
            3. Cold war tensions go down – tourism/exchanges up
            4. Steady military build-up
        3. After Khruschev things stay mellow
          1. But…agriculture worsens – have to import from US
        4. New foreign policy problems
          1. Frustration with China
          2. Relation with Egypt – friends then foes
          3. Muslims want more control
          4. Afghanistan takeover failed – wanted Muslim puppet regime
        5. Quality of goods, worker incentive dropped
          1. Bureaucratized/centralized plans – feel like you have no power
          2. Increased rates of alcoholism
          3. Youth getting annoyed – want access to Western culture
        6. World didn’t see how bad things were getting
          1. 1980s economy falling apart
            1. Pressure from Reagan
            2. Misplaced priorities
        7. Downfall of USSR leaves huge questions of stability
    9. Global Connections: The Cold War and the World
      1. Importance of Cold War
        1. Key role in decolonization and nationalism
        2. Some nations could play US/USSR against each other to gain
      2. Similarities
        1. Both secular
        2. Challenged traditional roles
        3. Sold weapons around the world
        4. Created system of hatred/fear/lack of tolerance of outside world
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 33 - Latin America: Revolution and Reaction Into the 21st Century

    Chapter 33
    Latin America: Revolution and Reaction Into the 21st Century

    1. Introduction
      1. General Augusto Pinochet
        1. Former commander of Chilean army brought up on crimes against humanity
          1. Seized power from leftist Salvador Allende in 1973
          2. Brutal repression – thousands killed/tortured
          3. Fascistesque
        2. Symbolic of larger issue – what to do about L. American dictators
        3. L. American century battle between forces of revolution and reaction
      2. Latin America – a third world continent
        1. Shared traits of Africa/Asia, but…
        2. Western social/political structures
        3. Economic links to US and Europe
        4. Again focused on exports – vulnerable to world demand
          1. Political, cultural, economic dependency cycle continued
      3. Theme – Decolonization = economic freedom + cultural/political that matches L. America
        1. Becomes more industrial – leads to labor movement
        2. Growing urban middle class begins to play a role
      4. Latin American patterns
        1. Economic expansion – conservative reaction to maintain political power
        2. Economic crisis – chance to break patterns/expand social justice
      5. More continuities than changes
        1. Can’t replace old system w/ agreed upon new system
        2. But…better education, social services, treatment of women, industry
    2. Latin America After World War II
      1. Introduction
        1. Brazil and Argentina ruled by reformers w/ populist agenda
        2. Even when Peron – Argentina – expelle
        3. power of mvmt still evident
          1. Military forced to repress to maintain control
          2. Military tried to gain prestige/nationalism in war for Falkland Islands
      2. Mexico and the PRI
        1. PRI – Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (huh?)
          1. Stability provided – controls politics – one-party system, but…
          2. Political corruption and failure to improve social
          3. Whatever happened to revolutionary ideals?
        2. 1994 Zapatistas revolt in Chiapas – frustrated
          1. Problem solved through repression/negotiation
        3. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – unclear if successful
          1. Attempt to improve political situation
          2. Trade increases, but…
          3. Middle class gets rich and large income gap between middle class and poor
        4. 2000 PRI finally defeated by Vicente Fox – PAN party
          1. Platform – end corruption, improve life for Mexican workers in US
    3. Radical Options in the 1950s
      1. Introduction
        1. What are possible solutions to improve economic and social conditions?
          1. Mexico – one-party conservative rule
          2. Venezuela/Costa Rica – reform minded democracies
          3. Or…there’s always the Marxist option
        2. Radical solutions as possibility
          1. Continued problems that never improve
          2. Revolutions go too far left, bring back military into control
            1. Bolivia – link of miners, labor, peasants
      2. Guatemala: Reform and United States Intervention
        1. Predominately Indian nation – illiterate, poor health
        2. Land distributed unequally – surprise, surprise
        3. Reformer Juan Jose Arevalo tries reforms
          1. Income tax
          2. Land reform
          3. Intense nationalism
          4. Problem – policies conflict with desires of United Fruit Company
            1. Foreign owned company that has a lot to lose
        4. 1951 Colonel Jacobo Arbenz tries to go even further
          1. Tries to nationalize transportation, hydroelectric system
          2. Tries to appropriate unused land
            1. Oligarchy and United Fruit Company threatened
          3. US/CIA sponsored military force takes over gov’t
            1. Surprise, surprise, they help out oligarchy/United Fruit
            2. Help based on acceptance of Eastern European weapons
        5. From then on it only gets worse
          1. Violence and instability
          2. Military gov’ts don’t deal with problems
          3. Guerilla movement starts
        6. ***Key theme – Latin American won’t be allowed to changed w/out foreigners
      3. The Cuban Revolution: Socialism in the Caribbean
        1. Cuba differs from Guatemala
          1. Large Spanish and African slave descendant population
          2. Large middle class
          3. Relatively high literacy/health care
          4. Huge disparity between urban and rural
        2. Cuban policies strongly linked to US interests
          1. ¾ imports from US
          2. Economy fluctuates based on global demand for sugar
        3. 1934-1944 – Fulgencio Batista rules, 1952 on becomes dictator
          1. Promises major changes – nationalization of natural resources
          2. Marred by corruption
        4. Enter Fidel Castro
          1. Lawyer who launches revolution but is arrested
          2. Exiled to Mexico – taught guerilla tactics by Ernesto “Che” Guevara
          3. Both return to Cuba, gain support, take over isolated leader
          4. Turns Marxist-Leninist – planned or not?
            1. Foreign properties expropriated
            2. Lands collectivized
            3. Centalized socialist economy
            4. Breaks contact with US
            5. Gains Soviet Union as protector
          5. Survives in the 1960s w/ support of Soviets – or would have failed
            1. Sugar prices fluctuate, can’t afford oil
          6. Cuban model borrowed by other revolutionaries
            1. Che Guevera in Bolivia
            2. Only method of resisting US, Soviet help
    4. The Search for Reform and the Military Option
      1. Introduction
        1. So…how do you reverse inequality and foreign domination?
          1. Mexico’s one party system – PRI
            1. But…poor planning, corruption, foreign debt crippled efforts
          2. Chile/Venezuela – church/clergy take position for human rights
            1. Liberation theology – social equality = personal salvation
            2. Leads to attacks against clergy/nuns who want social change
      2. Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power
        1. Caudillo tradition, but…
        2. Now military thinks they’re above politicians
          1. Sacrifice democratic process for martial law
        3. Fear of Cuban success spreading
        4. 1964 - Brazilian military + middle class take over elected government
          1. With help from US
          2. Fear that they would actually implement social reforms
        5. 1966 – Argentina - Military intervenes over Peron
        6. 1973 – Chile – Military overthrows socialist gov’t Salvador Allende
          1. Nationalized industries/banks
          2. Workers/peasants take over land and factories
          3. Surprise…surprise…US helped with overthrow – see a pattern?
        7. Pattern of rule
          1. Dictatorship
          2. Political repression/torture to dissidents
          3. Laws limited political freedom
          4. Economic changes
            1. Income gap actually got worse
            2. Property issues don’t change
            3. Gains in literacy and health
            4. Industrialization possible
        8. Unique variations
          1. Argentiona - land reform and pushed nationalism to take Falkland Islands
          2. Chile/Uruguay – intensely anti-communistic
      3. The New Democratic Trends
        1. 1980s military gradually turns power back to civilians
          1. Fear of Cuba communism goes away
          2. Populist parties not so scary
          3. End of cold war – US hesitant to sponsor dictators
        2. But still huge problems for L. American governments
          1. Large foreign loans – some infrastructure, some stupid = huge debt
          2. International commerce in drugs
          3. High rates of inflation
      4. The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence
        1. By end of WWI, US unquestioned leader in L. America
          1. Leading investors – 1/3 of all US foreign investments
        2. Military intervention to protect US owned properties/investments
          1. 30 military interventions before 1930
          2. United Fruit, other companies in Central America need protection
          3. Sometimes US contributed to assassination of leaders
        3. Leads to banana republics – puppet gov’ts controlled by US
        4. Brief change in 1930s w/ Good Neighbor Policy – Roosevelt
        5. But…communism/Cold War make it important again
          1. Support gov’ts that express anti-communistic dogma
        6. Belief that investment/economic improvement will prevent extremes
          1. Alliance for Progress – up to $10 billion for helping economics
        7. Increasing violence in 1980s, US supported conservative gov’ts
          1. 1989-1990 – invaded Panama, installed cooperative regime
    5. Societies in Search of Change
      1. Introduction
        1. Great social change
          1. Social and gender change substantial
            1. Different degrees of Indian enfranchisement (voting/participation)
            2. But…reality vs. enumerate
            3. still discrimination
              1. Still exploitation of Indian population common
      2. Slow Change in Woman’s Roles
        1. Voting rights not expanded until 1940s
          1. Always concern they would lean too far conservative
          2. Religion influenced conservatism
          3. Women’s place in the home
          4. Change brought about through feminist organizations, foreign pressure
            1. Sometimes vote secured just to benefit party in power
          5. However, right to vote doesn’t mean high political participation
            1. Women did show some impact with labor unions
            2. Also important w/ small scale commerce
            3. But…by 1990s…female participation closer to West than rest of the world
              1. Intermediate position between industrialized and rest
              2. Health, education, place in the workforce
      3. The Movement of People
        1. Population has swelled due to high fertility, declining mortality
        2. Pre-1900, migration was to L. America
          1. 20th century migration goes away from L. America
            1. Job opportunities – demand for unskilled labor
              1. US/Mexico set up formalized labor trade in WWII
            2. Political freedom
              1. Willing to risk death in boats to immigrate
            3. Some migration legal, some illegal
          2. Migration also between nations
            1. Haiti > Dominican Republic
            2. Colombians > Venezuela
        3. Massive urbanization
          1. Most urbanized area of developing world
            1. Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires all 13 million +
          2. Rate too fast
            1. Jobs can’t keep up with pace
            2. Creation of shantytowns – favelas
          3. Workers unable to unite
            1. Rural laborers not brought into factory jobs
            2. Labor organizations linked to gov’t
      4. Cultural Reflections of Despair and Hope
        1. Catholicism determines family, gender relations, business, social interaction
        2. Popular culture combination of African and Indian traditions
          1. Sama, Salsa, Tango – L. American contributions
        3. Literary/artistic themes revealed conditions of the poor – social criticism
        4. Some authors resorted to “magical realism” – fantastic stories
    6. Global Connections
      1. L. America still remained “unrevolutionary” – many things didn’t change, but…
        1. Mexican/Cuban Revolutions – huge impact
          1. To be mimicked or avoided
        2. Gov’ts try populist or militarist
      2. Levels of literacy improve
      3. Economies improve, but income gap widens
        1. Geography plays role – N. Mexico more opportunities than Southern
      4. Elements of identity copying the west - Culturally
        1. …or should they incorporate traditional
        2. New Protestantism
        3. Clash of conservatives vs. copying the West
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 34 - Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

    Chapter 34
    Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

    1. Introduction
      1. Real struggle of revolutions is after liberation has been won
        1. How to build prosperous societies/strong gov’ts
        2. When you have decades/centuries of colonial rule
      2. Realities of fragile state structure/underdeveloped economies
        1. Ethnic/religious divisions become more pronounced
      3. Departing colonizers left economies in shambles
        1. To get independence, concessions made to Europeans
          1. They still benefit economically
        2. Shortage of expertise/resources
        3. Rapidly growing populations
      4. Reactions destroy environment – anything to survive
        1. Can’t afford anti-pollution devices
        2. Alarming air, water, soil pollution
    2. The Challenges of Independence
      1. Introduction
        1. Nationalist movements usually had mass interest
          1. Promised jobs, civil rights, equality
          2. Once Europeans gone, enough to go around – utopia
        2. Unfortunately, not enough to go around
          1. Lack of resources, plus unequal distribution
        3. After failure of utopia
          1. Bitter rivalries pop up again
          2. Ethnic groups thrown together by European random boundaries
            1. Sometimes nations split – Pakistan > Bangladesh
            2. Causes famine and starvation
            3. Caused wars that stripped resources
            4. All gov’t can do is keep nation from falling apart
              1. Can’t focus on other problems
      2. The Population Bomb
        1. Increasing population boom made industrialization difficult/impossible
        2. Factors that lead to population increase
          1. Colonial introduction
            1. New crops
            2. Order – not so many deaths from intertribal conflict
            3. Transportation cut down on regional famines
          2. Improved hygiene/medical treatment
          3. Asia population gradually slowed, Africa’s still flying
            1. Asia added to already big population
            2. Africa had low population density – large land area
              1. At this rate, Niger could pass China
              2. But…
                1. AIDS epidemic could slow down
                2. Entire continent’s economic output equals Illinois
          4. How European control hurt
            1. Limiting industrialization made it impossible to deal with growth
              1. No factories for labor
              2. Couldn’t sell goods to draw food from other nations
          5. Resistance to birth control
            1. Procreation = male virility
            2. Male children increases social standing of woman
            3. Religious beliefs
              1. Hindu – soul can’t move on until eldest son performs ceremony
            4. Core social group in Africa
              1. Lineage based
            5. Difference in need for women
              1. Asia has dowry/occupational restrictions – not as needed
              2. Africa women key to agriculture and market
            6. Gov’t hesitant to implement birth control reform – we can handle it
            7. Education expensive and difficult – limited literacy
          6. Infant mortality rates
            1. 75% mortality rates instilled need to have a ton of kids
              1. Children become workforce
              2. Children can take care of parents – nations lack welfare
            2. Since infant mortality rates have changed, #s go up
      3. Parasitic Cities and Endangered Ecosystems
        1. Emerging nations outstripped available land > massive urbanization
          1. Massive immigration for jobs that don’t exist
          2. Heavy competition for jobs = salaries remain painfully low
          3. To survive – people turn to
            1. Street vending, scavenging, crime, begging
          4. Urban poor become easy to mobilize
            1. Quite willing to support/jeer flavor of the month
            2. Poor, working-class, idle youths easy to manipulate
              1. Or enlist in clashes between ethnic/religious groups
            3. Gov’t has to keep this group happy, so they subsidize
              1. Keeps prices low
          5. Urban planning can’t keep pace
            1. Squatters create shantytowns
            2. Instead of destroying slums, gov’t tries to bring electricity/sanitation
          6. Overstretched countryside can’t keep up w/ demand
            1. Industrialized world gives factory jobs and imports food
        2. Negative environmental effects
          1. Soil depletion
          2. Deforestation
            1. Fuel or grazing land for livestock
          3. Industrial pollution
            1. Industrial centers small, but pollution huge
            2. Can’t afford antipollution technology
      4. Women’s Subordination and The Nature of Feminist Struggles in the Postcolonial Era
        1. Women gain political equality in developing world
          1. Played active roles in nationalist struggles
            1. Led to ability to run for office
          2. Were the women powerful in their own right?
            1. Connected to other powerful males
              1. India Gandhi – India – daughter of Nehru
              2. Corazon Aquino – Philippines
                1. Husband martyred leader of opposition to Marcos
              3. Benazir Bhutto – Pakistan
                1. daughter of Pakistani prime minister – assassinated
            2. Reality, women have no political participation or on the outside
        2. Second-class societal position
          1. More fundamental difficulties in developing nations
            1. Early marriage ages
            2. Large family size
              1. Higher education not an option
            3. Constantly worry about health/food for children
              1. Male-dominates systems mean women/girls eat last
                1. Leftovers nutritionally lower/potentially disease
      5. Neocolonialism, Cold War Rivalries, and Stunted Development
        1. Economy in disarray
          1. Diverse economy didn’t exist
          2. No money to buy machines/hire train people
            1. Money spent on government bureaucracy
            2. So…must sell cash crops/minerals to pay for industrialization
        2. Export market focuses on primary products
          1. Natural resources
          2. Value less than that of manufactured goods
          3. Value based on world market trends – can’t control
            1. Can’t plan future because revenue might change
        3. Neocolonial economy – global economy dominated by industrialized nations
          1. Not solely to blame – bureaucrats corrupt, pocket tons of money
            1. $ spent to buy luxury goods for bureaucrats/relatives
            2. Refusal to implement land reform
          2. Forced to ask for money from World Bank/International Monetary Fund
            1. Get money…but have to give up a lot
              1. Military bases
              2. Enter into military alliances
              3. Favor foreign investors
              4. Reduce state subsidies (gov’t pays farmers, so price cheaper)
                1. Prices go up…other markets can compete…but
                2. Locals can’t afford prices
                  1. Leads to social unrest, riots
                  2. Collapse of economies
    3. Paths to Economic Growth and Social Justice
      1. Introduction
        1. Some ways to improve living standards
          1. But still…benefits don’t reach everyone
          2. But…no solution has actually reached pre decolonialism goals
      2. Charismatic Populists and One-Party Rule
        1. Authoritarian rule proved unsuccessful
          1. Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah
            1. Committed to social reform early on
            2. Tried to initiate education/industrialization reforms
            3. But…rival political parties/ethnic groups fought him
            4. Policies looked leftist
              1. US didn’t support him, Soviets do
            5. Then…problem with natural resources kick in
              1. Bad cocoa crop kills farmers
            6. So…Kwame has to turn dictatorial
              1. Crushes opposition
              2. Starts looking a bit Fascist
                1. Creates symbols/traditions/mass rallies
                2. Dedicates statues to himself
              3. Surrounds himself with people who think he’s a god
            7. Starts looking to the traditional past
              1. Wears traditional clothing of Ghanian elite
              2. Even name Ghana not from actual kingdom from their past
            8. But…he’s a jerk…once he takes a trip, he’s overthrown in a coup
              1. Replaced by military coup
      3. Military Responses: Dictatorships and Revolutions
        1. Military regimes have best chance to be successful
          1. Resilient to ethnic/religious differences
            1. Focus on discipline
            2. Monopoly on force
          2. Not hesitant to use brute force
          3. Technical training
          4. Anti-communist – get technical/military assistance from West
        2. Methods of military regimes
          1. Banned political parties
          2. Varying degrees of repression
            1. Worst – Idi Amin – Uganda, Myanmar, Congo
              1. Enrich military leaders, kill/torture everyone else
              2. No attempt to reform
              3. Majority of money goes to military to protect selves
              4. Western and Soviets supply these gov’ts
            2. Radical reform
              1. Gamal Abdul Nasser – Egypt
                1. Replaces corrupt/inefficient democratic gov’t
                2. Free Officers Movement trains for overthrow
                  1. Founded by Hasan Al-Banna
                  2. Hated minority wealthy Egyptians
                3. Muslim Brotherhood – 1928
                  1. Starts pushing for social reform
                    1. Trade unions/education/land reform
                4. Able to take over power in 1952
                  1. Egypt totally embarrassed Arab-Isreali War
                5. Rule selves for first time since 500s
                6. Nasser rises as ruler of new military regime
                  1. Land reform – limits placed on ownership
                  2. State-financed education
                  3. Gov’t employs 30% of all jobs
                  4. State subsidies for crops
                  5. Restrictions on foreign investment
                  6. Foreign policy – destroy Israel
                    1. Kick out British/French from Suez
                    2. Backing of both US/USSR
                7. Failed programs
                  1. Land reform – easy to get around/corruption
                  2. Population boom cancelled out gains
                  3. Public projects
                    1. Failed due to lack of money/managmn
                    2. Aswan Dam project
                      1. killed farmlands – silt erosion
                      2. more parasites cause blindness
                  4. $ from West dried up
                  5. Failed foreign policy – loses to Israel in 1967
              2. Anwar Sadat – successor
                1. Dismantled state-sponsored programs
                2. Privately funded programs
                3. Stopped fighting Israel – waste of money
                4. Expelled Russians
                  1. Reopened investment from West
              3. Hosni Mubarak
              4. Neither path has actually improved living conditions
                1. Egypt’s rich minority, poor majority
                2. Fundamentalist take over
                  1. Sadat murdered, terrorist campaigns continue
      4. The Indian Alternative: Development for Some of the People
        1. How has Indian experience differed from Egypt’s?
          1. Preserved civilian rule
            1. Military actually protects secular democracy
              1. Prevents nation from going religiously extreme
          2. Has larger industrial/scientific sector
          3. Better communication system/bureaucratic grid
          4. Early leaders dedicated to democratic rule
            1. Preservation of civil rights/democracy
            2. Allows outspoken press/free elections
          5. Extremist parties might control local parties
            1. Federal gov’t mostly moderate
          6. Mixture of state and private interest
            1. State funds some organizations/allows foreign investment
            2. Leads to advanced computer/Internet sector
          7. Green Revolution
            1. Improved farming – seeds, fertilizers, irrigation
            2. Higher crop yields = more money for capitalism
        2. But…still huge gap between needs and resources for all population
          1. Can’t raise living standards for even majority
          2. Middle class grown, film industry grown
          3. Population growth just too fast
          4. Landlords still dominate tenants/landless
            1. Green Revolution favors those w/ money for seeds/fertilizer/equip
      5. Iran: Religious Revivalism and the Rejection of the West
        1. Ayahtolla Ruhollah Khomeini – ultimate conservative, religious backlash
          1. Religious purification
          2. Return to “golden age” of Muhammad
          3. Reaction to Western-backed governments
          4. Promised magical protection/instant paradise to those who die for cause
          5. Wanted to spread revolutions to surrounding areas
          6. Similar to Mahdi – Sudanese revolution of 1880s
        2. Why was Iranian revolution successful?
          1. Not formal European colony – merely sphere of influence
          2. No Western-educated middle class
          3. Instead, shahs modernized using oil wealth
            1. Government sponsored programs advance country
            2. But…mass of Iranian people alienated
              1. Ayatollahs – religious experts angered – angered at secular
              2. Mullahs – local prayer leaders
            3. Allowing foreign investors
            4. Half-hearted land reform
          4. Shah neglected military
          5. With crowd demonstrations – he just gave up and left – cancer
        3. Khomeini’s reforms
          1. Fought communism
          2. Replaced moderates w/ radical religious leaders
          3. Purged satanic influences of the West
          4. Islamic law codes became superior
            1. Amputation of limbs for theft/stoning for women adultery
            2. Veiling for women
            3. Limited opportunities for women
          5. Planned land reform, religious education, economies develop
          6. But then…Saddam Hussein pushes for oil land from Iran
            1. Leads to Iran-Iraq War
              1. US supports Iraq
          7. No way of knowing if this religious revolution could have been successful
      6. South Africa: The Apartheid State and Its Demise
        1. 1970s South Africa – largest, most populous nation still colonially dominated
          1. Afrikaner Dutch Nationalist party takes over independence from Britain
          2. Nationals passed thousands of laws – system of apartheid
            1. Monopoly political/economic
            2. System of extreme segregation
              1. Dating not allowed across races
              2. Non whites must carry passes
              3. Skilled jobs only for whites
          3. Creation of homelands
            1. relocated Africans to poorest land – live together
            2. Overpopulated/poverty-stricken
            3. Work in cites, return to homelands
          4. Built police state to maintain segregation
            1. Natural resources funded this oppression
          5. Outlawed nonviolent resistance
            1. African National Congress outlawed
            2. Nelson Mandela leader jailed for decades
          6. Played groups against each other so they wouldn’t unite
          7. Moving toward a violent climax
          8. viii. Why did South Africa change?
            1. International boycott weakened economy
            2. Expensive to fund wars with neighbors and keep down insurrections
            3. Moderate Afrikaner leader – F.W. de Klerk
            4. Release political prisoners
      7. Comparisons of Emerging Nations
        1. Similarities to Latin America
          1. Population pressure
          2. Environmental change
          3. Considerable economic dependence
        2. Differences
          1. India’s democracy differs w/ Middle East and most of Africa
            1. Enlightened leadership + British relationship
            2. Always had a tradition of decentralization
            3. Persistence of Hinduism
            4. Caste system still leads to social inequality
            5. Maintained elements of the past
          2. Massive change in the Middle East
            1. Most nations new – Ottoman Empire cast big shadow
            2. Tensions between secular/religious leaders
              1. Iranian revolution embodies this tension
              2. What should be role of women?
          3. Africa
            1. Came late to independence
            2. Subject to western dominance deep into 20th century
              1. Poorer than most of Asia
            3. Massive cultural change
              1. Only 20% polytheists – changing to Christianity/Islam
            4. Nationalism, consumer culture, Marxism
            5. Still blended this new w/ old tradition of “Big Man”
    4. Global Connections
      1. Be fair to new nations
        1. Only in existence for few decades
        2. Came in with many handicaps
        3. Even US took decades to compete – US had civil wars, boundary disputes
        4. Europe/US also struggled through industrialization
          1. Horrific working/living conditions + ecological damage
      2. But…they have more handicaps
        1. Massive population explosion
        2. More worldly competition for resources
        3. World Market system favors established industrial nations
      3. Struggle for next generation – find regionally specific solutions
        1. Probably be combination of Western influence + tradition
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 35 - Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

    Chapter 35
    Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

    1. Introduction
      1. Japan the anomaly in non-Western societies
        1. Fought imperialism & high level of industrialization
        2. Imitation of Western rivals - imperialist tendencies
      2. Korea has also emerged as leading industrial center
      3. China and Vietnam resemble other emerging nations
        1. Suffered from exploitive terms of exchange w/ West
        2. Had to deal with underdevelopment, overpopulation
        3. And...poverty and environmental degradation
        4. Sound familiar?
        5. But...they also saw collapse of 1000 year civilization
      4. Confucian system destroyed in Vietnam and China
        1. External aggression + internal upheaval
        2. Imperialism destroyed political institutions
          1. Left nothing for nation-building
      5. Recent themes
        1. Confucianism and traditions reworked/adapted
        2. Economic development
        3. Growing independence and self-assertion
    2. East Asia in th Postwar Settlements
      1. Introduction
        1. Divisions after WWII
          1. Korea divided between Russian/US zone
          2. Taiwan returned to China - ruled by Chiang Kai Shek
          3. US regained Philippines, pledged quick turnover w/ bases
          4. Europeans retook control of Vietnam, Malay and Indonesia
          5. Japan occupied by US forces
      2. New Divisions and the End of Empires
        1. Decolonization led to independence for Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines
        2. Taiwan ruled by Chiang Kai Shek, mainland to Mao
          1. Taiwan emergs as separate republic
        3. US intervention preserves South Korean independence
      3. Japanese Recovery
        1. Recovered economy in surprising speed
          1. US provided opportunity for selective westernization
        2. New political system
          1. Ruled by General Douglas MacArthur
          2. Got rid of wartime political structure
            1. military disbanded
            2. police decentralized
            3. officials removed
            4. political prisoners released
          3. Democratization
            1. women suffrage
            2. encouraging labor unions
            3. abolishing Shintoism as state religion
          4. People in favor of demilitarization
          5. Parliament system easy to incorporate - already have history
        3. New economic pattern
          1. Broke up landed estates
          2. Tried, but failed to break up zaibatsus
        4. Other changes
          1. Military abolished forever - unique for industrialized nation
          2. Emperor becomes symbolic figurehead only
          3. 1963 law for taking care of elderly
        5. Japanese society
          1. Education - reduced nationalism in textbooks
            1. Back to state control after occupation
            2. Have to teach tradition to children
          2. Extreme meritocracy - rigid examination system
      4. Korea: Intervention and War
        1. Gave Russia control of north in exchange for potential help against Japan
        2. North Korea - People's Democratic Republic of Korea
          1. Communist totalitarian state - Kim Il-Sung until 1994
        3. South Korea - Republic of Korea
          1. Parliamentary institutions but authoritarian
        4. Korean War
          1. 1950-1953 - N. Korea invades, S. Korea + United Nations pushes back
          2. China gets invovlved, pushes back to original borders
          3. Sign armistice
        5. Two divergent paths since then
          1. N. Korea - isolated one-man rule
            1. Power to one political party + military
          2. S. Korea - w/ help from US economic + military bases
        6. Tensions continued between two nations with border clashes
      5. Emerging Stability in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore
        1. Nationalists take over Taiwan island after losing civil war
          1. Communists couldn't threaten Taiwan - no navy
          2. Becomes authoritarian - must keep island under control
          3. Support of US - convinced Chiang to not attack mainland
        2. Hong Kong - returned to China from British control in 1997
          1. Chinese population swelled - economy boomed
          2. Singapore
            1. British naval base until 1971
            2. Became strong port and independent nation
              1. Why economically successful?
                1. Western aid/contacts
                2. Tradition of group loyalty
                3. Political stability
                4. Eventually grows to substantial international influence
    3. Japan, Incorporated
      1. Japan’s Distinctive Political and Cultural Style
        1. Conservative stability
          1. Liberal Democratic party controls 1955-1993 – compromise
          2. Made agreements/deals with opposition leaders
          3. Returned to oligarchy rule
        2. Government-business coordination
          1. Lending public resources
          2. limit imports
        3. Kept traditions
          1. Tradition – state-sponsored discipline
            1. Promoted birth control/abortion – population slowed
          2. Customs – poetry, painting, tea ceremonies, flower arrangements
            1. Kabuki and No theater
          3. Incorporated Japanese w/ western
            1. Western music w/ Japanese instruments
            2. Some rejected westernization
              1. Hiraoka Kimitoke – Yukio Mishima – hate Western ways
                1. Ritual suicide in 1970
      2. The Economic Surge
        1. By 1983 growth phenomenal, behind only US and Germany
          1. Automobile/electronics manufacturers – mass quantity/high quality
        2. Why so successful?
          1. Active government encouragement
          2. Educational expansion
            1. More engineers
          3. Foreign policy – no money for military
            1. US protects them
          4. Labor policy
            1. Company unions – worked with corporation
            2. Lifetime employment
            3. Social activities – group exercise
            4. Less class conscious and less individualistic
          5. Group consciousness
            1. few changed firms
            2. Long term success of firm important
            3. Reluctance to take vacations
        3. Family life
          1. Women well-educated and declining birth rates, but…
            1. Fewer leisure activities than husband
          2. Shame toward non-conformist behaviors
          3. Game shows – elaborate, dishonoring punishment for losers
        4. Chance for release – geishas, alcohol, still stressed by exams
        5. Popular culture
          1. Fusion of east and west
          2. Sometimes tension between westernization and Japanese identity
            1. The great chopstick calamity of the 1980s
            2. Young people tired of taking care of old people – too many
        6. Problems in the 1990s
          1. Government corruption
          2. Recession led to unemployment
    4. The Pacific Rim: New Japans?
      1. The Korean MiraclePolitics in South Korea
        1. Series of generals, put down by student protest pressure, new general
        2. Opposition groups tempered or jailed
          1. Freedom of the press minimal
        3. Economic focus of Korea
        4. Combination of government and private enterprise working together
          1. Huge industrial firms created w/ gov’t aid + entrepreneurship
            1. Daweoo and Hyundai
              1. Built ships, supertankers, housing units
              2. Built schools, cars
              3. Took care of workers
                1. Workers worked 6 day weeks, 3 vacation days
                2. Worshipful ceremonies of fleet of cars
                3. Lives protected by company
        5. Surpassed Japanese growth rates in 1980s
          1. automobiles, cheap consumer goods, steel, technology
        6. Industrialized changes
          1. Population soared – highest pop. densities in world – 40 million in Indiana
          2. Urban areas – air pollution
          3. Per capita income increased a ton, but still lower than Japan
          4. Huge fortunes next to extreme poverty
      2. Advances in Taiwan and the City-States
        1. Republic of China – Taiwan – agriculture/industrial rapid development
          1. Could focus on economics – military aspirations declined – US support
          2. Money poured into education, literacy
          3. Traditional medicine blends w/ western medicine
          4. Land reform
          5. Host of new concerns
            1. US recognized People’s Republic of China in 1978
            2. Made contacts w/ regional gov’ts
              1. Japan – purchased food, textiles, chemicals
              2. Informal links with Beijing
          6. Son of Chiang Kai-shek kept authoritarian rule
        2. The greatest country in the world – Singapore – My Singapura
          1. Lee Kuan Yew took over in 1965 – three decades
            1. Controlled citizens
              1. sexual behavior, economic corruption
              2. local regulation, economic planning
              3. Unusual discipline = low crime rates
              4. Impossibility of political protest
                1. People’s Action Party suppressed opposition
            2. Economic success made political control OK
              1. Government control + entrepreneurs
              2. Port + banking + manufacturing
              3. 1980s – second highest per capita income in Asia
            3. Educational levels and health conditions rose
            4. Plus, it has a cool island named Sentosa
              1. Merlion blows water from its mouth
              2. You can road louge down to the beach
              3. Wading in the water off Sentosa a risky choice
              4. Buying illegal CDs in Malaysia is bad
        3. Hong Kong
          1. Major world port + strong banking industry
          2. Why successful?
            1. High speed technology + low wages/long hours for employees
          3. Prosperous middle class grows
          4. Becomes part of China, free market economic system respected
      3. Common Themes and New Problems
        1. Stressed group loyalty
          1. Devalued protest/individualism
          2. Confucian morality
        2. Reliance on government planning
        3. Dynamism spread to “Little Tigers” – Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand
        4. But, what are the weaknesses…
          1. Growth faltered, unemployment rose, currencies took a hit
            1. Problem of gov’t/company link
            2. Should be more of a free market
              1. West believes only their model works
          2. But…by 1999, growth started to pick up again…a few bad years ain’t bad
    5. Mao’s China and Beyond
      1. Introduction
        1. Chiang Kai-shek vs. the Communist – 1930s
          1. Chiang focused on communists, Japanese took advantage – invaded
            1. Eventually forced to align w/ communists to fight Japanese
          2. Communists took advantage of Japanese invasion
            1. Took coastal areas – banks and business backing of Nationalists
            2. Nationalist forces destroyed by superior Japanese
              1. Looked bad to people
              2. Forced to retreat, ask for help from landlords and US
            3. Communist guerilla warfare more successful
              1. Pushed Nationalists to northern cities
              2. Mao takes advantage of propaganda
        2. Ensuing civil war – communists won
          1. Some shifted allegiance
          2. Communist soldiers treated better
          3. Chiang/armies retreat to Formosa – Taiwan
          4. Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China
        3. Why Mao successful? The info below is quite debatable…
          1. Land reform programs, access to education, improved health care
          2. Mao’s armies protected peasantry vs. Chaing’s abusive army
          3. Guerilla warfare better chance for success
          4. Convinced peasants they had programs to make life better
      2. The Communists Come to Power
        1. Communist party – strong military and political connection
          1. People’s Liberation Army – administered local politics
            1. Repressed secessionist movements – Tibet and Inner Mongolia
            2. Fought US out of N. Korea
            3. Helped liberation struggle in Vietnam
        2. Eventually relationship with USSR falls apart
          1. China wants border lands Russia seized from Qin dynasty
          2. Chinese refused to be subordinate to Russians
          3. Stalin died – Mao leader of communist world
          4. China looks more powerful – defeats India and develops nuclear bomb
      3. Planning for Economic Growth and Social Justice
        1. Tried to complete social revolution in rural areas
          1. Landlords dispossessed/purged – 3 million executed
          2. Redistributed land to peasants – nation of peasant smallholders
        2. But…then focus turned to industrialization
          1. Needed to focus money on urban areas
          2. Became more centralized gov’t
          3. urban based – wealthy technocrats emerged
        3. New method of industrialization
          1. Hated Lenin’s version of revolution by small number of elites
            1. Distrusted intellectuals
            2. Believed peasants solution to everything
            3. Wanted to avoid urban elitist population
          2. Turned to option B – Mass Line approach
            1. Farming collectives for 90% of China’s peasant
              1. No longer peasant owners, land turned over to state
          3. “Let a hundred flowers bloom” – encouraged protest/criticism
            1. Once critics out – demotions, prison sentences, banishment
      4. The Great Leap Backward
        1. Great Leap Forward – 1958
          1. Industrialization not in factories, but at farms
          2. Use communes extra resources for building tractors, cement for irrigation
          3. “Backyard furnaces” make steel in backyard without machines
          4. All aspects of lives regulated on communes
          5. Mao believed this was good – helped peasants, didn’t create bureaucracy
        2. But…within months…total failure
          1. Peasants resisted collectivization, commune leaders, backyard factories
          2. Horrible drought
          3. China resorted to importing grain
        3. Plus…huge birth rate…solution?
          1. Family planning – urban couples 2 kids – rural couples 1
          2. 1980s reduced to one child per family
            1. Led to infanticide, abortions, or shipping kids underground
          3. But…base is so huge that #s are out of control
        4. By 1960, total failure
          1. Mao lost position as state chairman – remained head of Central Committee
          2. Pragmatists come to power – Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqui, Deng Xiaoping
      5. “Women Hold Up Half of the Heavens”
        1. Revolutionary strategy – involve women
          1. Tradition – part of Taiping Rebellion and Boxer Rebellion
          2. May Fourth intellectuals pushed for women’s rights
            1. footbinding, education, career opportunities
          3. Nationalists try to reverse gains – return to traditional China
            1. Chiang Kai Shek’s wife helps out
              1. Says immoral to criticize husband
              2. virtue more important than learning
          4. But with the Chinese, women had a larger role
            1. Teachers, nurses, spies, truck driver, laborers
            2. Even became soldiers
              1. Some became cadre leaders
              2. Victory in revolution brought equality
                1. Choose marriage partners
                2. Expected to work outside home
                3. Cadre positions at lower, mid level
                  1. Except for Jiang Qing – wife of Mao – has power
                    1. Tried to rule when he died
      6. Mao’s Last Campaign and the Fall of the Gang of Four
        1. Mao tries to regain power
          1. Criticizes efforts of successors
          2. Pushes for support of students, peasants, and military
          3. Cultural Revolution aimed at attacking “capitalist-roaders”
            1. Student “Red Guard” criticized Mao’s rivals
            2. Professors, plant managers, children of elite “confess”
              1. Either imprisoned, killed or sent to farms
              2. Learn realities of peasant life
            3. Centralized state being taken over by people
            4. Nation plunging back to chaos
        2. Eventually military and opponents fought Mao and his followers
          1. Gang of Four vs. Mao – pragmatists vs. ideologoues
          2. In 1976 – Zhou Enlai and Mao die
            1. Gang of Four + Jiang Qing arrested – sentenced to life
            2. Since Mao’s death pragmatists taken over
              1. Opened up China to the West
              2. Private peasant production encouraged, communes ended
            3. Achievements of communist regime
              1. redistribute wealth of the country
              2. education, health care, housing, working conditions, food > better off
              3. Better standard of living than other developing nations
              4. higher rates of industrial/agricultural growth than India – w/out aid
            4. Failures of communist regime
              1. economic setbacks
              2. political turmoil
              3. low level of political reform
            5. Challenge – continue growth/living conditions
              1. But also deal w/ social injustice/economic inequities
    6. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam
      1. French control of Vietnam
        1. Interested since 17th century – failed to take Japan
          1. Missionaries attracted to civil wars/Confucian elite – good place for religion
          2. French need to protect missionaries plus French merchants
        2. In late 18th century, French supported Nguyen Anh
          1. Northern Trinh and Southern Nguyen dynasty toppled by peasants
          2. This new Nguyen Anh united Vietnam – gave special positions to French
          3. Unfortunately he created city in Confucian vision of Beijing
            1. French a little frustrated
        3. Eventually took over Vietnam and Laos and Cambodia
          1. Took advantage of infighting
          2. Control Vietnam, take advantage of trading
          3. But agriculture falls apart and taxes super high
          4. Vietnam major rice producing exporters in world, but…
            1. People starving to death
            2. Forced to buy opium and alcohol from France
      2. Vietnamese Nationalism: Bourgeois Dead Ends and Communist Survival
        1. Nguyen family, old bureaucrats lost credibility
          1. Unable to push out French
          2. Confucianism also pushed out, failed
        2. New middle class, western trained
          1. French educated, French lifestyles joined nationalistic organizations
            1. First priority – ending racism/discrimination
            2. Second priority – improving their personal opportunities
            3. French stopped attempts at peaceful resistance
              1. Violent resistance only option – Vietnamese Nationalist Party
                1. French respond w/ imprisonment, repression, execution
              2. Communist party of Vietnam – lone nationalist party
                1. Led by Ho Chi Minh – ignored at WWI Paris Peace Conference
                2. Tried to foment revolution – but hard w/ only peasants
                3. Forced underground, but gained support from Comintern
      3. The War of Liberation Against the French
        1. Viet Minh take over
          1. Help push out Japanese in WWII
          2. Encouraged land reform and mass education
          3. Used guerilla tactics under Vo Nguyen Giap to defeat French
            1. Took control of North – August 1945
            2. But…French control South
          4. Vietnamese communists fighting wealthy bureaucrats
        2. Dien Bien Phu – French forces totally embarrassed
          1. At Geneva Peace Conference 1954 – Democratic Republic of Vietnam
          2. Two years elections for united Vietnam
      4. The War of Liberation Against the United States
        1. US #1 priority – don’t let South Vietnam fall to the communists
          1. Even though they worked with Viet Minh against Japan
        2. US puts Ngo Dinh Diem into power
          1. Not a popular dude – Catholic, US puppet, fled Vietnam during WWII
          2. Set up rigged elections, eliminated political rivals
          3. Viet Cong – southern communists Vietnamese fighting for recognition
            1. Eventually supported by Viet Minh
          4. War between Diem’s military and Viet Cong – US supports Diem
            1. Diem fails, Buddhists burn themselves, US overthrows him
            2. US takes over military operations
            3. But…w/ 500,000 men, 60,000 deaths, US can’t beat Vietnamese communists
              1. US just another imperialist aggressor
              2. Guerilla warfare vs. US technological advantage
                1. More tonnage of bombs than in all WWII combined
            4. 1975 ceasefire, South Vietnam gov’t falls apart, Vietnam becomes communist
      5. After Victory: The Struggle to Rebuild Vietnam
        1. Why has Vietnam struggled?
          1. US pressured world not to help
          2. Border clashes with China
          3. Dictatorial regime early on to persecute old enemies
          4. Maintain centralized command economy
            1. Different than China’s cadre, regional organization
            2. Left Vietnamese impoverished
        2. 1980s switched to liberalizing, expanding markets
          1. US and other nations now invest in Vietnam
            1. Vietnamese and US working together to resolve war issues – POW
        3. But…free education gone and sweatshop labor prevalent
    7. VII. Global Connections
      1. Radical changes in China and Vietnam
        1. Monarchies/autocratic rule replaced w/ communism – power to the peasants
          1. Social classes of landlords eliminated
          2. Women improved legal status, position in family, job opportunities
          3. Marxism + Westernization replaces Confucianism
        2. But…still both fear commercial class
        3. Both still stress secular, social harmony, life in this world
        4. Usually traditions of old blend w/ new
        5. Japan and Pacific Rim changes not as severe
      2. Asia becoming key player in world affairs
        1. 21st century belongs to East Asia?
        2. Asia more active in world affairs
        3. They’re products and pop culture now spread around world
    Subject X2: 

    Chapter 36 - Globalization and Resistance: World History 1990-2003

    Chapter 36
    The Final Chapter
    Globalization and Resistance: World History 1990-2003

    1. I. Introduction
      1. A. Hey…this is the last chapter I’m taking notes on
      2. B. There’s a pretty good chance I’ll never take notes on a textbook again
        1. i. I hope you guys have found this beneficial
        2. ii. And now…it begins
      3. C. End of century
        1. i. End of communism
        2. ii. End of decolonialism movement
        3. iii. Offers rare opportunity for human improvement
          1. i. Spread of technology, medicine
        4. iv. Conversely, threatens social conflict/international confrontation
      4. D. Map looks a lot different – gone are empires, hello independent nation-states
      5. E. Opportunity for globalized economy
        1. i. Soviet bloc countries free at last
          1. i. Most communist, former communist countries join global economy
            1. i. Accept for N. Korea & Albania – chose the less fun option B
          2. ii. Creation of regional trade alliances
          3. iii. More power to international lending agencies
      6. F. Problems
        1. i. New wealth favors those already having wealth
          1. i. Already have capital, education, contacts
        2. ii. Middle class grew, but…
        3. iii. Total number of impoverished grew even faster
      7. G. Consumer culture takes off
        1. i. Working class men/women make consumer goods shipped to more affluent nations
        2. ii. Profits reaped by multicultural corporations – naughty McDonalds and Starbucks
      8. H. Ethnic groups and religious movements take off
        1. i. No longer kept quiet by dictator/authoritarian regime
        2. ii. Religious movements reject consumerism
    2. II. The End of the Cold War
      1. A. Introduction
        1. i. Now…I did tell you this is the last chapter
          1. i. Did I tell you that there are a lot of pages, and I’m not looking forward to this?
          2. ii. OK…back to the USSR falling apart
          3. iii. Do you guys even read the textbook anymore?
        2. ii. Why did the USSR fall apart?
          1. i. Conservative leadership intent on maintaining status quo
          2. ii. Pressure from surrounding areas
        3. a. Islamic fervor – Afghanistan and Iran
          1. i. Afghanistan war proved expensive and unpopular
        4. iii. Hard to hide W. Europe’s economic success
          1. a. Link through Poland – Catholic Church
        5. iv. China goes the pragmatist route – joins global market 1978
          1. a. Leads to rapid investment and growth
        6. v. New US policy
          1. a. Gone was the liberal, humanitarian detentish Jimmy Carter
          2. b. Enters conservative, republican Ronald Reagan
            1. i. He’s brilliant – bankrupts Russian economy
              1. a. Increases US defense, Russia tries to keep up
              2. b. Welfare programs decrease, but Russia dies
      2. B. The Explosion of the 1980s and 1990s
        1. 1. Soviet economy falling apart
          1. i. Environmental destruction due to forced industrialization
            1. a. ½ agriculture land endangered
            2. b. Severe respiratory, diseases – infant mortality increases
          2. ii. Industrial production slows
            1. a. Health problems + rigid central planning + poor morale
          3. iii. Simultaneously – military spending increased
      3. C. The Age of Reform
        1. 1. Mikhail Gorbachev – man of reform
          1. i. Takes on Western behavior
            1. a. Fashionable clothes, open press conferences, stylish wife
          2. ii. Reduces nuclear arms
            1. a. Negotiated a deal with US on medium range missiles
          3. iii. Withdraws troops from USSR
        2. 2. Internal change – glasnost – openness
          1. i. Encourages freedom/criticism
            1. a. But…people didn’t exactly jump up and start complaining
              1. i. Maybe that hole Mao flower incident was still fresh
              2. ii. End bureaucratic inefficiency
                1. a. But central planning still huge
          2. 3. How similar to previous Russian policies?
            1. i. Criticize the West’s opulence, while accepting useful traits
              1. a. Wanted Western management , cultural styles
            2. ii. But…how do you have higher tech, but control info?
            3. iii. But…how do you increase productivity, without being capitalist?
        3. 4. Some companies/investments allowed in to Russia
        4. 5. Perestroika – economic reform
          1. i. Private ownership
          2. ii. Decentralized control of industry/farming
          3. iii. Individual land ownership (well…50 year leasing)
        5. 6. Ideological changes
          1. i. Stop relying on authoritarian to solve all problems
          2. ii. Control your drinking, arguing, negative behavior
        6. 7. Political changes
          1. i. New Constitution – 1988
            1. a. More power to parliament – Congress of People’s Deputies
        7. 8. Effects of reforms
          1. i. Ethnic and religious riots – Muslims and Armenian Christians
          2. ii. Baltic states want independence
        8. 9. Socially
          1. i. Too hard for women to do both work and home
            1. a. “return to their purely womanly missions”
      4. D. Dismantling the Soviet Empire
        1. 1. Soviet Bloc countries take this opportunity to revolt
          1. i. One by one, each nation’s government changes gov’t or opens economy
          2. ii. Methods
            1. a. Mass demonstrations
            2. b. Rarely violence
          3. iii. Immediately, ethnic tensions emerged
            1. a. Romanians vs. ethnic Hungarians
            2. b. Yugoslavia – Slovenia vs. Croatia vs. Bosnia-Herzegovina – civil war
          4. iv. Hard to get on right track
            1. a. Governments unstable/constitutions vague or not written
            2. b. Economies suffer from pollution, sluggish production
          5. v. Gorbachev says – “any nation has the right to decide its fate by itself”
            1. a. Withdraws troops
      5. E. Renewed Turmoil in 1991 and 1992
        1. 1. 1991 – Attempted military coup stopped w/ popular demonstrations
          1. i. Broke from tradition – people actually supported democracy
        2. 2. Gorbachev unable to use authority to agree on economic goals
          1. i. Boris Yeltsin of Russia takes over
          2. ii. No more Soviet Union for Gorbachev to rule
        3. 3. Becomes Commonwealth of Independent States
          1. i. Still have issues
            1. a. What to do about army, nuclear control
            2. b. economic coordination
            3. c. dismantling of state control
        4. 4. Issue – should economy turn to full market system
          1. i. Led to other problems
            1. a. Profiteers amass fortunes – take advantage
            2. b. Yeltsin’s health suffers
            3. c. corruption
            4. d. ineffective government
        5. 5. Vladimir Putin – 1999
          1. i. Freedom of press, but attacked dissident TV stations
          2. ii. some wanted liberal society
          3. iii. some wanted return to economic security/national glory
      6. F. The Spread of Democracy
        1. 1. Theme of 20th century – spread of multiparty democracy w/ freely contested elections
          1. i. Communism, fascism, authoritarianism replaced w/ democracy
            1. a. Latin America in 1980s and 1990s, all but Cuba
            2. b. 1980s – Asia – Korea, Taiwan, later Philippines
            3. c. Late 1990s – Indonesia, South Africa, Nigeria
              1. i. But Africa mostly authoritarian
              2. ii. Why democracy/capitalism attractive
                1. a. political stability
                2. b. cultural prestige
                3. c. economic success
                4. d. Japan and India proved successful
                5. e. Communism failed, no competition
              3. iii. But…sometimes economy didn’t improve as expected
        2. 2. Did I tell you this is a long chapter…only 1/3 of the way done
    3. III. The Great Powers and New Disputes
      1. A. Introduction
        1. a. Changes in the superpowers
          1. i. US the lone superpower, Russian power declines
          2. ii. Russian nuclear weapons
            1. 1. military forces cut back
            2. 2. Need to control dismantling of nuclear bombs
        2. b. Nations threaten US dominance
          1. i. China builds up military, spreads economy
          2. ii. Europeans annoyed w/ US human rights and environmental policies
          3. iii. US dominance increases w/ economic growth
          4. iv. September 11, 2001 – Terrorists frustrated by US policy
            1. 1. stationing troops on Saudi Arabia “sacred ground”
            2. 2. Supporting Israel
            3. 3. Americanization, corruption of values
          5. c. What does US do with power? Spread elsewhere
            1. i. Everyone should have free market economy
            2. ii. New threats – emerging nations – Iran, Iraq, North Korea – axis of evil
              1. 1. Increased military spending
            3. iii. Intervenes in regional conflicts
              1. 1. Kicked Iraq out of Kuwait
              2. 2. Tried to settle peacefully Balkan situation
            4. US starts war against terrorism
      2. D. Regional Disputes and Alliances
        1. a. End of US-Soviet rivalry led to
          1. i. Regional rivalries flaring up again
            1. 1. Middle East – constant conflict
              1. a. Iraq/Iran War in 1980s and then Iraq invades Kuwait
              2. b. US military presence in Middle East angers Arabs/Muslims
              3. c. 2003 Britain/US try to topple authoritarian regime of Saddam
                1. i. Hilights issues created by post WWI borders
              4. d. Israel/Palestine
                1. i. Autonomous Palestinian gov’t set up
                2. ii. But cycle of Palestinian terrorist bombings
                  1. a. Israeli attacks on Palestinian cities
            2. 2. India/Pakistan
              1. a. Border clashes – especially Kashmir
              2. b. Hindu nationalism and Muslim rhetoric
              3. c. Both sides test nuclear bombs
        2. ii. Regions working together
          1. 1. NATO purpose in question, still provides European security
          2. 2. European Union looks to Eastern European countries
            1. a. Turkey a possibility, but human rights violations
            2. b. Agree to common currency – Euro
          3. 3. Economic alliances – economics key issue in diplomacy now
            1. a. North American Free Trade Agreement – NAFTA
              1. i. Increase trade, but w/ loss of jobs to Mexico
              2. ii. Environmental effects – factories less regulated in Mexic
            2. b. Areas of East Asia coordinate
      3. E. Ethnic Conflict
        1. i. Why new ethnic conflicts?
          1. 1. New global interactions – unites group identities
          2. 2. Need group identity to combat influx of other cultures
          3. 3. Collapse of multinational states
            1. a. Ideologies such as communism were uniting force
          4. 4. Nations gave more voice to minorities
          5. 5. Right-wing gov’t options offer anti-immigration policies
          6. 6. Former Soviet territories
            1. a. Some split peacefully – Czech Republic and Slovakia
            2. b. Hungarian minorities in Romania
            3. c. Turkish minorities in Bulgaria
            4. d. Muslim Chechnya tries to break away – uses terrorism
              1. i. Russia combats with military action
            5. e. Armenian Christians vs. Muslim Azerbaijan
            6. f. Yugoslavia – end of communism led to massive bloodshed
              1. i. Albanian Muslims vs. Slavic Serbs vs. Slavic Croats vs. Muslim Slavs
              2. ii. Catholic Croats vs. Orthodox Serbs vs. Muslims
              3. iii. “ethnic cleansing” to remove other ethnic group
              4. iv. NATO finally enters to try to maintain peace
                1. i. Which side?
              5. v. Serbian Slobodan Milosevic finally expelled – atrocities
        2. ii. Rwanda – Hutus vs. Tutsis
          1. 1. Old rivalries + disputes over power
          2. 2. Tutsis ruled, but they were minority
          3. 3. Hutus slaughtered hundreds of thousands – millions refugees
        3. iii. Huge refugee populations + civilians as targets (genocide)
        4. iv. Hesitation from outside forces to intervene
    4. IV. Globalization
      1. A. Introduction
        1. a. Flattening of the world – transglobal connections
          1. i. Breakdown of Soviet bloc
          2. ii. Improved communication, banking, computing – Internet helped a ton
          3. iii. China moves to enter trade network
          4. iv. Commitment of world to free market/less state intervention
          5. v. More people become accustomed to global connections
            1. 1. Nationalism declines
            2. 2. English spreads
        2. b. Globalization – interconnectedness of communication, culture, politics
      2. B. The New Technology
        1. a. Cellular phones open up areas w/ out landed infrastructure
        2. b. Improvements in miniaturization
          1. i. More information stored
        3. c. Email/Internet allows for exchange of documents, images, music
          1. i. Even if your region doesn’t have infrastructure, mail, transportation
        4. d. Satellite technology
      3. C. Business Organization and Investment
        1. a. International investment increases
          1. i. New technology + open political boundaries
          2. ii. Production facilities around globe
        2. b. Globalization equaled
          1. i. Increases in imports/exports
          2. ii. Businesses organized across political boundaries – multinational corporations
          3. iii. division of labor goes worldwide
          4. iv. Factories set up in other countries
            1. a. Close to markets
            2. b. Relaxed environmental regulations
            3. c. Cheaper labor
          5. v. Finding cheaper raw materials
        3. c. Multinational corporations
          1. i. Negatives
            1. a. Some multinationals have more power/money than nations
            2. b. Could threaten to leave, alter political/economic policy of region
            3. c. end competitiveness of local goods
            4. d. Environmental consquences
          2. ii. Positives
            1. a. Promote industrial skills in agricultural regions
            2. b. Necessitates improvements in communication/transportation systems
            3. c. Better wages
            4. d. More enlightened working conditions/bosses than local
      4. D. Migration
        1. a. International migration to fill job needs
          1. i. “guest workers” in Europe
          2. ii. Slow growing populations in industrialized nations – need for labor
          3. iii. Ease of travel
        2. b. Creates multinational Western nations
          1. i. Key urban/commercial centers far more diverse
          2. ii. US 25% from houses where English not #1 language
        3. c. Leads to tensions – local population vs. foreigners
        4. d. Leads to cultural exchanges
      5. E. Cultural Globalization
        1. a. Pace of cultural exchange/contacts increased in 1990s
          1. i. global technologies
          2. ii. Business organization
          3. iii. Reduced political barriers
        2. b. Music exchanges, science laboratories w/ researchers from around the world
        3. c. Spread of fast-food restaurants – symbol of globalization
          1. i. McDonaldization of the world
        4. d. Spread of western culture
          1. i. Baywatch – huge foreign audiences
          2. ii. Western beauty standards
          3. iii. Movie/amusement part icons
          4. iv. MTV indoctrinated youth
          5. v. American Christmas holiday
          6. vi. Western clothing
        5. e. Spread of Japanese/European culture
          1. i. Pokemon, music groups, animation
          2. ii. European fashion and music
        6. f. Usually culture of industrialized world spreads to non-industrialized
          1. i. At times, needs to adapt to local customs
      6. F. Institutions of Globalization
        1. a. United Nations – tried to calm/prevent disputes
          1. i. Helped w/ growing refugee populations
          2. ii. Discussed gender/human rights/population control
          3. iii. Encouraged assistance in slowing spread of AIDS
        2. b. International Monetary Fund and World Bank – helped organize trade
          1. i. offered loans and guidance to developing nations
          2. ii. Loans come w/ requirements for economic reform
            1. a. Reduced gov’t spending
            2. b. Open competition
          3. iii. Promoters of global economy
            1. a. We’ll loan you money if you play ball
        3. c. G8 Summit – meeting of industrialized nations
          1. i. Canada, US, Germany, France, Britain, Japan and another one from Europe
      7. G. Protest and Economic Uncertainties
        1. a. Globalization led to protest movement
          1. i. Huge demonstrations at G8/World Bank meetings
            1. a. Threatening the environment
            2. b. Cheap labor exploited
            3. c. Rampant consumerism
            4. d. Benefits rich nations at expense of developing nations
              1. i. Growing income gap
                1. a. Both between regions and w/in region
                2. b. Expanding group of haves and have-nots
          2. b. Economic problems in 1990s – Southeast Asia, Russia, Turkey
            1. i. Maybe globalization doesn’t work after all
    5. V. A World of Religious and Ethnic Conflict
      1. A. Nationalism and Religious Currents
        1. a. Nationalistic reactions to globalization
          1. i. Usually by countries that can’t compete
          2. vii. Due to erosion of traditional culture
          3. iii. Reactions
            1. a. Japan teaches chopstick use/France outlaws English words
            2. b. Regulate # of immigrants
            3. c. Reject international treaties – US
        2. b. Subnational loyalties
          1. i. Non-majority groups on periphery want autonomy
          2. ii. Gov’t reacts with more oppression/restrictions
            1. a. Tibet to China, Khmer to Vietnam
        3. c. African nations fall apart – go to warlords – Sierra Leone/Liberia
        4. d. Religious differences lead to subnational conflicts
          1. i. Catholic/Orthodox/Muslim in Yugoslavia
          2. ii. Hindus/Muslims ini India
          3. iii. Muslim/Christian in Indonesia
          4. iv. Jews/Muslims/Christians in Israel
      2. B. Religious Revivals
        1. a. Sometimes as reactions to globalization with controversial sexuality/consumerism
        2. b. Following Cold War – return to religions of old
          1. i. Protestant fundamentalism in US
          2. ii. Orthodox in Russia
          3. iii. Hindu fundamentalism in India
          4. iv. Islam in Middle East/Africa/Central Asia
        3. c. Characteristics of religious fundamentalism
          1. i. Appeals to impoverished groups
          2. ii. Religious leaders use Internet
          3. iii. Increases intolerance of other religions
      3. C. Global Terrorism
        1. a. Terrorism expands late 20th century
          1. i. Terrorist warfare to counter superior military
          2. ii. Roots go back to 19th century Russia
          3. iii. Miniaturization of technology – bombs
          4. iv. Security increases – turn to civilian “soft” targets
            1. a. Undermine hated regime/destabilize society
        2. b. September 11, 2001
          1. i. World Trade Center – symbol of globalization
          2. ii. Protest of US Middle East policy
        3. c. Leads to intense retaliation
          1. i. Causes more casualties than terrorism
          2. ii. Leads to limitations of globalization – travel
    6. VI. Global Warming and Other Perils
      1. A. Introduction
        1. 1. Fall of communism revealed destruction of environment
          1. a. USSR/Eastern Europe’s industrialization more hazardous than elsewhere
            1. i. If communism hadn’t ended, region could have been unlivable
        2. 2. Fear of China industrializing – resources already depleted, billion people
        3. 3. Southeast Asia/Japan/Africa extracting resources w/ abandon
        4. 4. Ecologically sound industrialization not possible in developing nations
          1. a. No longer getting money from Soviet Union
        5. 5. Cold War ideology pushed development w/ out concern for environment
          1. a. Corruption/cronyism of developmental regions – don’t implement guidelines
        6. 6. Impact of industrial world
          1. a. 1/5 of world consumed 4/5 of goods/resources
          2. b. 1/5 of world produces 70% of pollution
        7. 7. Developing too far behind
          1. a. Would take 150 years to catch up to US 1980 level
      2. B. Environmental Issues as Global Concerns
        1. 1. Environmental disruptions due to mechanized warfare, science, industrialization
        2. 2. Global warming – buildup of excessive amounts of carbon dioxide
          1. a. Due to industrial waste + exhaust from cars, trucks, machines
          2. b. Due to methane – manure/fertilizer – and farting cows
          3. c. Due to Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
        3. 3. Effects of Global Warming <
            li>a. Shifts in temperature/rainfall
          1. b. Droughts and famine
          2. c. Coastal areas inundated
          3. d. Vegetation and wildlife altered
        4. 4. Consistencies
          1. a. Agricultural/methane carbon dioxide been around for centuries
          2. b. Speed increased with industrialization
        5. 5. Destruction of rain forests
          1. a. Can’t replenish
          2. b. Creates most species of plant/animal life on planet
          3. c. And…creates oxygen
        6. 6. Attempts at reform not always successful
          1. a. 1997 Kyoto Reforms – US doesn’t sign – might hurt economy
      3. C. Disease
        1. 1. Rapid international travel/interaction spreads diseases
          1. a. Remote regions no longer safe from global epidemics
          2. b. AIDS all over the world/SARS scared people
        2. 2. Fear of big epidemic in the future
    7. VI. Toward the Future
      1. A. Introduction – predictions oftentimes wrong
      2. B. Projecting from Trends
        1. 1. Population will slow down
        2. 2. How will gov’t react to huge # of old people
        3. 3. Is democracy still spreading? Recently not so good…
        4. 4. Are we going to be more consumer driven or more religiously fundamental
      3. C. Big Changes
        1. 1. Negative – dramatic climate change/resource exhaustion
        2. 2. World turns postindustrial – goal becomes entertaining, not producing
          1. a. Will work get more repetitive or more creative
      4. D. The Problem of the Contemporary World
        1. 1. Who will replace dominant Europe? US, China, East Asia?
        2. 2. Are women going further toward equality or is there a backlash – religion/men
    8. VII. Global Connections
      1. A. People more committed to professions than region/civilization
        1. 1. Downtowns becoming homogenized
      2. B. But…will globalization lead to extremist reactions to hold on to past
        1. 1. Can nations hold on to tradition
        2. 2. But…world history has shown that regions try to hold on to identity
      3. C. And that…my friends…is my final note for the textbook…I’m retiring
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    This glossary contains vocabulary words for World History sorted alphabetically. These glossary terms, along with the World History outlines, vocabulary terms, unit notes, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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    Regional Outlines

    These AP World History regional outlines break up world history topics and show how they progressed in different time periods, i.e. politics, religion, economics, etc. These regional outlines, along with the World History outlines, vocabulary terms, unit notes, topic notes, study questions, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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    Please click the link below to download the World History Africa Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Africa Regional Outline38.5 KB
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    East Asia

    Please click the link below to download the World History East Asia Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    East Asia Regional Outline44.5 KB
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    Eastern Europe

    Please click the link below to download the World History Eastern Europe Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Eastern Europe Regional Outline53 KB
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    Latin America

    Please click the link below to download the World History Latin America Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Latin America Regional Outline38 KB
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    Please click the link below to download the World History Mediterranean Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Mediterranean Regional Outline50.5 KB
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    Middle East

    Please click the link below to download the World History Middle East Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Middle East Regional Outline42 KB
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    South Asia

    Please click the link below to download the World History South Asia Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    South Asia Regional Outline29 KB
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    United States

    Please click the link below to download the World History United States Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    United States Regional Outline39 KB
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    Western Europe

    Please click the link below to download the World History Western Europe Regional Outline in MS Word format.

    Western Europe Regional Outline50 KB
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    Study Questions

    This category contains study questions for World History topics. These unit notes, along with the World History outlines, vocabulary terms, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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    Unit 01 - Study Questions

    1.    In what ways did geography and climate affect the development of human society?
    2.    What were the economic and social results of the agricultural revolution?
    3.    What are the issues involved in using “civilization” as an organizing principle in world history?
    4.    What is the most common source of change: connection/diffusion or independent invention?
    5.    How do agricultural, pastoral and foraging societies differ?  Use evidence from Africa, the Americas and Southeast Asia.
    6.    What was the impact of agriculture on the environment?
    7.    What was the importance of the introduction of bronze and iron?
    8.    Compare the basic features of two early civilizations?  Choose two of the following: Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, Shang, Indus
    9.    Compare the development of political structures in China with those in India.
    10.    How did social and gender structures in India differ from the Mediterranean?
    11.    Which regions were favored as areas of human settlement, given the technology available during the Classic period?
    12.    Describe the major classical period trading patters within and among China, India, and the Mediterranean?
    13.    What were the scientific and technological contributions of China, India, and the Mediterranean?
    14.    What were the artistic contributions of China, India, and the Mediterranean?
    15.    What were the basic features of the major world belief systems?
            a.    Polytheism
            b.    Hinduism
            c.    Daoism
            d.    Judaism
            e.    Christianity
            f.    Buddhism
    16.    What were the main emphases and the main changes in organized religion during the Classic period?
    17.    What interactions among regions favored changes in human society?
    18.    What changes in population and culture were brought about by migrations?
    19.    What were the Greek approaches to science and philosophy?  Explain the role of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
    20.    What led to the diffusion of the major religions?
    21.    Why was the collapse of empire more severe in western Europe than it was in the eastern Mediterranean or in China?

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    Unit 02 - Study Questions

    1. Analyze the changes and continuities in the Arabic world’s acceptance of ONE of the following items between 700 and 1400.  Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.


    2. Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 700 C.E. and 1450 C.E.  Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.

        West Africa
        South Asia

    3. Describe the developments and shifts in trade in ONE of the following regions between 600 and 1450 CE.  Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.

        Indian Ocean
        Silk Road

    4. Compare and contrast the economic and political choices made during the Tang/Song Era with those made during the first century of the Ming dynasty.

    5. Describe and analyze the changing political structure of China between 600 and 1450 CE.  Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.

    6. Compare and contrast the economic and political effects of China on TWO of the following neighboring regions.


    7. Compare and contrast the economic and political systems of two of the following regions between 700 and 1300 CE.

        Byzantine Empire
        Western Europe

    8. Compare and contrast the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church using TWO of the following criteria:

        Religious dogma
        Role and responsibilities of clergy
        Organizational structure
        Art used in places of worship

    9. Compare and contrast the social, political and economic patterns of the TWO of the following civilizations


    10. Compare and contrast Japanese and European feudalism using TWO of the following criteria:
        Warrior class
        Role of king/emperor

    11. Compare and contrast the impact of TWO of the following migrations:


    12. Compare and contrast Islam and Christianity using TWO of the following criteria:

        Relation to the state
        Religious prophets
        Role of women

    13. Describe the developments and shifts in the role of women in TWO of the following regions between 600 and 1450 CE:

        Dar al-Islam
        Western Europe
    14. Compare and contrast the short and long-term effects of the Crusades on Western Europe and the Middle East.

    15. Compare and contrast the role and function of cities in TWO of the following regions:

        Dar al-Islam
        Western Europe

    16. Compare and contrast European and sub-Saharan contacts with the Islamic world using TWO of the following criteria:

        Degree of adoption of Islam
        Military conflict
        Economic relationship
        Treatment of minority/indigenous religions

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    Unit 03 - Study Questions

    1.    Compare and contrast American slavery with one of the following coercive systems of labor - Russian serfdom or the encomienda system.

    2.    Describe and analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange on one of the following regions between 1400 and 1700.  Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as reasons for the continuities.

    3.    Compare and contrast the exploration and colonization practices of the Portuguese and Spanish with one of the following:

    4.    Describe the developments and shifts in thought in Europe between 1450 and 1750.  Use two of the following cultural movements to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.

            Scientific Revolution

    5.    How did the international role of Europe change from the Post-Classical Period to the Early Modern Period?

    6.    Compare Russia’s interaction with the West with the interaction of two of the following:

            Ottoman Empire
            Tokugawa Japan
            Mughal India

    7.    How does the world economic network of 1750 compare with that of 1000?

    8.    Compare the intellectual and artistic developments of Europe to one of the following:

           Mughal India
           Tokugawa Japan
           Ming China

    9.    What were the demographic and environmental changes caused by the following:

            new crops
            population trends

    10.    Compare the role of women under the Tokugawa Shogunate with two of the following:

            Western Europe
            Ottoman Empire
            Ming China

    11.    Compare the Portuguese method of creating and maintaining empire with that of one of the following land-based empires

            Safavid Persia
            Ottoman Empire
            Mughal India

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    Unit 04 - Study Questions

    1. Analyze the changes in global commerce from 1750 to 1914 due to changes in technology, communication and economic theory.

    2. Analyze the demographic changes between 1750 and 1914 due to three of the following:

        food supply
        birth rate patterns
        slave trade

    3. Analyze the social, economic and political changes and continuities facing women between 1750 and 1914 in the industrialized world.

    4. Choose TWO of the areas listed below and analyze how each area’s relationship to global trade patterns changed from 1750 to the present.  Be sure to describe each area’s involvement in global patterns around 1750 as your starting point.

        Latin America
        East Asia
        Sub-Saharan Africa
        The Middle East
        Eastern Europe
        North America
        South and Southeast Asia

    5. Compare and contrast the causes and results of two of the following revolutions?

        Haitian Revolution
        French Revolution
        American Revolution

    6. Compare and contrast the causes and results of two of the following independence movements?

        Latin American

    7. Analyze the changes and continuities in labor systems between 1750 and 1914 in ONE of the following areas.  In your analysis, be sure to discuss the causes of the changes and the reasons for the continuities.

        Latin America and the Caribbean
        Sub-Saharan Africa

    8. Compare and contrast the economic, political and social impact of Western imperialism on TWO of the following regions:

        Sub-Saharan Africa

    9. Compare and contrast the cultural and political reactions to Western imperialism in TWO of the following regions:

        Ottoman Empire

    10. Compare the causes and early phases of the Industrial Revolution in TWO of the following regions:

        Western Europe

    11. Compare and contrast the role of nationalism in both creating nation-states and defining foreign policy in TWO of the following regions

    12. Compare and contrast forms of Western intervention in TWO of the following regions:

        Sub-Saharan Africa
        Latin America
        Northern Africa

    13. Compare and contrast the roles and conditions of women in the upper/middle classes with the peasantry/working class in western Europe.

    14. Analyze changes and continuities in the environment due to the Industrial Revolution.

    15. Compare and contrast the debates over the utility of modernization theory as a framework for interpreting events in this period and the next?

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    Unit 05 - Study Questions

    1. Compare and contrast the causes of World War I and World War II?

    2. Compare and contrast the resolutions of World War I and World War II.  Consider the following:
        Peace agreements – major players, ideology, geographic boundaries
        Economic/political effects
        Role in creating future confrontation

    3. Analyze the impact of war on civilians.  Choose either World War I or World War II and compare it with one of the following conflicts:
        Korean War            Vietnam War
        Biafra War            Angola War
        Nicaragua War        Bosnia/Kosovo War

    4. Compare and contrast European nationalism during the Interwar Period with that of the independence movements in those nations that decolonized following World War II.

    5. Analyze the changing role of the United States in the twentieth century.  Consider its role economically, diplomatically and militarily.

    6. Compare and contrast the impact of globalization in the 21st century with that of European colonialism in the 19th century.

    7. Compare and contrast the patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and South Asia.

    8. Compare and contrast two of the following revolutions’ effects on the roles of women:
        Russian Revolution 1917
        Chinese Revolution 1949
        Cuban Revolution 1959
        Iranian Revolution 1979

    9. Compare the effects of the World Wars on two of the following regions:
        Latin America

    10. Compare and contrast why developing nations chose to align with either the USSR or the United States during the Cold War.

    11. Compare the legacies of colonialism and the patterns of economic development in two of the three areas below:
        Latin America

    12. Compare and contrast the independence struggles of Africa.  Why were some nations more successful than others in diversifying their economies, developing a stable political system, and social equality?

    13. Compare and contrast the methods and effectiveness of guerilla warfare with that of high-tech warfare.  Use specific examples from two of the following military conflicts of the 20th century.
        Vietnam War
        The Iraq War

    14. Compare and contrast the methods and results of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro.

    15. Analyze the demographic changes of 20th century considering three of the following:
        Birth rates
        Death rates

    16. Analyze the changes and continuities in threats to the environment and resulting environmental movements in the 20th century.

    17. Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the 20th century?

    18.    Analyze the impact of economic philosophy on both the Cold War and on  the decolonization movement.

    19.    Analyze the political and social changes and continuities in one of the following nations during the twentieth century:
        South Africa

    20.    Analyze the role of religious belief and secular ideologies in the contemporary world.

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    Topic Notes

    In this category you will find notes on topics in World History and how they've changed through different time periods in different countries. These topic notes, along with the World History outlines, vocabulary terms, unit notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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    Please click the link below to download the World History Demographic Topic Notes in MS Word format.

    Demographic Topic Notes74 KB
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    Please click the link below to download the World History Gender Topic Notes in MS Word format.

    Gender Topic Notes40.5 KB
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    Global Trade

    Please click the link below to download the World History Global Trade Topic Notes in MS Word format.

    Global Trade Topic Notes47.5 KB
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    Please click the link below to download the World History Religion Topic Notes in MS Word format.

    Religion Topic Notes36.5 KB
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    Unit Notes

    AP World History Unit Notes that cover an entire section of World History and not just one particular chapter. These unit notes, along with the World History outlines, vocabulary terms, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms will help you prepare for the AP World History exam.

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    1450-1750 Early Modern Period

    Notes that cover an entire section of World History and not just one particular chapter.

    1450-1750 Early Modern Period272.5 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Changes in Technology

    Early Modern Period

    1. Changes in Technology
      1. Navigational Changes
        1. Sternpost rudder – improved steering - Invented in China – Han Dynasty
        2. Lateen sails – sail in any direction regardless of wind
        3. Astrolabe – measured distance of sun/stars above horizon – latitude
        4. Magnetic Compass – Chinese – direction without sight of land
        5. Three-Masted Caravels – larger sails, large cargo rooms w/ more provisions
    2. Global Interactions
      1. European colonization of Americas
        1. Why successful?
          1. Disease
            1. Indigenous people had no resistance – developed independently
          2. Neighboring states hated Aztecs, more than happy to help
          3. Fear of unknown – metal, horseback – seen as God
          4. Motivation – acquire gold and spices
          5. Superior weapons
          6. Individual assistance
            1. Malince (Dona Marina) acted as interpreter – Spanish>Aztec
        2. Early colonization
          1. Cortes – 1519 – Aztecs
            1. Tenochititlan – Mexico City – New Spain
            2. Conquistadors controlled Western USA – California, Arizona, etc…
          2. Pizarro – 1531 – Incas
          3. Goals
            1. Boost home countries’ power and wealth
            2. Exploitation and exploration of raw materials
            3. Spread of Roman Catholicism
            4. Labor system
            5. Attempted to use natives, but failed
              1. Resorted to importing labor from Africa
        3. Differences in empire expansion from earlier empires
          1. Existing populations wiped out not allowed to remain intact
          2. Huge numbers of people moved in
          3. Even Mongols didn’t totally replace population
          4. Previous empires merged with, converted, or were converted by existing population
          5. Americas – Europeans created new continent in own image – two Europes essenentially
        4. Labor/Economic System
          1. Hierarchical system
            1. Peninsulares – Spanish officials
            2. Creoles – born in colonies to Spanish parents
              1. Educated, wealthy
              2. Looked down upon by Spanish aristocracy
              3. Became leaders of resistance movements later
            3. Mestizos – European and Native American ancestry
            4. Mulattos – European and African ancestry
            5. Native Americans – little to no freedom
              1. Worked on estates, in mines
          2. Encomienda System – American Feudalism
            1. Peninsulares get land and # of slaves/native laborers
              1. In exchange, must protect them and convert them
          3. Attempts at reform
            1. Treatment horrific – Christian missionaries appealed for reform
            2. Reduced strain on natives by bringing in Africans
            3. Replaced one oppressed group with another
            4. Both Africans and Natives ended up at bottom of social hierarchy
        5. Difference methods of Colonization
          1. Spanish/Portuguese
            1. Resource extraction #1 priority
            2. Treatment of Native Americans harsh
              1. Until recently known as cruelest of colonizers
              2. Indians first as slaves, then exploited for cheap labor
              3. Kept near bottom of Latin American social scale
            3. Importation of African slaves massive
              1. More brought to Latin America/Caribbean than United States
                1. Primarily brought over males
                2. #s only kept up through importation, not reproduction
            4. Missionaries/priests – conversion to Catholicism a priority
            5. Settled presence of Spanish/Portuguese (large cities) created permanent colonies
          2. French
            1. Focused on economic exploitation
            2. Focused on fur trade
            3. Made little effort to create long-term settlements
              1. Only 11,000 settlers came from 1608-1763
              2. Attacks from British made it difficult to have long-term settlemensts
            4. Hunters, trappers, soldiers – remarkably adept at adapting selves to environment
              1. Knew woods, rivers of North America well
              2. Learned language of Native Americans – made alliances – Huron
          3. English
            1. Most encouraged long-term settlement
              1. viable, long-lasting colonies desirable
              2. Grew rapidly – men, women and children stayed
              3. Cities, communities grew
                1. Strong systems of local government
            2. Colonists went to escape religious persecution
            3. Some colonists were convicts
            4. Greatest number indentured servants
              1. Worked for masters in exchange for payment of voyage over
            5. Used African slaves
              1. Tobacco/cotton growing southern settlements
            6. Initially, relationship with Indians relatively peaceful
              1. Relationship soured during French/Indian Wars
              2. Turned antagonistic violent after
                1. But…violence always existed before too
      2. Columbian Exchange – most rapid and profound ecological transformations in world history
        1. New foods, animals, resources led to massive changes for both regions
        2. From Europe/Africa
          1. horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, sugar cane, sheep
            1. Increased milk and meat supply in Americas
            2. Horse Provided labor and transport – horse
              1. Changed nature of Indians on the Plains
          2. Food – for the most part Americas uninterested in food crops
            1. wheat, olive trees, grapevines, coffee
            2. Coffee – grew well in Americas
          3. Christianity
          4. From Africa – food, cultural practices, religious beliefs
        3. From Americas
          1. Food
            1. Types
              1. squash, beans, corn, potatoes, cacoa (aka chocoloate)
              2. Maize and sweet potatoes to China and parts of Africa
              3. White potatoes to Europe
              4. Manioc to Africa
              5. Sugar cane cultivation transferred to Brazil/Caribbean
            2. Impact
              1. Boost population growth
          2. Dramatically shifted diet – Europe now getting different parts of food pyramid
            1. Vitamin rich tomatoes
            2. Sugar as luxury good
          3. Excellent source of cotton
        4. Diseases
          1. Mostly European diseases that killed Americans
            1. smallpox and measles
          2. Only disease thought to be brought back from natives is syphilis (not proven)
        5. Weapons
        6. People
          1. Forced – coercive – slavery, convicts
          2. By choice – colonists, religious persecution, exploration, indentured servitude
          3. DNA from different regions now mixed
        7. Altered biological and dietary realities for tens of millions of people
      3. European encounter with Americas – totally changed Americas
        1. Greater cultural interaction
        2. Movement of Europeans and Africans – forever altered North/South American ethnicity, religion, language, art, and music
      4. Triangular Trade Route
        1. Slaves from Africa on Middle Passage
          1. Before stolen and then taken to slave factories
          2. 13 > 20% died in route
            1. death from suicide, illness, thrown overboard for lack of supplies
          3. Only 5% went to N. America, most to Caribbean and South America
          4. Most N. American slaves first had spent some time in the West Indies
        2. Rum, sugar to Europe
        3. Manufactured goods – guns - to Africa
    Subject X2: 

    Changes in Trade

    Early Modern Period

    1. Changes in Trade
      1. European Exploration
        1. Before late 15th century
          1. Trade restricted to land travel
          2. Ships used on Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
            1. But…linked to land routes
        2. Causes of exploration – interrelated factors converging on one continent at the same time
          1. Success of Hanseatic League
          2. Crusades spawned new, efficient trade routes
          3. Apply new technologies
            1. Sternpost rudder – improved steering - Invented in China – Han Dynasty
            2. Lateen sails – sail in any direction regardless of wind
            3. Astrolabe – measured distance of sun/stars above horizon – latitude
            4. Magnetic Compass – Chinese – direction without sight of land
              1. Lodestone from Chinese – magnetic – always points north
            5. Three-Masted Caravels – larger sails, large cargo rooms w/ more provisions
              1. Large ships can crest large waves without capsizing
            6. Better knowledge of stars
              1. Gained from Arabs
            7. Sextant – able to journey further without getting lost
            8. Gunpowder – 1500s and 1600s – huge gunships
              1. Sailors equipped with muskets, pistols, small artillery
              2. Gunpowder weapons at sea
              3. Explorers/conquerors could use against less technologically advanced nations
          4. Economic goals
            1. Fiercely competitive about trade routes
            2. Newly wealthy
            3. Access to luxury goods
              1. Silk, metal goods, spices, fruit, jewels, precious metals
            4. Need a direct route
              1. Tired of Middle East being middlemen
              2. Gain access, increase profits
          5. Political goals
            1. Increasingly organized under strong leaders
          6. New ideology
            1. Renaissance thinking looked externally not internally
            2. Renaissance thinking led to belief that man could affect destiny
          7. European visitors to Mongol court learned of Asian technology
            1. printing press
            2. gunpowder
            3. magnetic compass
          8. Marco Polo stories
          9. Rise of nation-states
            1. encouraged economic development
            2. created rivalry between nations for new territories and new wealth
          10. Renaissance ideals
            1. Sense of curiosity and adventure
          11. precedent of Italian merchants making money – Venice – want to get a piece of the action
        3. Early Exploring Nations – Iberian wave
          1. Why Portugal?
            1. Location
              1. Coast of Africa – strategic
              2. On Europe’s Atlantic frontier
            2. Trade relations with Muslim nations
            3. Royal family supported exploration
              1. Prince Henry the Navigator
                1. Created maritime center/navigation school at port of Sagres
                2. He and princes sent out voyage after voyage
            4. Maritime experience
              1. Mediterranean trade
              2. Long series of naval wars with Ottoman Turks
            5. Who? Famous Explorers
              1. Dias – Cape of Good Hope 1488
              2. Vasco de Gama – India, E. Africa 1497
                1. Returns in 1499 filled with cargo
                  1. Returned 6000% of original investment
                    1. Hmmmm…guess what happens next?
              3. Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese but traveling from Spain
                1. Inspired by Vasco de Balboa – saw Panama canal
                  1. First European to see Pacific Ocean from new world
                2. Dies in Philippines
                3. His ships return to Europe in 1522 – first circumnavigation
            6. Strategy
              1. Explore Africa Coast – around and East
              2. Claimed several Atlantic island groups – Madeiras and Azores
            7. Colonization
              1. Far East and Southeast Asia – too strong/advanced to conquer
                1. Settled for trading ports – Goa, Malacca, Sri Lanka
          2. Spain – Head west
            1. Distracted/delayed by Reconquista
              1. War against the Moors
              2. Not as quick as Portuguese
                1. Would have to find option B, Portuguese already have Africa
            2. Columbus’s voyage
              1. Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella
              2. Earth a sphere, but size estimates incorrect
                1. Columbus’s claims surprising not that it’s round – accepted idea
                  1. Proximity surprising
              3. 1492 – Cuba, W. Indies
                1. Changed forever the history of the globe
              4. Mistaken all his life that he had found Indies – “Indians”
                1. Portuguese/Spanish realized it was somewhere different
                  1. Amerigo Vespucci – mapped New World
            3. Colonization
              1. Started in Caribbean
                1. Island bases on Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola (DR/Haiti)
          3. Treaty of Tordesillas – line of demarcation – Brazil vs. Rest
            1. W. side’s size not clear
            2. 1493, 1494 Pope draws line
        4. Northern Exploring Nations – Northern Wave
          1. Background
            1. Spanish/Portuguese jealously guarded geographic knowledge/navigational techniques
              1. Wanted to lock northern Europe out of Atlantic exploration
              2. What was at stake?
                1. Military power
                2. Immense wealth
                3. Religious rivalry
            2. In 1500s, N. Europe only really can explore N. Atlantic coast of N. America
              1. Considered useless to Spain/Portugal
              2. Hoping to find a “Northwest Passage” to China/India through Arctic
            3. By middle 16th century, 17th century – gained knowledge from Spanish/Portuguese
              1. Stole information
              2. Shadowed ships
              3. Gained enough independent knowledge
            4. Led to conflict wherever they went
              1. Fighting for old claims meant wars on water and on land
          2. England
            1. 1500s – English fought series of naval wars with Spain
              1. All over the world
              2. Goals
                1. harass Spanish colonies
                2. capture Spanish treasure ships returning from New World
              3. Gained navigational/geographic knowledge from these wars
                1. In process of fighting Spanish, Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates
            2. 1600s – English establish colonies
              1. Failed early colonies in N. America – Roanoke most famous
              2. Eventually Plymouth Rock (escaping Puritans) and Jamestown – Virginia
            3. British East India Company – 1600
              1. Manage economic/military relations
            4. Eventually landed and explored Asia – took Asian port in Malacca
            5. Motivations
              1. Gain military strength
              2. Gain wealth
              3. Difference
                1. Eager to turn colonies into permanent settlements
              4. Exploitation of natural resources the norm
              5. Brought slaves to the New World
          3. France
            1. Surveyed Atlantic coast near Canada
            2. Colonized Canada
              1. Main reason – rich supply of animal furs
            3. Later explored Misissippi, Great Lakes and major rivers
              1. 1600>1700 took over Mississippi Basin area
          4. Netherlands – aka the Dutch
            1. At first, closely tied to War of Independence against Spain
              1. Strategy – attack Spanish at sea – disrupt connections to colonies
              2. Later did same to the Portuguese
                1. Malacca, Sri Lanka, Spice Islands
            2. Dutch East India Company
            3. Invaded Indonesia – maintain colonial presence for hundreds of years
              1. Ran pepper and spice plantations
              2. Established Batavia 1619 > later became Jakarta
            4. N. America
              1. Henry Hudson – explore bay
              2. Purchased Manhattan – New Amsterdam – 1624
                1. English took from Dutch in mid 1600s
              3. Briefly held colony in Brazil
            5. Africa – Cape Colony – Southern tip
              1. Supply station for ships sailing to Indonesia
          5. Effects
            1. created colonies
            2. conquering new lands
            3. led to wars
            4. led to nationalism
            5. legitimacy of absolute monarchy
          6. Why Northern colonies?
            1. Risky, expensive – needed backing of strong/wealthy states
            2. Merchants needed protection – need strong navies
        5. Effects of European colonization
          1. emergence of truly global economic system
          2. worldwide system of military competition among European powers for global dominance
            1. Some European wars that took place on other continents – first world wars
        6. Themes of European exploration
          1. Nations of Europe tried to establish control over territories they encountered
            1. Conquered and colonized
            2. Forced open markets
          2. Legacy – Positive for Europe
            1. Nations of Europe unprecedented amount of geographical, navigational, scientific knowledge
            2. Europe became extremely rich and powerful
            3. No longer the smallest/weakest civilization
          3. Legacy – Moral and ethical price
            1. Connection to war, greed, prejudice, religious intolerance, slavery
            2. Parts of the world remained under European control for hundreds of years
            3. Tensions between nations still have impact on international relations
            4. Environments, populations, economies, political systems altered dramatically
        7. World would never be the same
          1. Indian Ocean and Silk Road had connected before, but restricted from open seas
        8. Patterns of world trade
          1. Europeans established ports in East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and west coast Africa
          2. involvement in international trade positively affected local and regional economies
          3. where direct trade not possible, Europeans negotiated special economic rights
            1. Russia – factors establish agencies in Moscow/St. Petersburg
            2. Ottoman Empire – Western European traders formed colonies with Constantinople
              1. Granted special commercial considerations
        9. Regions outside the world trade system
          1. China relied primarily on regional trade
            1. Most of economic activity through the port of Macao
            2. Disinterest in European products
            3. Trade imbalance – Europeans paid for Chinese products with silver
              1. England/Netherlands eventually developed own porcelain
          2. Tokugawa Japan prohibited foreign trade
            1. Except for limited commercial activity with the Dutch – Nagasaki
          3. Russia traded primarily with the nomads of central Asia
            1. 18th century began trading grain with the West
          4. Ottomans dismissed the impact of European technology
            1. showed little enthusiasm for trade with the West
          5. Mughal India encouraged trade with the West
            1. More preoccupied with imperial expansion
          6. Internal Africa – Europeans afraid to enter
            1. Risk of contracting malaria
            2. Lack of navigable rivers
      2. Commercial Revolution
        1. New Financing
          1. Joint Stock Company
            1. Pool the resources of many merchants
            2. Reducing the costs and risks of colonization
            3. Investors buy shares/stocks in company
            4. Each investor receives profit if company makes money
              1. Potential for huge profits
                1. Piracy rampant
                2. Huge cargoes on ships
          2. Substantial middle class of merchants
            1. attracted more investors
            2. beginnings of modern stock market
        2. Changing views
          1. Church revised ban on standard business practices
            1. lending money – usury
            2. charging interest on loans
          2. Monarchies granted trade monopolies to trade routes
            1. These companies would essentially run the nation they traded from
              1. Dutch East India Company – Spice Islands – Indonesia
              2. British East India Company – parts of India
              3. Moscovy Company – England – Russia
            2. Fostered the growth of capitalism
          3. Mercantilism
            1. Why?
              1. country actively sought trade
              2. don’t import more than export
                1. trade deficit implied weakness in own country
            2. Country’s surplus had to be met by another’s deficit
              1. Pushed for colonization
              2. All resources to mother country
              3. Colonies must buy from mother country only
              4. Must ship using mother country’s sailors/ships
            3. Protected domestic industry
              1. Huge tariffs on imports
              2. Reduced/banned tariffs on trade within country
            4. Colonies annoyed
              1. Resources shipped to Europe
              2. Not free to buy cheapest/best products from overseas
              3. Added taxes create greater resentment
          4. Social diversification
            1. Growing importance of nonagricultural ways to earn money
            2. Bourgeoisie – middle class
              1. banking
              2. commerce
              3. trade
              4. shopkeeping
              5. artisanry
              6. craftsmanship
            3. small middle class to begin with, but grew in size and importance
          5. Wealth now based on industries around money, not merely land
          6. Extraction of precious metals – especially silver
            1. affected economies around the world
            2. glut of precious metals
            3. severe inflation
          7. Birth and growth of Atlantic slave trade
            1. 1400-1800 12 million Africans
        3. Chartered companies – companies allowed to exist by Charter from the crown
          1. Independent traders looking for profit from business
        4. State banks
          1. Large banks chartered by monarchy
            1. Facilitated lending and managing of kingdom’s economy
            2. Lent money to the government
            3. lent money and issued bank notes – redeemable for coin (gold/silver)
    Subject X2: 

    Coercive Labor Systems – slavery vs. other coercive labor system

    Early Modern Period

    1. Coercive Labor Systems – slavery vs. other coercive labor system
      1. Slavery
        1. Justifications for slavery
          1. English – partially racism of Africans
          2. Prisoners captured in battle
            1. Defeated Russians, Slavs, Germans, Poles sent to Istanbul
            2. Mamluks – Turkish/Mongol slave soldiers that fought for Egypt
        2. External Slave Trade
          1. Began around 1100s when Africans supplied captives to Arab merchants
          2. Portuguese bought for European market
            1. Before in East Africa, trade relatively small
            2. When Portuguese left in 1700s, trading cities of East Coast took over
              1. Swahili cities provided slaves to plantation islands off
              2. Africa
                1. Also to Arabian Peninsula
          3. Origins of slavery in Americas
            1. Spanish in sugar islands of Caribbean
              1. Replaced Native Americans
            2. 1619 Dutch ship at Jamestown dropped off slaves
              1. Initially treated like indentured servants, not slaves
              2. But…when large numbers needed for tobacco farming, policy changed
            3. 1640 – Africans went from indentured servants to slaves for life – “durante vita”
            4. Northern colonies did not keep slaves in mass numbers
              1. lacked farms that had large-scale labor intensive crops
                1. Climate/terrain unsuitable
            5. English institutionalized slavery
              1. needed cheap, abundant labor
              2. viewed Africans with language/culture as less than human
              3. Native Americans not useful
                1. runaways, disease, easily hide in forest
              4. Indentured servitude
                1. runways can blend in
                2. only have labor for specific time
              5. Supply seemed limitless
                1. W. Africa
                2. Natural increase - birth
        3. Largest system of slavery – came mostly from West Africa
          1. Plantations of the Caribbean
          2. Southern British Colonies
            1. tobacco, rice, indigo
          3. Brazil
        4. Plantation system
          1. Required cheap, abundant labor
            1. Sub-Saharan Africa filled need
        5. Legal rights
          1. No legal rights
          2. slave marriages not recognized
          3. slaves could not own property
          4. little protection from cruel owner
          5. could be sold away from families
          6. illegal to teach slave to read or write
        6. Consequences of slavery
          1. Africa
            1. depopulated – captured youngest and healthiest
            2. randomness of slave raids – cross-section of society taken
              1. farmer, leaders, craftworker, mother,
            3. Arts and technology suffered – could make money from slave trade
            4. Sudanic empires lost importance – decline in interior empires
              1. Focus of power shifted to coast
            5. Desire for more wealth, power, guns increased cycle
            6. Africans seen as inferior – helped with justification
              1. Affected race relations to this day
      2. Peonage
        1. Debtor provides service until debt is paid off
        2. Debt bondage basis of tenant farming and sharecropping in US after Civil War
          1. Slaves essentially tied to land
        3. Prevalent in Latin America and still exists today
      3. Serfdom
    Subject X2: 

    Cultural and Intellectual Developments

    Early Modern Period

    1. Cultural and Intellectual Developments
      1. Cultural/Intellectual thought before 1450
        1. Life before
          1. Dominated by Christianity for 1000 years
          2. Feudal system dominated political/social structure for 500 years
            1. Dominated by concern for local issues
              1. salvation
              2. territorial disputes
              3. Black Death
              4. lack of education outside monasteries
              5. small-scale trade
          3. Greece/Rome essentially forgotten
        2. What influenced shift
          1. Crusades exposed Christians to advanced Islamic Civilization
          2. Countries unified under centralized world
          3. Increased trade fueled contacts with other worlds
          4. Universities became centers of learning
          5. Scholasticism – exposed to rest of world and Europe’s past
          6. Byzantine and Islamic empires preserved the past
            1. added to knowledge of math and science
        3. Four major movements – Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment
        4. Shift in thought
          1. No longer backward, isolated, self-involved region on edge of major civilizations
          2. the dominant civilization in the world
          3. shift in exploration and expansion caused and caused by shifts in thought
          4. Not quick, broad or in equal proportions
            1. long time to penetrate into all circles
            2. people with power jealously guarded it
            3. peasant class didn’t participate
              1. not educated
              2. not in position to learn about
      2. Renaissance
        1. Why the Renaissance?
          1. Black Death subsides – populations increase
          2. People move to cities
          3. Demand for products
          4. Middle Class emerges – bankers, merchants, traders
          5. Huge influx of money
          6. Interactions with Muslim world
            1. preservation of Greco-Roman learning by Muslims occupying Spain
          7. Weakening Byzantine Empire
            1. Allowed for more interactions between Muslim/European traders
          8. Northern Italian city-states getting rich
            1. wealthy from supplying goods to Crusaders
            2. transporting goods to Crusaders
            3. Byzantines no longer dominating trade
            4. Italy a patchwork of feudal domains
          9. Scholars uncovering long-forgotten Roman and Greek written works
          10. Location on site of former ruins - Italy
        2. Humanism – focus on human endeavor
          1. Life useless, goal salvation – suck it up and hopefully you’ll die and go to heaven
          2. Revisited texts from past
            1. Role of humanity – personal accomplishments, personal happiness
            2. Literature/history of Greece/Rome has tons of examples
          3. Shift from afterlife to here and now
          4. Impact – focus on individuals means less of a focus on institutions – i
          5. Church
          6. Renaissance Man – multifaceted, multitalented – da Vinci – artist, scientist, musician, architect, engineer
        3. Characteristics of Renaissance Art
          1. themes before primarily religious, now more secular
          2. subjects = monarchs, popes, merchants, Greek/Roman deities, contemporary events, ordinary
          3. human figure shown more realistically – study of anatomy
          4. use perspective – three dimensional
          5. use of tempera replaced with oil paints
        4. Rebirth in the arts
          1. Powerful families in city-states – Florence, Venice, Milan, Rome
            1. Medici – other families became patrons
            2. Competed to show off who had the latest/best artists
          2. Human figure is realistic
            1. Not flat, two-dimensional, not proportional to surroundings
            2. Light, shadow
            3. autopsies
          3. Linear perspective
            1. Nearby objects drawn bigger
            2. Focal point
          4. Roman Church embraces
            1. Art adorns palaces/cathedrals
            2. Huge domes from architects
          5. Spread North
            1. More religious – colors/symbols
            2. Famed portraitists
          6. Compared to before
            1. Religious vs. religious and secular
            2. Art in cathedrals vs. public plazas/homes
            3. Flat and stiff vs. realistic, softer, human, 3-D
            4. Not worldly vs. of this world
            5. Greater variety of colors
        5. Writing
          1. Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press
            1. Invented by Song Dynasty centuries earlier
            2. Printing books now easier
              1. Before…too expensive…left to monasteries
              2. Before…printed in Latin
            3. Growing middle class starts buying books
            4. papermaking flourishes – from Arabs, from Chinese
            5. People more educated – demanded more books
            6. helped spread Protest Reformation views
          2. First books practical or political
            1. Machiavelli – The Prince – maintain power – end justifies the means
              1. Self-interest more important than morals
          3. Books became printed for Middle Class
            1. Goal then merely for entertainment
            2. Focus on daily lives of people
          4. Fluorished in England and Low Countries – Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium
            1. Erasmus – In Praise of Folly – satirizes politics
            2. Sir Thomas More – Utopia – ideal society – shared wealth/common interests
            3. William Shakespeare
              1. Humanism focus
                1. Human faults
                2. Strengths/faults comedy/tragedy
              2. Works explored classical world – Julius Caesar, etc.
      3. Protestant Reformation
        1. Power of the Church under feudalism
          1. Prince and emperors didn’t like sharing power with pope
            1. But…power increased if sanctioned by pope
          2. One unifying force
            1. Undisputed control on otherworldly issues
            2. But…also had huge sway over worldly issues
          3. Could only get to heaven if you do it the Church’s way
          4. Power of Eastern Orthodox Church falls with fall of Constantinople in 1453
            1. Official religion for only Russia and easternmost parts of Europe
              1. And even some of these were controlled by Turkish rule
        2. Church gets into trouble
          1. Sells indulgences
            1. Needs to finance patrons – Renaissance artists
            2. Reduces time in purgatory for self, family members already there
            3. Generates income – maintains power over masses
          2. Controls huge blocks of land
          3. Doesn’t pay taxes
          4. Loses legitimacy when there are two popes for awhile
            1. France 7 decade transfer of papacy to Avignon
            2. Two popes claiming allegiance from Catholics
          5. Church too concerned with wealth power
          6. Clergy not well-trained/spiritual
            1. Some appointed for political purposes, not spiritual
            2. Corrupt – spiritually bankrupt
          7. Early attempts at reform
            1. John Wycliffe – Oxford University – Church should return to spiritual values
              1. body burned and followers persecuted
            2. Jan Hus – Bohemian - urged reform
              1. Burned at the stake
              2. Led to decades-long war throughout Holy Roman Empire
            3. Savonarola – Dominican friar – clergy
              1. used violence to fight Church
        3. Martin Luther
          1. Frustrations
            1. Selling of indulgences
            2. Worldly nature of Rome
            3. Church services not in vernacular
            4. Salvation by God through grace, not indulgences or through Church
            5. Don’t need Church as intermediary – go right to Bible
          2. Diet at Worms – saved by prince, not killed – refused to recant
        4. Christianity Splits
          1. Consequences
            1. Luther’s followers – Lutheran
            2. New leaders with other Biblical interpretations
              1. John Calvin – predestination – the Elect
                1. Later Huguenots in France, Pilgrims in U.S.
            3. England – Henry VIII creates Anglican Church
              1. Because Pope refused annulment
              2. Allows King to confiscate Church property – pass out to nobles
          2. Philosophical consequence
            1. If firmest institution – the Church – could be questioned, anything is fair game
            2. Nature of universe
            3. Role of government
            4. Foundation for future revolutions
          3. Protestant Beliefs
            1. Originally – favored institutional simplicity
              1. Believed the Catholic Church too concerned with politics, bureaucracy
              2. But…when Protestant Church got larger…guess what happened?
            2. Less emphasis on rituals/sacraments
            3. Opposed veneration of Mary/Saints
            4. Only grace of God can save sinful man/woman – not pope, priest, ritual
            5. Reading the Bible and interpreting for selves
              1. Led to higher literacy rates
            6. More lenient about divorce
            7. Allowed clergy to marry
            8. rejected transubstantiation – communion – wine and bread = blood and body
        5. Counter-Reformation – Catholic Reformation
          1. Gained credibility
            1. Stopped selling indulgences
            2. Trained Priests/Bishops
            3. Encourage clerics to live Christian life
              1. Jesuits – stricter training
          2. Reconfirmed absolute authority – didn’t budge
            1. Sunday mass mandatory
            2. Concil of Trent – 1545>1563 – defined rules
              1. How to get salvation
              2. Latin
              3. punished heretics
            3. Succeeds in winning back converts
        6. Results – European conflict
          1. Southern Europe + France and S. Germany are Catholic
          2. England, N. Germany, Scandinavia, Calvin – Protestant, Anglican, or Calvinist
        7. Effects of Reformation
          1. Luther’s insistence on Bible being translated to German/vernacular spread literacy
          2. support of German princes led to increased nationalism
          3. But…Thirty Years War – German princes – Lutheranism vs. Catholicism
            1. Germany can’t become unified nation
          4. Religious wars freed Netherlands (Calvinism) from Spain
          5. Henry VIII – separated from Church
            1. Head of Church of England (Anglican Church)
            2. Act of Supremacy – stripped Roman Catholic Church of land > gave to some nobles
          6. End of medieval way of life where Catholic Church sole source of stability
          7. Anticlericalism
            1. dismay over corruption of clergy
            2. Luther’s teachings say priests not necessary
          8. Growth of middle class – good works/material success a confirmation of salvation
          9. Created middle class that eventually established European democracies
          10. Increased questioning of political authority
          11. strengthening the power of monarchs as papal power decreased
          12. Encouraged education – Protestants wanted children to be able to read/interpret the Bible
          13. improved the status of women within marriage – writers encouraged love between man/wife
          14. created new Protestant churches
      4. Scientific Revolution
        1. Previous beliefs
          1. Aristotle – Earth center of universe
            1. Scientific thought built on this fallacy, tried to explain
          2. Church/political structure inhibited scientific thought
            1. Church – focus on salvation
            2. Feudal system – focus on daily, mundane tasks and military conquest
          3. Changed by
            1. Growth of universities
            2. Exposure to scientific successes of Islam
        2. Scientific Advances
          1. Copernicus – heliocentric theory
          2. Galileo – logically explained heliocentric theory – banned book, heretic
          3. Scientific method
            1. Reason alone not good enough
            2. Prove what mind concluded
            3. Demonstrate it to others
            4. Open it to experimentation
            5. Prove with mathematical equations
            6. Use scientific instruments to prove
          4. Brahe – observatory
          5. Bacon – inductive reasoning
          6. Kepler – planetary motion
          7. Newton – calculus to prove theories
        3. Science for practical uses
          1. Labor saving devices
          2. Power sources from water/wind
        4. Long term effects
          1. People questioning Church even more
          2. Some become Atheists – no god
          3. Deists – great clockmaker in the sky – set the world going, then hands off
          4. people stop relying on supernatural explanations
          5. People think they can explain other elements of the world through scientific method/questions
            1. Empirical research – based on observation and carefully obtained data
          6. Gave rise to Enlightenment/Age of Reason
        5. Different than East Asia
          1. Chinese dealt with specific facts that were practical in nature
          2. Europeans formulated general laws
      5. Enlightenment
        1. Life before Enlightenment
          1. Monarchs gain power
            1. Centralize authority
            2. Nationalism for people
            3. Promote exploration/colonization
            4. Rule with absolute authority
            5. Claim Divine Right – God supported what monarch chose
          2. Divine Right vs. Mandate of Heaven
            1. Mandate – emperors divinely chosen, rule as long as pleased heaven
              1. Didn’t rule justly, responsibly – heaven would take away
            2. Divine Right – rule however you want – God chose you
        2. Enlightened philosophes discussed
          1. Nature of political structures
            1. Social contracts – gov’ts exist for people, people give up power
            2. Conflicting Ideas
              1. Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan – people evil – enlightened despot – China
              2. John Locke – born free w/ inalienable rights – need consent of people
              3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – humans free to obey laws – if just
              4. Montesquieu – separation of powers – legislative, executive, judicial
              5. Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations – laissez faire economics
                1. Government regulation minimal to allow for free operation of supply and demand
          2. Nature of social structures
            1. Voltaire – religious toleration
            2. Deism – god who created earth then let run on natural law – great clockmaker
          3. Created encyclopedia – Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedie
            1. Included scientific and social scientific knowledge
        3. Effects
          1. Seeds of revolution
            1. Questioning of traditional authority
          2. Some leaders became Enlightened Monarchs/Despots
            1. Joseph II - Austria
            2. Frederick II – Prussia
          3. Basis of modern technology and political liberalism
        4. Characteristics of Enlightened thinkers
          1. science/natural law governs human nature
          2. power of human reason/rationalism to discern principles of natural law
          3. once determined, people should live by these laws
          4. living by these laws would lead to society’s economic, political and social problems
          5. this would lead to human progress
        5. Challenges of Enlightenment
          1. find an end to injustice, inequality, and superstition
          2. toleration for all religions
          3. breaking down of institutions (Church) that were corrupt and not based on natural law/reason
      6. Comparative Global Causes of Cultural Change
      7. Comparative Global Impacts of Cultural Change
      8. Changes and continuities in Confucianism
      9. Major developments and exchanges in the arts
    Subject X2: 

    Demographic and Environmental Changes

    Early Modern Period

    1. Demographic and Environmental Changes
      1. Diseases
        1. Unintended part of global exchange
        2. Similar to transportation of bubonic plague from Asia to Europe on ships
          1. yellow fever, malaria, smallpox, measles to Americas/syphilis to Europe
        3. Impact on Europe minimal
        4. Impact of European/African diseases on Americas significant/drastic
          1. Wiped out populations on initial islands
          2. In Spanish claimed lands, population dropped from 50 million to 4 million
      2. Animals
        1. Types of animals
          1. Horse
            1. New method of labor
            2. New method of transportation
              1. Changed lives of Native Americans – especially on plains
            3. Led to depleted herds due to hunting – think buffalo
          2. Domestic animals – cattle, goats, and chickens
            1. Source of protein for Native Americans
            2. Destruction of natural grasses due to grazing
      3. New Crops
        1. Americas
          1. Spanish organized huge estates – haciendas
            1. Allowed for growing of large quantities of single crop – monoculture
              1. Labor system – Indians or slaves
          2. Negatives of monoculture farming
            1. Environmentally damaging
            2. Also damaging to economic system – reliance on one crop
          3. Crops
            1. Coffee, bananas, tomatoes, corn, potatoes
            2. Corn/potatoes most significant
              1. High calorie yield per acre grown
            3. Sugar – most crucial cash crop
              1. Primarily on Caribbean Islands – grown, processed, refined
              2. Exceptionally labor intensive – stimulated growth of African slave trade
        2. Effects of food exchange
          1. Led to population increase due to balanced diet
          2. Led to increased slavery due to need for labor
      4. Comparative Population Trends
        1. Columbian Exchange – by 1750 continents looked totally different than in 1450
          1. Indigenous people wiped out
            1. Incas/Aztecs gone
            2. Huge cities destroyed
          2. Europeans moved by hundreds of thousands
          3. Forced migration of Africans
          4. Cities in Europe swelled
            1. Merchants getting richer from trade
        2. 1400 -1700 – Population of world from 350 million to 610 million
          1. Longest period of uninterrupted and rapid population growth
          2. Due mainly to improvements in agricultural techniques
          3. general warming of the climate
          4. Asia/Europe grew fastest
        3. Growth in China
          1. 80 million in 1400 to 160 million in 1600
        4. Causes of improved population growth
          1. Bringing more land under cultivation
          2. New strands of rice
          3. Improved farming methods
          4. Cessation of frequent conflicts/invasions
          5. lack of widespread outbreaks of disease
          6. new crops improve nutrition
        5. Growth of urban populations
          1. always magnets for people from the countryside wanting better, more exciting life
          2. new start for people driven off land
            1. Famine (French farmers late 1700s)
            2. Enclosure movement (English farmers 1500s)
            3. Too little productive land for too many people (English farmers 1500s)
        6. African Slave Trade
          1. Causes massive demographic shifts
            1. Brutal separation from family/culture
            2. Even if survived, absorbed into foreign culture that considered them property
              1. Many Christianized, but…
              2. Maintained parts of their language and culture
              3. Unique cultural synthesis – African music, dress, and mannerisms mixed with Spanish and indigenous cultures in the Americas
          2. forever alters racial and genetic make-up of the world
      5. Environmental
        1. Americas
          1. Chief goal – exploitation of natural resources
            1. Precious metals
              1. 185,000 kilograms (400,000 pounds) of gold
              2. 16 million kilograms (45 million pounds) of silver
    Subject X2: 

    Diverse Interpretations

    Early Modern Period

    1. Diverse Interpretations
      1. Debates about the timing and extent of European predominance in the world economy
        1. European desire for world dominance
        2. Technological superiority
        3. Why some European city-states and not others?
        4. “great man theory” – visionary thinking of a few extraordinary people
          1. Prince Henry the Navigator and Sir Isaac Newton
          2. Or…did these people influence very few others
        5. Culture – life on earth had value of its own – life was getting better – no longer just think of afterlife
        6. Political theory – European monarchs needed money from new colonies/new trade networks
          1. Finance wars and add to their power
      2. Comparison of world economic system of this period to world economic network of previous period
        1. Changed how?
        2. Impact of trade on world’s civilizations
        3. Role of economic considerations in influencing other world interactions
    2. Comparing Imperial System – European monarchy vs. land-based Asian Empire
      1. Methods of government
        1. Most common government
          1. single ruler with absolute and/or divine power
          2. nobility as counselors
          3. civil service
        2. Asian Empires
          1. Japan
            1. European feudalism was decentralized
              1. feudal aristocracy owed allegiance to monarch but ruled own territories
              2. later monarch would need to reign in powerful nobles to build single nation
            2. Japan feudalism became centralized
    Subject X2: 

    Empire Building – Asia vs. Africa vs. Europe

    Early Modern Period

    1. Empire Building – Asia vs. Africa vs. Europe
      1. Movitation
        1. For all, increase wealth and power
        2. Africans/Europeans – convert nonbelievers to Christianity/Islam
      2. Means
        1. Force
        2. Europeans and Asians – firearms
        3. Africans – advent of Europeans slave trade/guns
      3. Impediments
        1. Europeans – lack of available territory on European continent
          1. Not rich in resources
          2. Needed new markets
          3. Needed markets not ruled by powerful government
        2. Africans and Asians
          1. Distance
          2. ability to set up stable and strong organizations to govern conquered people
          3. Rivals who worked against the rules to gain either local or imperial power
      4. Advantages
        1. Europeans
          1. Navies
          2. Advanced technology
        2. Africans
          1. Access to European weapons
        3. Asia
          1. Chinese dynasties alternating with periods that saw warring states
            1. Being part of an empire appealing to the Chinese at times
    2. XIV. Interaction with the West – Russia vs. Ottoman/China/Tokugawa Japan/Mughal India
      1. Varying influences
        1. Russia
          1. Had been mistrust toward Europeans
            1. Europeans doing business in Russia had been kept away from ordinary
          2. Peter embarked on Europeanization effort to modernize nation
        2. Ottoman
          1. Took a military approach
          2. Although they traded with the West
            1. desired to enlarge empire at the expense of European nations
          3. Struck westward in an attempt to enlarge their domain
            1. Captured Constantinople in 1453
              1. Brought down teetering Byzantine Empire
            2. Tried to siege Vienna, but failed
            3. Continued fight against Holy Roman Empire in Mediterranean
              1. Took over eastern portion
        3. China – remained relatively isolated
          1. Under Ming
            1. allowed some missionaries Jesuit – but mostly shut off
              1. Matteo Ricci and Francis Xavier
            2. Portuguese and Spanish arrive – too big to conquer
              1. Set up embassies and trading houses
          2. Under Qing – shut off from west
            1. Europeans arrived, but Beijing declined offers to trade
            2. Shut off from technologies of Scientific Revolution
              1. Xenophobic ideals
          3. Considered themselves superior
          4. Contacts limited to treaty ports
        4. Japan – periods of isolation and acceptance
          1. 1543 - Portuguese sailors shipwrecked and washed ashore on Southern island of Kyushu
          2. Additional visits from European traders and missionaries
            1. Western technology – clocks and firearms
            2. Firearms
              1. Changed Japanese warfare from feudal to modern
              2. Allowed Tokugawa to maintain authority
            3. Christian missionaries
              1. At first, Catholic missionaries protected from Buddhist resistance
              2. Late 1580s Tokugawa shifted protection – saw Catholicism as threat
                1. Missionaries ordered to leave
                2. Christians persecuted and executed
                3. Distrusted new religion
          3. By 1630 – trade only allowed in a few cities
            1. Japanese ships forbidden from traveling long distances
            2. Created seclusion laws – even limited trading with Chinese
          4. By 1640 – only Dutch and Chinese allowed to trade at Nagasaki
            1. Kept Japanese informed of Western developments – Dutch learning
            2. Adopted those Western traditions considered appropriate for Japanese goals
          5. Allowed Japanese merchant class to gain influence
            1. Set stage for pre-industrial development
        5. Mughal India – Europeans try to control areas
          1. Mughal emperor welcomed English East India Company in 1613
            1. By 1800, imperialism the goal
            2. 1857 company deposed final Mughal emperor
            3. Company disbanded – became part of British Empire in 1876
          2. Set up factories and trading ports
            1. British, Portuguese, French, Dutch
            2. French/British took over most
          3. Local princes act as allies to defend against Mughals – push out
          4. Not limited to treaty ports
            1. Started to try to affect local affairs
            2. Won the right to acquire territory
          5. British/French rivalry affected India – eventually Britain takes French land
      2. Varying consequences
      3. Penetrated some regions, but not others

      Examples of What You Need to Know
      Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.

      • * Neoconfucianism, but not specific Neoconfucianists
      • * Importance of European exploration, but not individual explorers
      • * Characteristics of European absolutism, but not specific rulers
      • * Reformation, but not Anabaptism or Huguenots
      • * Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, but not the Safavid Empire
      • * Siege of Vienna (1688–89), but not the Thirty Years' War
      • * Slave plantation systems, but not Jamaica's specific slave system
      • * Institution of the harem, but not Hurrem Sultan
    Subject X2: 

    Major Empires

    Early Modern Period

    1. Major Empires
      1. European Overview
        1. Most monarchies
          1. divine right ordained by God
        2. Retain pure bloodlines to God
          1. intermarriage among royal families of different nations common
          2. monarchies of one nation gained international influence
            1. ties of marriage/inheritance led to alliances
        3. Strong national loyalties
          1. Led to internal/external conflicts
            1. religious fights between Protestants and Catholics
            2. internal civil wars between monarch and nobles
            3. battles stemming from trade disputes between rival nations
        4. Spain/Portugal start off strong – England/France replace
      2. Ottoman
        1. Background Information
          1. Abbasid Caliphate loses power in 1200s
            1. Decades of chaos and confusion followed
            2. Strong Islamic empires emerged to replace fallen caliphate
              1. Ottoman Empire
              2. Safavid Empire in Persia
              3. Mughal Empire in India
              4. Characteristics of all three
                1. extremely centralized
                2. technologically advanced
                3. military powerful
                4. “gunpowder empires”
                  1. Mastery of weaponry
                  2. Effective use of weapons for maintaining regional power
          2. History of Ottoman Empire
            1. Islamic Empire overrun by Mongols in 13th century
            2. Byzantine Empire huge influence
              1. controlled most of Turkey
              2. Influenced Southeastern Europe/Russia
            3. Mongol Empire fell, Osman Bey led Muslim Ottoman Empire
              1. Eastern Turkey – named after first leader Osman
                1. On the steppes of Central Asia
                2. Migrated westward to Asia Minor in 1200s
                3. Vassals of the Seljuk Turks
                4. Established own state in 1280 and then slowly expanded
              2. Challenged Byzantine Empire
              3. Over 14th century, gradually expanded
              4. 1453 invaded Constantinople
            4. by 1550 controlled most of former Roman Empire, except for Italy west
          3. Constantinople renamed Istanbul
            1. Converted cathedrals to mosques – Hagia Sophia
          4. Religious policy – extremely tolerant – most tolerant empire in Europe
            1. Jews/Christians allowed to practice
            2. As empire grew, so did religious persecution
              1. conquered large areas – enslaved Christian subjects’ children
                1. fighting warriors – Janisaries
          5. Selim I – 1512 - claimed to be rightful heir of caliphs
            1. Istanbul became center of Islamic civilization
          6. Suleiman I – the Magnificent started Golden Age
            1. Increased military spending
            2. encouraged development of the arts
            3. 1529 – laid siege on Vienna, but stopped
              1. Could have changed course of Western Europe
          7. Lasted until 1922
            1. greatly expanded reach of Islam
            2. kept Eastern Europe in state of flux/always threatened
              1. Western Europe could dominate
              2. Exploration allowed them to bypass Ottoman Empire
                1. Traded directly with India, China, Americas
          8. Accomplishments
            1. transforming Constantinople into Muslim capital – Istanbul
            2. turning many of the great Byzantine churches, such as Hagia Sophia, into mosques
            3. building an empire on part of 3 continents
            4. maintaining large multiethnic empire from Belgrade to Egypt for 600 years
            5. creating extensive civil service and bureaucracy
              1. Using slaves and subject peoples for labor
            6. reasonably accessible government allowing citizens to petition the sultan regarding religious and political issues
        2. Political Structure
          1. Sultan – sovereign over ministers – wazirs
            1. Ruled with help of provincial governors – beys
            2. Gradually power taken from local rulers
              1. held from Topkapi Palace “Cannon Gate” – Istanbul
            3. 1500 sultan claims title of caliph – religiously legitimizing political authority
          2. Military
            1. Conquests
              1. Destruction of Byzantine Empire – 1453
                1. 80,000 army + artillery
              2. Pressed into N. Africa
              3. Pushed into Europe – Romania
                1. Constant assault on Austria’s Holy Roman Empire
                2. Defeated Hungary
              4. Superiority of Mediterranean until 1500s
                1. Remained powerful presence until World War I
            2. Military
              1. Incorporated gunpowder artillery, cannon into armies
              2. Cannon on navies
              3. Cavalry supported with janissaries “new troops”
                1. recruited from childhood from conquered Christians
                2. Converted to Islam and raised to be loyal to sultan
                3. Slaves…but with many privileges
                4. Advanced training in using gunpowder
                5. System kept them at forefront of world military affairs
            3. Politics and religion
              1. Governed diverse religions
                1. Variety of Christians – Orthodox, Nestorian, Coptic, Catholic, Protestant
                2. Sunni and Shiite Muslims
              2. Many languages – Turkish, Arabic, Persian
              3. Religious tolerance for non-Muslims
                1. Allowed to convert to Islam, but not forced
                2. Pay a special head tax
                3. Not treated badly – not totally equal, but not persecuted
                4. Kept peace with economic benefits
              4. Divided into administrative units – millets
              5. Sultan position hereditary
                1. not always inherited
                  1. sultan usually didn’t marry – heirs through concubines
                  2. concubine’s son chosen as heir = “queen mother”
                    1. Influence as advisor
                2. New sultan often killed brothers to eliminate competition
        3. Social
          1. Women
            1. Elite
              1. Several influential, yet informal roles
                1. Queen mothers
                  1. ran royal house
                  2. diplomatic relations w/ foreign naitions
                  3. Controlled marriage alliances
                2. Harem – complex elite social network
                  1. Originally slaves (not Islamic) or prisoners b, Trained to read Qu’ran, sew, perform music
                  2. Ranked by status
                  3. Could leave harem to marry officials
                  4. Few used for sexual purposes
                  5. Members of sultan’s extended family
                  6. Mother influence over sons – raised and then respected
            2. Outside imperial family
              1. Not seen in public in Istanbul/major cities
              2. Right to own/retain property
              3. Purchased urban real estate
              4. Could testify for selves in court
          2. Culture
            1. Intellectual advancement high
              1. Lost dominance over Europeans in 1600s
                1. Europe’s Scientific Revolution
                2. Complacency
            2. Skilled architects
              1. Mosques + minarets/large domes
              2. Renowned for mosaics
          3. Class structure
            1. Sultan – leader
            2. Vizier – prime minister
            3. Divan – cabinet of advisors
            4. Janissaries – elite military corps of converted slaves
            5. Regional officials
            6. General population
              1. merchants, farmers/peasants, artisans
      3. China
        1. Political
          1. History - Ming
            1. Ming Dynasty – 1368-1644
              1. Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang
                1. Warlord who assisted in kicking out Mongols
              2. Reacted against Mongol rule by returning to Chinese tradition
            2. Ming Dynasty reforms
              1. Scholar gentry restored
              2. Confucian based civil service exam reinstated/expanded
                1. Women still banned from taking exam
              3. Currupt/incompetent public officials beaten in public
            3. Brief attempts at exploration trade
              1. Zheng He – brief, several major expeditions of exploration/trade
              2. Sailed through Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf
              3. By 1430 scholar-gentry persuaded Ming leaders to call back
                1. Too costly, need to spend money on Mongol threat
            4. Successes
              1. Politically dynamic and militarily active state – conquered neighbors
              2. Economically prosperous
              3. Population grew steadily in 1300s and 1400s – recovering from war/disease
            5. Decline
              1. Last 200 years ruled by incompetent rulers
                1. Maintenance of dams, dikes, irrigation systems neglected
                2. Classic pattern of decline
                  1. rulers effective/dynamic at beginning - 14th/15th
                  2. Become complacent – withdraw to Forbidden City
              2. Nomadic peoples continued to pressure Great Wall
                1. Led to higher taxes
                2. 1644 – Jurchens, Manchus, conquered Ming dynasty
                3. Became the Qing dynasty – ruled into 20th century
                  1. Last dynasty
              3. Court eunuchs became very powerful/corrupt – influenced decisions
              4. Scandals involving misappropriation of imperial funds
                1. scholar-gentry protest
              5. Massive influx of precious metals triggered inflation
                1. Spanish/Portuguese only had silver to offer
              6. Agricultural yields shrank
                1. Soil quality worsens + cooler climate
                2. Land can’t accommodate population growth
              7. Peasant revolt
              8. Last Ming emperor – Chung-cheng committed suicide after trying to kill family
            6. Remained relatively isolated from the west
          2. History – Qing/Manchu Dynasty – 1644-1911
            1. Manchu
              1. Pastoral nomads from North
                1. Manchuria – ethnically distinct
              2. last imperial family/foreign rule of China
              3. Incorporated elements of Chinese culture
                1. used traditional civil service examination
                2. encouraged neo-Confucian values
                  1. obedience to ruler strictly enforced
                  2. Confucian ideal of traditional agriculture
                  3. Disallowed technical advancement
                  4. Return to feudal past
                3. Eunuchs employed as court officials
                4. Adopted a xenophobic foreign policy
                5. Manchus given superior positions over Chinese
              4. Kept themselves apart as rulers
            2. Qing economics
              1. Full scale trade with Europeans began under Qing – 1690s
              2. Closely regulated trade by state
              3. Went through port of Canton exclusively – like Nagasaki
              4. Sold porcelain, tea, and silk
              5. Allowed few imports – usually paid with silver
              6. favorable balance of trade
            3. Qing decline
            4. rulers grew softer and less active
            5. population grew faster than economy
            6. poverty worsened
            7. slipping backward in terms of technological innovation, scientific advancement, global power
              1. Left selves open to influence and the later domination
          3. During time period, power shift began
            1. didn’t benefit from scientific/technological advances of Europe
        2. Social
          1. Ming Dynasty reforms
            1. Thought control sanctioned by government
            2. Neo-Confucianism increased its influence – strict obedience to state
            3. Women continued to occupy a subordinate position
          2. Foreigners allowed under Ming
            1. late 16th century – Jesuits allowed to enter
              1. Chinese interested in scientific and technological knowledge
              2. Allowed to remain through Ming Dynasty
          3. Social hierarchy under Ming
            1. Absolute power from ruler > scholar gentry > farmers > merchants
              1. Denigration of commercial class becomes problem later on
              2. Aggressive European traders able to have impact in 1700s
          4. Under Qing – Manchu
            1. Manchus above Chinese
            2. Manchus not allowed to engage in trade or manual labor
            3. Marriage between Manchus and Chinese forbidden
            4. All Han men required to wear their hair braided in the back
              1. Found humiliating
              2. Hairstyle – que – visual image west has of China
              3. shave their foreheads “lose your hair or lose your head” Chinese proverb
          5. Cultural grandeur/elegance – peak during Ming dynasty
            1. literary masterpieces, fine porcelain, architecture, revival of Confucianism
      4. Portugal
        1. Political
        2. Social
      5. Spain
        1. Political
          1. King Ferdinand from Christian North + Queen Isabella from Muslim South united
            1. created nation-state
            2. aggressively supported exploration
              1. underwriting Columbus’ exploration
              2. establishing empires in the New World
            3. Formidable navy fleet – Spanish Armada
              1. Ruled the seas for 16th century
          2. Charles V
            1. Grandparents on one side Hapsburgs on the other side Isabella and Ferdinand
            2. Empire stretched from Austria to Germany to Spain
              1. 1519 – Holy Roman Emperor
                1. Held parts of France, Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Spain
                2. Possessions brought wars/riches
                  1. Fought France for Italy
                  2. Fought Ottoman Empire for Eastern Europe
                  3. Defended Catholicism in Germany
                3. 1556 – retired to monastery – split throne
          3. Philip II gets throne of Spain
            1. Controls part of France, Sicily and Netherlands
              1. Greatest expansion in the New World
              2. Rebirth of culture under Spanish Renaissance
            2. Devout
              1. continuation of Spanish Inquisition for heretics
              2. Catholic Reformation against Protestants
              3. Increase in missionary work
            3. Dutch revolted
              1. wanted autonomy – develop own empire
              2. Protestant
              3. 1581 – Northern provinces gained independence – Dutch Netherlands
                1. Southern part remains loyal to Spain – later becomes Belgium
            4. Other signs of failure
              1. Spanish forces fighting for Catholicism in France unsuccessful
              2. English defeated Spanish at the British Isles
              3. Containment of Spain, Rise of Britain
              4. Mid 17th century had colonial holdings, but influence failing
            5. Why Spanish failure?
              1. Amassed enormous sums of gold
              2. Spent just as quickly
                1. Wars
                2. Missionary activity
                3. Maintenance of huge fleet
          4. Accomplishments
            1. expelling Moors and ending Islamic rule in southwestern Europe
            2. sponsoring maritime exploration that led to the creation of a vast overseas Spanish Empire
            3. close ties with the Catholic Church
            4. loss of the Netherlands as a Spanish holding
            5. literary flowering that produced Don Quixote – one of the greatest modern works of Western literature
        2. Social
          1. Exploration and colonization ensured spread of Spanish language, culture, Catholicism
            1. extended across Atlantic
      6. Russia
        1. Political
          1. Effects of Mongol Rule
            1. Nation with weakened emphasis on education, trade and manufacturing
          2. Third Rome
            1. After Rome, Constantinople – Orthodox Christianity moved to Moscow
          3. Ivan III/IV – declared Russia free of Mongol control – 1480
            1. established absolute rule in Russia
            2. expanded empire eastward
              1. with expansion added substantial Muslim minority
            3. Cossacks
              1. Recruited peasants – freed from feudal relationship
                1. Conquer eastern land
                2. Inhabit eastern land
              2. Ivan the Terrible – Czar – Russian for Caesar
                1. Ruled under reign of terror
                  1. Executed anyone who disagreed
            4. Comparing Russia with Western Europe
              1. Russia – centralization of authority, but still feudalism vs. W. Europe evolving
              2. Russia remains isolated from west, pushed eastward
                1. W. Europe – Renaissance , exploration, religious debate, scientific rev/enlightenment passed over
                  1. Not part of Renaissance, controlled by illiterate Mongols
                  2. Not part of Reformation, not Catholic
              3. Growth territorial, not artistic/intellectual
            5. Following Ivan IV 1584
              1. Fight for the throne – Time of Troubles
              2. Feudal lords vie for power – kill one after another
              3. Michael Romanov czar 1613
                1. Romanov family rules until 1917
            6. Romanov family
              1. consolidated power, ruled ruthlessly
              2. peasants became slaves/serfs
              3. spread empire – 1689 from Ukraine to Manchuria/Pacific Ocean
              4. Created state control over the Russian Orthodox Church
            7. Peter the Great – 1682-1725
              1. Convinced he must westernize Russia
                1. Larger agricultural nation than East Asian empires or W. Europe
                2. Travels to Europe to try to get support against Turks
                  1. Gained appreciation for Western ideas
              2. Russia’s first navy
              3. New capital – St. Petersburg
                1. Home to hundreds of engineers, scientists, artists, architects
              4. War with Sweden gained warm water port
              5. Did not accept Western democratic trends – parliamentary government
              6. Created secret police
              7. Encouraged the continuation of serfdom
                1. Bound to land only – not to person
                2. Kept economy bound to agriculture
            8. Catherine the Great
              1. Continued xpansionist and westernization policies of Peter
              2. Laws restricting serfs were harsher than before
              3. Reduced severe punishments for crimes
              4. Added new territory down to Northern California
          4. Social
            1. Before Romanov family, excluded from Western Change
              1. Illiteracy of Mongols + Orthodox + Geography
            2. Peter the Great
              1. St. Petersburg- “window to the west”
                1. recruited finest scientists/artists to change Russia
              2. Women nobles forced to dress in western fashions
              3. Men shaved beards, wear western clothing
                1. Out with the old, in with the new
                2. Showed denial of Mongol traditions
              4. Architecture of city done by serfs
            3. Catherine the Great – 1762-1796
              1. Enlightened policies of education and wester culture
              2. Fiercely enforced serfdom
              3. Devalued merchant class
              4. Territorially expanded west – Poland/Black Sea territory – Mediterranean
            4. Westernization
              1. By end of 18th century looked a lot different
                1. Gained sea access through Black/Baltic Seas
                2. Actively sought cultural access to the west
              2. Unlike Chinese/Japanese who fully withdrew
                1. Russians wanted to engage the West, emulate it
      7. France
        1. Political
          1. Unification began after Hundred Years War drove English from France
            1. central authority in a strong monarch
          2. Religious differences prevented full unity
            1. Largely Catholic
            2. French Protestants – Huguenots
              1. Sizable and influential minority
            3. Mid to late 16th century fought brutally
              1. 1598 – Henry IV – Edict of Nantes – environment of toleration
              2. Henry IV – Bourbon king
                1. Bourbons ruled France until 1792
          3. Comparing England and France in 17th century
            1. France ruled by series of strong and able monarchs – Bourbon Dynasty
            2. After Elizabeth, England went from…
              1. Monarchy>commonwealth>Restoration>Glorious Revolution
            3. France’s Estates General weaker than England’s Parliament
              1. Estates General didn’t meet for most of 17th century
                1. King ruled successfully under divine right
              2. Parliament in England
                1. limited power of monarchs
                2. representatives chosen by voters from elite classes
          4. Cardinal Richeliu
            1. Catholic – chief advisor to Bourbons
            2. Strengthened French crown
              1. Didn’t seek to destroy Protestants
              2. Helped them attack Catholic Hapsburgs of Holy Roman Empire
                1. Empire’s fall would benefit France
            3. New bureaucratic class
              1. noblesse de la robe – bureaucrats – run government
              2. prepared France for strong position under Louis XIV
          5. Louis XIV
            1. Four years old when took crown – mother/Cardinal Mazarin ruled for him
            2. Long rule 1643-1715 exemplified grandiose whims of absolute monarchy
              1. “Sun King” “Most Christian King”
              2. Patronized arts – contributed to culture, glory of France
              3. “I am the State”
              4. Built Versailles to prove power
              5. Never summoned Estates General to meet
              6. Revoked Edict of Nantes – forced Huguenots to leave
              7. Appointed Jean Baptiste Cobert to manage royal funds
                1. Increase size of French empire
                  1. More business transactions
                  2. More taxes
                2. France constantly at war
                3. Warfare and mercantilist policies allowed French to get rich
                4. War of Spanish Succession – 1701-1714 hurt plans
            3. War of Spanish Succession
              1. Louis XIV’s grandson inherits Spanish thrown
                1. Europe afraid of supernation/empire
                2. France controls huge chunk of Americas
                3. Spain controls most of Mexico, South America
              2. England, Holy Roman Empire, German princes vs. France
              3. Eventually – grandson – Philip V can rule
                1. Spain loses land to England
                2. Spain can’t unite with France
          6. By 1750 military strength starting to fade
          7. Still center of culture for Europe
          8. Accomplishments
            1. Established academies for study of commerce and science
            2. Close ties between the Catholic Church and the French state formed
            3. Solidified autocratic control over France
            4. Most ornate and expensive palace in Europe was built at Versailles
            5. Sponsored writers and musicians
            6. Engaged in costly wars that strained the royal treasury
          9. Characteristics of absolute monarchies
            1. maintenance of strong armies
            2. establishment of elaborate bureaucracies
            3. high taxes to support the frequent wars
            4. believed in divine right of kings
            5. territorial expansion a goal
          10. Characteristics of European nation states
            1. well-suited to continent full of various cultural groups
            2. governs people who share a common culture, common language
            3. has definite geographic boundaries
            4. enjoys sovereignty
            5. created rivalries and divisions that often led to war
        2. Social
      8. England
        1. Political
          1. Mid 1400s war between two powerful families
            1. The War of the Roses
            2. House of Lancaster vs. the House of York
            3. New ruling dynasty – the Tudors – Henry VIII and Elizabeth
            4. Accomplishments
              1. broke with the Catholic Church and fromed the Church of England
                1. monarch at the head
              2. Wales was absorbed into the domain of England
              3. Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588
                1. Marked beginning of Spanish decline, Egnland ascendancy
              4. Encouraged the arts – High Renaissance bloomes
              5. Literary achievement notable – Ben Johnson and William Shakespeare

            a, Henry VIII – 1509-1547 - Church of England

            1. Henry VIII nullified pope’s authority in England – Act of Supremacy
              1. Divorce wife and marry Ann Boleyn for male heir
                1. Daughter was Elizabeth – oversaw golden/bloody age
          2. Elizabethan Age – 1558-1603
            1. Commercial expansion
              1. Muscovy Co mpany – first joint stock company – to Russia
              2. British East India Company
            2. Exploration and colonization in the New World
              1. Sped up after defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588
              2. Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe
              3. First English colonies in Virginia – Jamestown
            3. Religious battles unleashed by Protestant Reformation
              1. Anglicans – Church of England battling Catholics
              2. Puritans regularly persecuted
          3. James I power in 1607
            1. Attempted to accommodate Catholics and Puritans – problems persisted
              1. Puritans didn’t recognize king for religious matters
                1. James claims divine right
                2. Pilgrims find a new home in New World
          4. Charles I – 1625
            1. Petition of Right – desperate for money – Parliament has power of purse
              1. Limited taxes
              2. Forbid unlawful imprisonment
              3. Ignores petition after getting funds – doesn’t let parliament meet 11 yrs
            2. 1640 Scotland doesn’t like Charles rule
              1. Parliament called back
                1. Long parliament – 20 years – 1640-1660
                2. Refused to give him money to fight Irish
                3. Charles sends troops to arrest parliament members
                4. Leads to civil war
              2. Roundheads – Oliver Cromwell vs. Charles’s Cavaliers
                1. Roundheads win – king executed
                2. Cromwell rose to power as Lord Protector
                  1. Beginnings of English Commonwealth
          5. Oliver Cromwell
            1. Religious intolerance
              1. Violence against Catholics/Irish
                1. Encouraged Protestants to move to Northern Ireland
                  1. Led to conflicts later
                2. Much resentment
            2. Upon Cromwell’s death – Charles II brought to throne for limited monarchy
              1. Stuart Restoration
          6. Charles II – 1660
            1. Closet Catholic – gave religious rights to people
            2. Habeus Corpus – no unlawful arrests without due process
          7. James II – openly Catholic
            1. Believed in Divine Right of Kings
              1. People feared he’d make a Catholic nation
            2. Fled to France under Glorious Revolution
              1. Replaced in 1688 by son-in-law and daughter – William and Mary
          8. William and Mary – 1689
            1. Protestant rulers of the Netherlands
            2. English Bill of Rights – created constitutional monarchy
              1. England’s future rulers Anglican
              2. Powers limited
              3. laws passed by parliament now laws of the land
              4. all taxes only levied by parliament
              5. citizens allowed to petition monarch with grievances
              6. freedom of speech within Parliament
            3. Radical replacement of sitting king, set precedent for making royalty figureheads
        2. Social
          1. Elizabethan Age
            1. Shakespeare wrote his masterpieces
      9. Tokugawa Japan
        1. Political
          1. History
            1. The Warring States Period – 1467-1600 – Era of Independent Lords
              1. Open defiance of the Shogun led to political fragmentation
                1. small regions fighting against each other
                2. Governed by a series of military governments – shogunates
                3. By late 1300s/1400s, becoming increasingly decentralized
              2. 200 daimyo – feudal lords fought each other
                1. Samurais followed bushido – way of the warrior
                  1. Some left masters/masters killed - ronin
              3. “samurai military aristocracy” further established
              4. Ended in climatic battle of 1600
                1. Toyotomi Hideyoshi united Japan
                  1. Appointed five regents to rule until son got older
                  2. These five regents fought each other for power
                2. Winner Tokugawa Ieyasu
                  1. Forced Hideyoshi’s son to kill himself
                  2. Technically ruled in the name of the emperor, but…
            2. Tokugawa Shogunate – bakufu - 1603 – Tokugawa family acquired the title of shogun
              1. Ruled Japan from city of Edo – Tokyo – known as Edo period
              2. ended the feudal fighting
              3. Established new feudal order that would last for centuries
              4. 15 Tokugawa shoguns
                1. Stability, law and order their priorities
                2. Known as the Great Peace
          2. Centralized authority
            1. Large estates of daimyo broken up and taken over by Tokugawa
            2. Peace came at the price of dictatorship
              1. Increased social stratification
          3. Economic gains
            1. Population grew rapidly
            2. Rice and grain production more than doubled
            3. Highly urbanized – Edo one of world’s largest cities
            4. Built elaborate network of roads and canals
            5. Manufacturing – lacquerware, pottery, steel, and quality weapons
            6. Merchant class gains in wealth and power
        2. Social
          1. Warring States Period
            1. Religion
              1. New sects of Buddhism arrived from China
                1. attracted Samurai class
                  1. Buddhist detachment from worldly pain
                  2. impervious to suffering
          2. Edo Period – Tokugawa Shogunate
            1. Class hierarchy – social stratification becomes unbreakoutable
              1. Samurai – martial elite, including shogun, all daimyo, soldiers
              2. Farmers – peasants whose duty was to feed the nation
              3. Craftspeople – makers of goods such as clothes/tools
              4. Traders/merchants – business class who bought and sold
              5. Eta:outcasts – engaged in “unclean” professions – animal skinning/tanning
              6. Tokugawa laws – rigid to protect the status quo/privileges of samurai
                1. Social class defined at birth
                2. Farmers had to stay on their land
                3. only samurai allowed to carry long sword
                4. Japanese forbidden from leaving Japanese islands – death
                5. One Dutch ship could trade per year – Kyushu
                6. Families of daimyo lived in Edo – guarantees loyalty
                7. Christianity outlawed
                8. Some southern daimyo converted and rebelled – cause
        3. Neo-Confucianism
          1. Tokugawa adopted to form traditional basis
            1. Like China, reciprocal relationship between ruled and ruler
            2. Ruler maintains order/acts benevolent and ruled obey those in charge
            3. Creates harmony in society
          2. Hallmarks – primary points
            1. Historicism – looked to the past as a guide – Shogun ruled in name of Emperor
            2. Rationalism – investigate natural and human world to discover principles of human interactions
            3. Basic Human Relations – Stressed social order, rejected Buddhist metahphysics – Five Relationships
            4. Ethnocentrism – saw selves as superior to outsiders
              1. Pride in divine emperor
              2. Own uniqueness as a people
        4. Women
          1. Women lived under increased restrictions
            1. Particularly the samurai class – guided by Confucian teachings
          2. Wives obey husbands or face death
          3. Little authority over property
          4. Females educated at home, brothers at school
            1. Upper class families – women expressed their literacy through creativity
          5. Must display social graces that matched husband’s rank and status
          6. Lower class women
            1. Gender relations more egalitarian
            2. Both worked in fields
            3. Women given respect as homemakers/mothers
            4. Some peasant women active in social protests/political demonstrations
            5. Girl children less valued
              1. Some sold into prostitution
              2. Some put to death
        5. Culture
          1. Castle architecture partially imitated Europe
            1. hilltop, stone, small windows, watchtowers, massive walls
          2. Drama
            1. More restrained drama replaced with kabuki theater
            2. Kabuki – emphasized violence, physical action and music
              1. Often depicted urban life – brothels, dance halls
              2. Criticized for its potentially corrupting effect
          3. Art
            1. Woodblock Print becomes established artform
            2. Borrowed from outsiders
              1. Japanese potters borrowed Korean ceramics techniques
              2. Experimented with western style oil painting
                1. Perspective/interplay of light
              3. Reason for difference
                1. Urban areas developing rapidly
                2. Merchant and artisan class developing – patrons
                3. Confucian values carried less weight
      10. Mughal India
        1. Political
          1. History
            1. Collapse of Delhi Sultanate in 1300s
              1. Began to lose territory
              2. Delhi taken and ransacked by Mongol Timur in 1398
            2. 1526, Babur – descendant of Mongols/Turks
              1. Migrated from steppes to India
              2. Had lost kingdom in central Asia – came from Afghanistan
              3. 12,000 men defeated over 100,000
            3. Used superior gunpowder technology to conquer northern India
            4. Empire lasted until mid 19th century
          2. Akbar – 1560-1605
            1. expanded empire through north and central India under control
            2. Established a bureaucracy
            3. patronized the arts
            4. encouraged cooperation between Hindus and Muslims – relatively tolerant
          3. Mughal Empire
            1. Mughal – Persian word for Mongol – English rich person called mogul
            2. Empire continued for 200 years 1530-1700s
            3. Mughal rulers – Muslim
              1. One of three great Muslim empires – Ottoman Empire/Safavid Persia
                1. One of the “gunpowder” empires
                  1. Used military force and weapons technology to maintain power
                2. Lost ground to nations of Europe during late 1600s
            4. Economics
              1. Thrived thanks to boom in Indian cotton trade
          4. Decline
            1. cost of warfare and defensive efforts to protect northern border
              1. Tried to attack Marathas in the south
            2. leaders failed to bridge differences between Hindus and Muslims
            3. Centralized government returned to local political organizations
            4. Decline of centralized power opened up to foreign control
              1. British
            5. Last emperor – Aurangzeb tried to impose orthodox Islam
              1. Undid earlier tolerant policies
                1. Got rid of Hindus from public service
          5. European arrival
            1. set up trading ports and factories
            2. Portuguese set up on coast of Goa
            3. 1696 – British East India Company takes over Calcutta from Mughals
              1. Hindu princes allies to push out Mughal rule
        2. Social
          1. Treatment of women
            1. Akbar broke with Hindu/Muslim tradition regarding treatment of women
            2. encouraged widows to remarry
            3. outlawed sati – ritual suicide at husband’s funeral pyre
            4. encouraged merchants to arrange market days for women
              1. Allows those following purday – confinement – to get out
            5. By end of Mughal empire – changes had largely been discontinued
            6. Child marriage attempts to slow/end
            7. Female aristocrats
              1. awarded titles
              2. earned salaries
              3. owned land
              4. ran businesses
              5. some received education and expressed creative talents openly
            8. Women of all castes able to supplement income with woven products
            9. But…some ideas reflected Muslim law
              1. Cloistered inside the home – especially upper class women
              2. Women expected to serve under husbands
          2. Mughal art and architecture
            1. blended Muslim styles with those of other societies
            2. Mughal artists created miniatures – some of Christian religious subjects
            3. Architects blended white marble of Indian architecture
              1. W/ Muslim arches and domes
              2. Taj Mahal constructed by Shah Jahan as tomb for wife
            4. Dynastic patronage of the arts
            5. Substantial written works on Indian history and philosophy
      11. African Empires
        1. Political
        2. Social
        3. Case Study
          1. Kongo
          2. Benin
          3. Oyo
          4. Songhay
    Subject X2: 

    Questions of Periodization

    Early Modern Period

    Major Developments

    1. Questions of Periodization
      1. Major points
        1. Shift in power to the West
          1. Rise of the West with fall of China and India creates imbalance in power that favors Europeans for next 200 years
        2. World becomes smaller – almost all civilizations touched by trade
        3. New Empires – Spain, Portugal, England, France, Netherlands, Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, Ming
        4. Age of Gunpowder
      2. Changes at end of Postclassical Era
        1. Independent societies (Aztecs, Incas) falling apart
        2. Arab power declining
        3. New invasions – Mongols
        4. Ottoman Empire gains power
          1. Europeans threatened by new force to East
        5. Chinese flirt with trade, but Ming bureaucrats pull back
        6. Europe enters age of exploration
      3. Western Europe
        1. Unusual agricultural civilization
        2. New view of family – nuclear
          1. Love toward spouse
          2. Affection toward children
        3. Return to rational thought
        4. Stable political structures
          1. Absolute monarchy
          2. Parliamentary monarchies
        5. Religious reformers
          1. Reform the Church
          2. Protestant Reformation
      4. Effects of Global Economy
        1. By 1750, almost everyone knows everyone
        2. Food exchange – new staple crops to Africa (corn), Europe (potato)
        3. Unequal relationships – master, slave, owners, workforce
        4. Slaves and serfs
        5. Diseases
      5. Themes
        1. Declining emphasis of nomads
        2. Direct relationships – ambassadors replace intermediaries (Nomads)
        3. Gender relations remain patriarchal
        4. Labor relations change – master/slave – abuse of indigenous peoples
        5. A few commercial leaders get rich
        6. Environmental changes
          1. food, animal, disease exhange
        7. Native vegetation
          1. Deforestation for staple crops
          2. Grazing land for newly introduced beasts of burden
        8. Centralization of governments
          1. Modern government
            1. bureaucracies
            2. agencies
            3. admiralties
            4. treasuries
            5. general staff
            6. state banks
        9. Nation-states began to emerge
          1. solid political units with fixed borders
          2. sense of national unity
          3. populations relatively homogenous – language/ethnicity
      6. Larger Trends
        1. Americas overwhelmed by outsiders
        2. Three trends
          1. Western expansion
          2. Globalization of trade
          3. Gunpowder
        3. Reactions
          1. Embrace by choice
          2. Embrace by force
          3. Choose to remain independent, involve in trade on own terms
      7. Why 1450 and 1750
        1. 1450
          1. End of the Middle Ages
          2. Beginning of the Northern Renaissance – away from Italian city-states
          3. English evicted from France
          4. Unified France began to exercise its power
          5. Globalization of trade begins
          6. Direct contact between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa/Americas
          7. End of the Byzantine Empire
          8. Ottoman Turks rise to power
    Subject X2: 

    Role of Gender in Empire

    Early Modern Period

    1. Role of Gender in Empire
      1. Women secondary status most parts of globe – patriarchal
        1. social roles, economic opportunities, political influence
      2. Marriage remained primarily economic arrangement
        1. Method of gaining/transferring wealth and property
        2. Ensured inheritance of goods/assets by legitimate heirs
        3. With Protestant Reformation gained more marriages based on love
      3. Europe gained limited awareness of injustices toward women
      4. Europe – limited access to small # of women
        1. Noble/aristocratic women
        2. From emerging middle class
        3. Gained education
        4. Active in business
        5. Make scientific discoveries
        6. Become artists/writers
      5. Women discovered/developed ways to gain influence/advance desires
        1. Advising husbands/sons
        2. Educating children
        3. Running/help running business
        4. Managing household finances
      6. Generalizations
        1. Higher up in social class – more freedom to be involved in education/arts – servants did work
        2. Lower down social scale – more time spent w/ family, in fields, tending livestock
        3. Cities opened up opportunities for women for crafts/engage in commerce
        4. Higher status of women negatives
          1. Less value to contribution
          2. More need to be protected
        5. Women more valued in lower class – contribution more needed
        6. Urban/commercial vs. rural/agricultural vs. hierarchical/decentralized
      7. China
        1. Confucianism governed relationship of women to families
          1. Obey fathers and brothers and then husbands
          2. Always of subservience
          3. Influenced Japan
            1. Women obeyed fathers, husbands, and if widowed, sons
      8. Muslim world
        1. Harem shows how culture defines roles
          1. Initially Arabic women had freedom/rights
          2. Eventually adopted new ideologies
            1. Veiling from non-Arab converts
            2. Wealthy Muslims separated women in their households by placing in harems
              1. Special sections of house for all female members, young sons, servants
    Subject X2: 

    Slave Systems and Slave Trade

    Early Modern Period

    1. Slave Systems and Slave Trade
      1. Slave Systems in the Americas
        1. Labor/Economic System
          1. Encomienda System – American Feudalism
            1. Peninsulares get land and # of slaves/native laborers
              1. In exchange, must protect them and convert them
            2. Not “intended” to be slave system, but essentially was
          2. Attempts at reform
            1. Treatment horrific – Christian missionaries appealed for reform
            2. Reduced strain on natives by bringing in Africans
            3. Replaced one oppressed group with another
            4. Both Africans and Natives ended up at bottom of social hierarchy
            5. Abolished in 1542
              1. Attempts by clergy to protest cruel treatment
              2. Government of Spain shifted to Madrid – new leadership
              3. Forced Spanish to bring in more African slaves
          3. African Slave Trade
            1. Existed before transatlantic voyages
              1. Portuguese captures slaves on coasts of Africa
              2. Africans had been raiding from ancient times
                1. Put to work in gold and salt mines
                2. Women often enslaved and traded
                  1. some become part of harem
                  2. Use as household servants
              3. trans-Saharan trade already brought slaves to Mediterranean world
              4. mid-15th century Portuguese opened up direct trade
            2. New World demand for labor
              1. Forced migration of millions
                1. W. Africans already skilled in agriculture
              2. Changed history of New World
            3. Some African rulers cooperated with slave trade
              1. Portuguese brought into contact with powerful African kingdoms
                1. Kongo, Benin, Mali and Songhay
                  1. Mali/Songhay enriched already by gold-salt trade
                  2. Kongo and Benin wanted to Christianize
                    1. 15th century rulers convert
              2. Characteristics of African kingdoms
                1. own political and court traditions
                2. monarchs rules with assistance of governing councils
                3. artisans produced works in ivory, ebony and bronze
                4. active trade in slaves, spices, ivory, textiles
                  1. slaves usually prisoners of war
                  2. captives of slave raids
            4. Europeans forced issue
              1. rounded up
              2. forced onto ships
              3. chained together
              4. Endured Middle Passage – part of triangular trade route
                1. Hot, unventilated conditions – suffocation
                2. Some starved
                3. Killed in attempted revolts
              5. Taken to auction blocks
            5. Types of labor
              1. Sugar/coffee plantations
              2. Mines
            6. Slavery hereditary – children automatically slaves
            7. N. America vs. S. America Caribbean
              1. Families vs. Males
              2. Natural reproduction vs. existence based on trade
              3. Motivation for keeping alive differed
            8. Reached peak in 18th century
            9. Triangular trade
              1. European guns and other manufactured goods trade to Africans for slaves
              2. Slaves were transported from Africa to South America or West Indies
              3. Sugar, molasses and rum produced by slave labor traded to Europe for mfg goods
          4. Effects on Africa
            1. Guns and European glass became prized
              1. Often traded for human slaves
            2. Causes massive demographic shifts
              1. Brutal separation from family/culture
                1. More males than females transported
                  1. Heavy work required on plantations
              2. Even if survived, absorbed into foreign culture that considered them property
                1. Many Christianized, but…
                2. Maintained parts of their language and culture
                3. Unique cultural synthesis – African music, dress, and mannerisms mixed with Spanish and indigenous cultures in the Americas
            3. Reliance on importation of European technology
              1. Lessened technological development of African kingdoms
    Subject X2: 

    1750-1914 The Modern Era

    Notes that cover an entire section of World History and not just one particular chapter.

    1750-1914 The Modern Era549.5 KB
    Subject X2: 


    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Changes
      1. Global commerce
      2. Communications
        1. Telegraph
        2. Telephone
        3. Radio
        4. National postal system
        5. Steamship
        6. Railroad
      3. Technology
    2. Changes in patterns of world trade
      1. World Trade
        1. Introduction
          1. Manufactured goods of the west and raw materials used to produce them – focus
          2. Atlantic World
            1. Plantation system and exploitation of newly independent L. American nations
          3. Methods of extracting natural resources changes
            1. Railroads and roads constructed – can go to the interior
          4. Instead of small, independent farm plots by natives > large plantations
            1. Crops chosen based on needs of industrialized West
        2. Latin American Trade – increased significantly
          1. Profitable sugar, cotton, cacao plantations
          2. Increased importance of slavery
          3. Monroe Doctrine – Britain takes larger role in recipient of goods
            1. Cut out colonization by other European countries
            2. More mfg goods go to L. America for raw materials
          4. Beef exports increase – refrigerated railroad car
          5. Products
            1. Cuba – tobacco and sugar
            2. Brazil – sugar and coffee – later rubber
            3. Mexico – copper, silver
            4. Peru – guano
            5. Chile – grain, copper
            6. Argentine – beef, grain, hides, wool
          6. Large landholders benefit at expense of smaller, independent farmers
          7. Dependent on cheaper foreign goods – better quality, cheaper to produce
            1. Wealth monopolized by a few
          8. Foreign investment gives capital
            1. But…many industrial/transporation projects owned by foreigners
        3. Trade with the Islamic World – decreased significantly
          1. Ottoman Empire weakened
            1. Revolts
            2. Disinterest in industrialization
              1. Christian/Jews in Empire carry on trade independently
          2. Domestic system producers can’t compete with industrialized nations
          3. Threat of competition lead to reforms
            1. Tanzimet reforms – facilitated trade, but came too late
          4. Made dependent on European imports and influence
            1. Foreign investment to bolster economy
            2. Extraterritoriality – Europeans allowed in Ottoman major commercial centers
          5. Suez Canal makes Egypt a significant commercial/political power
        4. Qing China and the Opium Trade – trade imbalance shifts
          1. From 1644 to 19th century trade benefited China
            1. Controlled out of few ports – Canton primarily
            2. Trade in Chinese tea, silk, porcelain for silver – basis of economy
              1. Trade imbalance – extremely profitable for China
          2. Britain annoyed with trade imbalance
            1. Indian opium switches balance
            2. Now silver flows out of China
          3. After Opium Wars eventually China open to Europe
            1. Nations map out spheres of influence
            2. Extraterritoriality
        5. Russia and World Trade
          1. Occupy backward position in trade and technology
          2. Exported some grain to w. Europe for Western machinery
            1. Difficult to compete due to outdated agricultural methods
          3. Desire to compete in world trade led to end of serfdom in 1861
        6. Japanese Entrance into World Trade
          1. Second Perry expedition opened Japanese ports in 1854
          2. Japan industrialized
            1. Trade relations with Netherlands, Great Britain, Russia
            2. Depended more on imports of raw materials
        7. End of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
          1. Ended due to
            1. Enlightenment thought
            2. religious conviction
            3. slave revolt in Haiti
          2. British ended role first – 1807- then encouraged others later to end also
            1. Britain seized hundreds of slave ships
            2. Slavery continued to Cuba and Brazil
              1. Cooperation of African rulers
          3. Didn’t totally end until 1867
      2. Industrial Revolution
        1. What is it?
          1. Civilizations no longer principally agricultural/rural
          2. Mass production of goods by means of machine power – industrialization
          3. Importance of trade and commerce skyrocketed
          4. Urbanization
          5. Capitalism rules supreme
          6. Metaphoric revolution – takes decades – no clear-cut beginning or end
          7. But…can’t underestimate effect
            1. Changed life in Europe more thoroughly than political revolutions
            2. New machines at hands of ordinary people
            3. Effected how people work, where they lived, how they views political problems
            4. Forced West to spread practices to colonies and exploit colonies economically
        2. History
          1. Began in Great Britain in mid 1700s
            1. Great Britain has large domestic deposits of coal
              1. Japan lacks coal – needed territorial expansion
            2. Enclosure movement – removal of land from farming
              1. Common area gone – loss of livelihood for peasants
              2. Now private land for private gain – you have motivation - mine
          2. Causes
            1. Agricultural Revolution – Second Agricultural Revolution 18th century
              1. Improved farming techniques
              2. Up to half the population left farms for cities
                1. New industrial jobs becoming available
              3. Why so much more crop yield?
                1. High yield crops – potatoes, corn from New World
                2. Crop rotation instead of leaving fallow
                3. New technologies
                  1. New machines for plowing, seeding, reaping
                  2. Chemical fertilizers
            2. Increase in population
              1. More food available
              2. Less chance for famine
              3. Life expectancy rose – population increase
                1. 50% growth to 190 million from 1700-1800
              4. Decreased death rate
                1. improved medical care
                2. nutrition
                3. hygiene sanitation
            3. Improvements in technology
              1. New sources of energy
                1. steam power
                  1. Invention of the steam engine – James Watt
                    1. Improved by Watt, started by others
                  2. availability of sources of coal to fuel machinery
                2. natural gas and petroleum later
                3. fed industrial and transportation improvements
              2. New materials
                1. steel
              3. New methods
                1. factory system
                2. Put factory near water-power source
              4. Inventions had always been occurring, but so many happen in 18th century
              5. New inventions for textile industry
                1. Flying shuttle – sped up weaving process - 1733
                2. Spinning jenny – spins vast amount of thread – 1764
                3. Cotton gin – Eli Whitney – 1793 – quick processing of cotton
            4. Protestant work ethic
              1. Earthly success is a sign of personal salvation
                1. Acquisition of capital and development of industry
              2. Value of hard work
            5. Domestic system not as effective
              1. cotton woven into cloth at homes
              2. Middlemen drop off wool/cotton at homes
              3. Women then sell cloth to middlemen > buyers
            6. Philosophical – Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
              1. Private ownership
              2. Let open market determine demand for goods and services
              3. free-market system/capitalism fits needs of individuals/nations
              4. laissez faire capitalism – government removes self from process
              5. Response to failing mercantilist policies
                1. corrupt, inefficient
                2. monarchies managed economies
          3. Phases
            1. Phase One
              1. Britain – 1780s – steam engine used to power textile machines
              2. Coal mining uses steam power
              3. James Watt patented designs in 1782 – efficient and relatively cheaper
            2. Phase Two
              1. Steam engine used in every economic field - adapted
                1. “We sell what everyone desires and that is power.”
              2. Stimulate huge wave of invention and technological innovation
                1. i. Transportation – steam ships, railroads
                2. Electricity – telegraph – communications to the modern age
            3. Phase Three
              1. New energy sources, new raw materials and new inventions
              2. Bessemer Process – cheaper way to make steal – stronger/more useful
              3. Electricity overtakes steam and coal as energy source
              4. Commercial uses of petroleoum
          4. Factory System
            1. Replaces domestic system – putting out system
            2. Thousands of new products now created efficiently and inexpensively
              1. Interchangeable parts – Eli Whitney – machines and parts uniform
                1. Repaired and replaced easily
              2. Assembly line
                1. Add only one part to a finished product
        3. Transformative effects
          1. Vast numbers of Asians/Africans provide labor for plantations/mines
          2. Transportation Revolution
            1. Invention of the steam locomotive – 1820s
            2. Steamship – 1807
            3. Internal Combustion Engine – 1885 – Daimler – car
            4. Airplane – 1903 – speed of transportation increased a bit
          3. Urbanization
          4. Development of factory system
          5. New classes
            1. Birth of the working class – proletariat
              1. Masses who worked in factories, mines, other industry
              2. At first, made up of peasants who had abandoned agricultural work
              3. At first, poorly treated and barely compensated
                1. Long hours – 14 hours a day, 6 days a week
                2. Disgusting, crowded living conditions
                3. Unsafe working conditions
                  1. fire, dangerous machines, poisonous/harmful materials
                4. child labor common
            2. Rise of middle class
              1. merchants, bankers, factory owners, industrialists
              2. Became landowners of agriculture as well
                1. Farmers rented, poor laborers employed
            3. Social status began to be determined more by wealth than family position
          6. Reform movements
            1. Number of people with influence (aristorcrats/middle class) see inhumanity
            2. Capitalism a positive, but need laws to keep abuses in check
            3. Government needs to act on behalf of the workers
            4. Some want to get rid of system, some want to merely reform it
              1. Some nations do both – capitalist and socialist
            5. Reform more possible in Great Britain/United States
              1. Has democracy, middle class, impact of Enlightenment
              2. Not so in Russia with autocracy
                1. Marxism more attractive here
            6. Parliaments started passing laws that limited hours, child labor, safer working conditions
            7. Labor unions formed to bargain for the big 3 – or threaten to strike
              1. Factory owners realized happy, healthy, well-paid force productive
            8. Eventually led to communication revolution
              1. Telegraph
              2. Telephone
              3. Radio
          7. Major consequences
            1. countries with industrial technology had advanced military weapons
              1. Able to conquer people who did not have this technology
            2. countries needed access to raw materials to make finished products and markets
              1. colonies would fit both of these roles quite well
          8. Because started in Britain – Britain becomes dominant global nation of 19th century
          9. Need for communication improvements to facilitate organizing expanding businesses
            1. Telegraph – 1837 – communicate great distances in seconds
            2. Telephone – 1876 – Bell
            3. Radio – 1890s
            4. Lightbulb – 1879 – hey, we can work into the night
          10. Role of the individual changes
            1. Man not just working with machines, he becomes part of machine
              1. Working to the noise of machines
              2. Pace of work more rapid than at home
            2. Consistency of function more important than independent thought
          11. Abuse of labor
            1. Initially overworked, underpaid, unsafe working conditions
              1. 16 hour workdays, children as young as 6
          12. Living conditions change
            1. No longer fresh air and sunshine – air pollution and hazardous machinery
            2. No longer seasonal adjustments to work pattern – same product day after day
            3. Leads to despair and hopelessness
            4. Minimal police protection at first
          13. Literature created to reflect times
            1. Charles Dickens writes of social ills of industrialization
          14. Philosophical – Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto
            1. working class eventually revolt and take control of means of production
            2. Instruments of power – government, courts, police, Church on side of the rich
              1. uprising would make these instruments of power unnecessary
            3. saw flaw in capitalist system
          15. Conservative backlash – don’t like the changes
            1. Luddites – destroyed factory equipment, protested working conditions/wages
              1. Government exacts harsh punishments to prevent this type of protest
                1. Sides with the wealthy…surprise
          16. Changes urban life
            1. bus service, sidewalks, street lights, steam heating of homes, icebox refrigeration, indoor plumbing, sewing machines, canned food, urban sewage systems, medicine
          17. Affected navies and armies of all countries
            1. Steam powered battleships, modern rifles, modern artillery, machine gun
            2. United States Civil War – first industrial war – 1861-1865
              1. Franco-Prussian – 1870-1871
          18. Influence of Industrial Nations over Nonindustrial
            1. Obviously they are conquered, forced
            2. Businessmen/industrialists struck deals with local aristocrats/politicians
              1. Encouraged monoculture – extraction of one, small set of crops/resources
              2. Monoculture – damages environment and retards economy
              3. “Banana Republic” – derogatory term
              4. Exploits native workers
                1. Money ends up in hands of a small number of aristocrats/politician
          19. Changes after 1850
            1. Societies received higher wages, shorter working hours allowing leisure activities
              1. Leisure time led to popular interest in theater and sports
            2. Additional employment opportunities as secretaries, salespeople, clerical jobs
              1. Some filled by women, especially unmarried women
            3. Clothing more affordable – general population can now wear similar fashions
            4. Popular consumption led to advertising campaigns
        4. Differential timing in different societies
          1. Factors of production needed for industrialization - Britain
            1. Land – including natural resources such as coal and iron ore
            2. Labor – including thousands of dispossessed farmers evicted after enclosure
            3. Capital – banking and investment interests capable of funding costs of factories and machinery
            4. Entrepreneurship – groups of individuals with the knowledge of combinging land, labor and capital to establish factory production
          2. What geographic factors needed to industrialize
            1. Industrial growth measured by iron, coal, steel, cotton production – access?
            2. Next United States, then Western Germany, France, Netherlands, N. Italy
            3. Those in South and East Europe lagged behind – agriculture based
            4. Russia totally backward thanks to serfdom - reliance on agriculture
          3. United States
            1. By early 1800s textile factory system transported to US
            2. Production methods/technological improvements spurred industry/railroads
          4. other European nations
            1. France and Germany complex industrial economies in 19th century
            2. Russia remains agricultural country
              1. Government sponsored programs turn of the century
              2. Russian banking system and protective tariffs later to protect industry
              3. Russia ranked 4th in steel production by 1900
          5. Japan
            1. Partial Modernization under Tokugawa Japan
              1. Partially modernization both economically and socially
                1. Population growth steady – increased urbanization
                2. Agriculture – fewer people producing more – Western technique
                  1. Allowed for more working class – urbanization
                3. Trade, commerce, manufacturing increasingly important
                4. National infrastructure needed – roads, canals, ports
                5. Merchant class emerges – becomes middle class
                6. Awareness of scientific/technological knowledge from West – few
              2. Problems with partial modernization
                1. Threatened 5% aristocracy
                  1. Urbanization, Western learning, growing merchant class
                2. So…modernization controlled in early stages
                  1. Military class – samurai – control gunpowder
            2. Meiji Restoration – second half 19th century – quickly industrialized
              1. Outside forces forced change – Commodore Perry
                1. Friendly words, but naval bombardment for show
                2. Next five years, other European countries pressure Japan
                3. Looks like they might be headed down path of other nations
              2. Samurai leaders in southern provinces push to end foreign influence
                1. Sat-Cho Alliance – fires on foreign ships
                  1. Fired back by Europe – reason to overthrow shogun
                  2. Install Emperor Meiji to power
                    1. First emperor in 1000 years to have power
          6. Some Latin American countries
            1. Seen as sources for natural resources and markets
            2. Not so much as potential industrial nations
              1. Hampered by lack of local capital for investment
                1. Industrialization would need to be financed by foreigners
          7. Eventually to Asia and Africa in 20th centuries
          8. Comparing Industrialization in Great Britain and Japan
            1. Sources of Capital
              1. Britain
                1. private entrepreneurs, capitalists
                2. Limited foreign investment
              2. Japan
                1. Government investment in initial states
                2. Zaibatsu – few wealthy banking, industrial families – developed large business interests
                  1. Conglomerates that bought up textile mills and factories
                3. Limited foreign investment
            2. Energy Resources
              1. Britain
                1. Large domestic deposits of coal for steam power
                2. Large domestic deposits of iron for building machinery
                3. Timber running out, had to move to coal
                  1. Coal mining required machine power to pump water
              2. Japan
                1. Has to import energy sources
            3. Availability of Technology
              1. Developed originally in Britain
                1. Textile mills
                2. First steam engine
                3. First steel-making process
                4. Replaced other methods of powering machines
                  1. wind, water, animal
              2. Japan
                1. Had to import machinery
            4. Pool of workers
              1. Britain
                1. almost doubling population in 1700s – 5>9 million
                2. clothing industry – piecework by poorly paid women – sweatshops
                3. Ennclosure Acts – pool of laborless workers
              2. Japan
                1. Also rapid population growth
                2. Clothing industry – sweatshops as well
            5. Transportation System
              1. Britain
                1. Internal railway system
                2. Canals
                3. Shipping companies for export
                4. Small size
              2. Japan
                1. Internal railway system
                2. Shipping companies for export
            6. Societal Changes
              1. Britain
                1. Reform movements
                  1. Class tension, labor unions, socialism
                  2. Women’s suffrage
                  3. Universal education
                2. Middle class
                3. Leisure time
              2. Japan
                1. some increased opportunity for education for women
                2. continued reliance on traditional family life
                  1. subordinate position of women
                3. Class tensions
            7. Summary of differences
              1. Both followed similar paths, but Japan on fast forward
                1. A few decades what it took Britain a century
                2. Didn’t have to invent everything – just implement advances
              2. Private corporations rose up
                1. Industrialists like Mitsubishi family
              3. Factories built
              4. Urbanization increased dramatically
              5. Reform instituted
        5. Mutual relation of industrial and scientific developments
          1. Inventions pushed industrial revolution
          2. Industrialization
            1. Made European nations richer > more technologically adept > boosted need for scientific knowledge to explore
            2. New weaponry in hands of westerners
          3. New inventions needed to extract resources from earth – colonies
          4. Cotton gin made textile revolution possible
            1. Extraction of clean cotton thread from raw cotton balls
        6. Commonalities
          1. Goes through the same process whether 18th century Britain as 20th century Nigeria
            1. Factories built in areas near towns/cities
              1. These built near sources of power, transportation, pool of workers
            2. Shift of people from countryside to city - urbanization
              1. Due to…caused by…
                1. Poor harvests
                2. Too little land
                3. Too many people to feed
            3. Middle class forms
              1. Factory managers
              2. Shopowners
              3. Professionals – lawyers, accountants
            4. Brutal working conditions/unsafe and unhealthy living condition leads to reform
              1. Political reform
              2. Socioeconomic reform
                1. Muckrakers – propaganda writers
                2. Settlement houses – local buildings for kids/moms – YMCAs
        7. Comparing scientific revolution to industrial revolution
          1. Both changed the world
            1. Knowledge spread and improvements made across cultures
            2. Though there were patents, scientists/inventors built on ideas of colleagues
            3. Collaborative effort allows for constant improvement
          2. Scientific Revolution – discovering, learning, evaluating, understanding the natural world
          3. Industrial Revolution – applying that understanding to natural ends
        8. Industrial Revolution Flow Chart
          1. Effects
            1. Increase in need for resources and markets
              1. Colonization
                1. Rise of nationalism
                  1. Independence movements and revolutions
            2. Increase in urbanization
              1. Increase in social unrest
                1. Rise of nationalism
                  1. Independence movements and revolutions
                2. Changes in social thought – from Enlightenment ideals
                  1. Women’s Emancipation movements
                  2. End of the slave trade
                  3. Rise of unions and laws to protect workers
                  4. Rise of Marxism
                  5. Independence movements and revolutions
            3. Improves agricultural techniques which then fuels more industrial revolution
      3. Changes in patterns of world trade
        1. European nations seize trading networks from local/regional control
          1. Connected them into a truly global network
    Subject X2: 

    Changes in social and gender structure

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Changes in social and gender structure
      1. Industrial Revolution
        1. Changes Gender
          1. Poor women who had taken care of home/worked in fields shifted to
            1. factories/sweatshops
            2. putting out system – little time/space for domestic work
            3. Actually had more “opportunity” than middle/upper class
              1. But I doubt they’d be too excited
            4. Still paid less than men
            5. By end of century, most working women were single
            6. Reform laws limited working hours of women
            7. Women lost manufacturing jobs of the domestic (putting out) system
              1. Expected to return to role as homemaker/childcare provider
          2. Upper class women
            1. More wealth/more servants to manage
            2. Less influence/power outside the home than in previous eras
          3. New group – middle class housewives
            1. Lived on outskirts of cities – with servant or two
            2. Husbands went to work in white-collar jobs
            3. Like upper class women, isolated from the work world
            4. Relegated to afternoon social calls/drinking tea
            5. Victorian Age idealized women
              1. Manners/etiquette counted
              2. Nothing distasteful should be seen by women
            6. Contradiction between what was appropriate for middle class and the realities of the lower class pushed middle class to demand change – led movements
            7. As men earn money, women return to traditional roles
              1. Power diminishes
            8. This is the group that starts organizing to demand rights/suffrage
            9. New culture of consumption meant to free up women to pursue activities outside of home
              1. Sewing machines, clocks, stoves, refrigerators, ovens
          4. Factory laborers
            1. Have to work long hours and fulfill traditional role as caretaker for husband, children, home
          5. Social mobility – ability to move from one class to the next
            1. middle class expands
            2. standard of living improves
          6. Turned husband into wage earner and wife into homemaker
        2. Changes social class
          1. New aristocrats
            1. Those who became rich based on industrial success
            2. Old money vs. new money
            3. Wealth based on Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
              1. Private ownership
          2. Middle class
            1. managers, accountants, ministers, lawyers, doctors, skilled professionals
          3. Working class
            1. factory workers + peasant farmers
            2. New twist – now the massive lower class is working side by side – urbanization
            3. Able to daily see the huge class discrepancy
              1. Saw elite gain wealth at their expense
            4. Under feudalism – people resigned to fate – that’s the way it had always been
              1. But…this was a new phenomenon – saw change before their eyes
      2. Commercial and demographic developments
      3. Emancipation of serfs/slaves
        1. Attracted reformers’ interests – abolishing African slave trade/emancipating Russian serfs
          1. Abolishing African slave trade
            1. Safe havens for former slaves
              1. Sierra Leone – safe haven for former slaves, British colony
              2. Liberia – colonization scheme for freed slaves from U.S.
          2. Emancipating Russian serfs
            1. Serfdom continued until 1861
            2. Causes/Effects of serfdom
              1. Dissatisfaction with their lives led to acts of violence/rebellion
              2. Can’t leave the land – Russia doesn’t have pool of factory labor
              3. Russia lacked internal market for goods – no one has money
              4. Lacked incentive to work harder, grow more, improve land
            3. Emancipation of 1861
              1. Now free, no longer bound to land owned by large landowners
              2. serfs could now take more work off of land – available for factories
              3. but…indebted freemen did not improve agricultural output
                1. Like sharecropping vs. slavery in the American South
              4. Former serfs, peasants, now had to pay for land
                1. Valuations and taxes high, almost an impossible task
        2. But…slavery actually expands before it diminishes
          1. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin necessitated more slaves in American South
            1. Might have died out earlier – cotton farming a waste of time
          2. Cotton gin requires a ton of cheap labor to stick cotton in machine
      4. Tension between work patterns
      5. Ideas about gender
        1. Although in most societies status of women remained secondary, great changes
        2. In West, greater awareness of unfair and unequal treatment began to spread
          1. Stimulated by Enlightenment theories
          2. Stimulated by active role of women in American and French revolutions
        3. Industrial Revolution altered the conditions under which women worked
          1. Shifted workplace away from the farm
          2. Men and women both worked in mines, factories, spaces away from the home
          3. Created a domestic sphere and separate working sphere
        4. Europe and US women of lower classes compelled to enter workplace
          1. Bore double burden of serving as primary homemakers and caregivers for their families
        5. After mid-1800s, # of working women declined
          1. Women of middle/upper class rarely worked anyway
          2. Wages for industrial workers increased
            1. Jobs more desirable to men
          3. Laws restricting number of hours that women and children could work
        6. Cult of domesticity – stressing the women’s place in the home – dominated Western culture
          1. Men’s in the workplace
        7. Certain occupations open to women – child care, teaching, domestic household work, nursing
        8. Strong vigorous women’s movements appeared in Europe, Canada and the United States
          1. Demanded suffrage – voting rights
          2. Equal opportunity to work
          3. Equal pay
          4. Temperance
        9. Handful of European nations – gave women the right to vote before World War I
        10. Move toward women’s equality slower in non-Western societies
          1. in some educational level rose
          2. property rights rose
          3. Like West, women could work in certain occupations – agriculture, artisans, teachers
          4. Like West – lower class women tended to enter workplace
    Subject X2: 

    Demographic and environmental changes

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Demographic and environmental changes
      1. Migrations
        1. Extreme hardships persisted – people dreamed of better life by escaping cruelties of home
        2. 1800-1920 50 million Europeans migrated to North/South America
        3. Push factors
          1. Famine – Ireland
          2. Anti-Semitism – Russia
          3. Religious toleration
          4. Poverty
          5. Joblessness
        4. Industrialization
          1. Substantial numbers – especially young adults migrated from country to the city
            1. Upset makeup of traditional family
          2. Movement of middle class away from city to the suburbs
        5. Patterns of immigration
          1. European settler colonies came into conflict with native populations
            1. Also exposed indigenous populations to disease
              1. Not as severe a reaction as Americas
              2. Hawaiians and Maoris
          2. Need for laborers in Americas brought massive immigration from Europe
          3. Religious persecution
            1. Russian pogroms on Jews
      2. End of the Atlantic Slave Trade
        1. Demise from economic and practical considerations
          1. Too expensive to obtain slaves
        2. Growing revulsion among Western countries
          1. Moral, ethical and religious reasons
            1. Greater number of citizens/politicians unwilling to continue
          2. Turning point when Great Britain – 1807/1808 – wanted to make slavery illegal in all parts
            1. During peace settlement following Napoleonic Wars
              1. Great Britain convinces other countries to follow
            2. Eventually spread to Americas
              1. Lastly Cuba and Brazil
              2. America half slave and half free
                1. Make slave trade illegal first
                2. Civil War needed to make slavery illegal
          3. Even though illegal – still 2 million traded in 1800s
            1. Islamic states of West Africa still kept slaves – Zanzibar
              1. Close to 5 million
          4. Attempts by West to end slavery
            1. Abolitionist movement
            2. Recolonization in Africa
              1. Sierra Leone – British colony
              2. Liberia – American Colonization Society
            3. Eventually British ships blockaded West African shoreline
              1. Hunted down slave ships
              2. Bombarded coastal fortresses
              3. France and US join haphazardly
          5. Effects of the slave trade on Africa
            1. Some believe it led Africans to rely more on slave trade than before
            2. Loss of population growth
            3. Internal trade relies more on importation of foreign goods
              1. guns, textiles, alcohol
              2. Doesn’t give Africans a chance to produce goods by themselves
            4. Some argue it didn’t have that much of an effect
              1. Small proportion actually taken
            5. Coastal kingdoms become ruled by warlords/merchants
              1. Demanded kings given slaves to satisfy debts
            6. Introduction of guns increased likelihood of intertribal war
              1. Made these wars more lethal
            7. Economic slump after end of slave trade – many regions became quite wealthy
              1. Slump leaves regions open to foreign takeover in 1800s
            8. Antislavery military efforts by British gave Europeans feeling they could intervene
              1. Set precedent that it was OK to conquer
      3. New Birthrate Patterns
        1. Life expectancy rose – population increase
          1. 50% growth to 190 million from 1700-1800
        2. Decreased death rate
          1. improved medical care
          2. ii. nutrition
          3. hygiene sanitation
            1. gains in life expectancy in developing nations still small
      4. Population Revolution in the West
        1. Middle of 18th century – population exploded
          1. End of episodes of epidemic disease
          2. Improved diets – increased consumption of potatoes
          3. Larger number of healthy adults increased birth rates
          4. Lower infant mortality rates
          5. Larger populations equal ready supply of labor
        2. After 1850 rates change again
          1. Majority of population resides in cities
          2. Drop in death rate
            1. More hygienic practices
            2. Louis Pasteur – germ theory
          3. Drop in birth rate
            1. Families don’t need to produce large families to serve as laborers on farm
      5. Population Growth in the Non-West
        1. Population in Latin America doubled in 19th century
        2. China – development of sweet potato
          1. Growing population encouraged need for improved agricultural methods/technology
        3. Japan – improvements in nutrition and medical care
          1. Like China – strain in natural resources
      6. Food supply
        1. More food available
        2. Less chance for famine
      7. Natural Resources
        1. Stealing is cheaper than dealing
          1. Gained incredible wealth
            1. Colonize, drain natural resources, don’t compensate natives
          2. Finished goods then sold to colonies
            1. Not allowed to buy from anyone else
          3. Colonial powers became rich at expense of colonies
        2. Europe had coal/iron ore, but climate restricted what could be grown
          1. Need goods from tropical climates – rubber/cotton
      8. Due to colonization – world now exposed to European values
      9. Landscape changes
        1. Limited raw materials depleted faster than at any time in human history
      10. Increase in pollution
        1. Water supplies contaminated by human sewage and industrial waste
        2. Dark skies from caol-produced smoke
          1. Rickets – disease of the bones – underexposure to sunlight
      11. Population growth
        1. Causes
          1. Greater agricultural efficiency
          2. Medical advances
          3. Gradually rising prosperity
        2. Population of Europe
          1. 175 million in 1800 > 423 million by 1900
      12. Urbanization
        1. Most jobs in or near cities
        2. Old cities increase in size – London passes 1 million, same with Paris, New York
        3. New cities start popping up – especially if near energy source
        4. Conditions dismal
          1. Overcrowded – disease can spread easily
            1. Cholera/tuberculosis
          2. Water and air pollution horrific
            1. Modern sewage systems rare
            2. Heating through coal and wood
      13. Increased general level of prosperity
        1. At first, industrialization –generates incredible wealth quickly, but it sticks to a few people
          1. First 50 years only middle class really benefit
        2. In 1850, when Industrial Revolution essentially over – working class starts to benefit
          1. Benefits start to widen out – slow process
          2. Need reform
    Subject X2: 

    Diverse interpretations

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Diverse interpretations
      1. What are the debates over the utility of modernization theory as a framework for interpreting events in this period and the next?
        1. Modernization/Westernization
          1. Nations become economically prosperous
          2. Various social changes occur
            1. Improved health care
            2. More educational opportunities
            3. More rights for women
          3. Desire for democratic government will evolve
            1. People learn more about what the world holds
            2. Give up old ways and attitudes
          4. Western Europe cited as proof that in time developing nations will evolve into developed nations
        2. Dependency Theory
          1. Developing nations economically dependent will remain
            1. Have in past and present history of developed nations draining their resources
              1. Export agricultural products
              2. Export natural resources
              3. Production of assembly-line workers/sweatshop labor
            2. Developed nation with access to processing
              1. Example oil
                1. Make more money from refined gasoline than crude oil
          2. Dependency is inherent in capitalism
        3. Marxist Theorists
          1. Dispute both theories from above
          2. Socialism only way that developing nations can become viable economic entitites
      2. What are the debates about the causes of serf and slave emancipation in this period and how do these debates fit into the broader comparisons of labor systems?
      3. What are the debates over the nature of women’s roles in this period and how do these debates apply to industrialized areas and how do they apply in colonial societies?
    2. IX. Major Comparisons and Snapshots
      1. Compare the causes and early phases of the industrial revolution in western Europe and Japan
      2. Comparative revolutions (compare two of the following: Haitian, American, French, Mexican, and Chinese)
      3. Compare reaction to foreign domination in: the Ottoman Empire, China, India, and Japan
      4. Comparative nationalism
      5. Compare forms of western intervention in Latin America and in Africa
      6. Compare the roles and conditions of women in the upper/middle classes with peasantry/working class in western Europe

    Examples of What You Need to Know

    Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.

    • Women's emancipation movements, but not specific suffragists
    • The French Revolution of 1789, but not the Revolution of 1830
    • Meiji Restoration, but not Iranian Constitutional Revolution
    • Jacobins, but not Robespierre
    • Causes of Latin American independence movements, but not specific protagonists
    • Boxer Rebellion, but not the Crimean War
    • Suez Canal, but not the Erie Canal
    • Muhammad Ali, but not Isma'il
    • Marxism, but not Utopian socialism
    • Social Darwinism, but not Herbert Spencer
    Subject X2: 

    Political revolutions and independence movements

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Political revolutions and independence movements
      1. Major political revolutions
        1. Centralized monarchies the norm, but there’s a variety
          1. Constitutional limits in Great Britain
          2. Total autocracy in France
            1. Standard method of ruling
            2. Absolute monarch with aristocrats that control land, wealth, political influence
        2. Common strands in modern revolutions
          1. influence of the intellectual movements and ideas
            1. democratic principles of the Enlightenment
            2. Marxist principles that underlie Communism
          2. Importance of peasants and urban workers as actors in revolutions
          3. shift to authoritarian rule in movements that began as democratic uprisings
        3. Major themes
          1. Enlightenment philosophies that education and reason could improve society
            1. Spurned revolutions in N. America, France, Haiti
          2. Latin American independence movements flourished first part of 19th century
          3. Turn of the century – early 20th – Chinese dynastic rule ends
        4. United States
          1. Causes/Impetus
            1. Frustrating mercantile policy of Great Britain
              1. Drove American nuts – OK when they weren’t enforced, but…
              2. Common theme in revolutions – frustration with economic exploitation
            2. Dependent status of colonies symbolized by “no taxation without representation”
            3. Enlightenment ideas
              1. Inspired the revolution itself
                1. John Locke – social contract
                  1. People gave rights in exchange for gov’t maintaining order
                  2. People could overthrow gov’t if they don’t
              2. Inspired the type of government that was created after it succeeded
            4. Debt from Seven Years War – French and Indian War
              1. Changed the boundaries of two empire’s worldwide possessions
              2. Felt Americans should share in costs of war
              3. Frustration with “taxation without representation”
            5. Restrictions after Seven Years War
              1. Couldn’t migrate to Appalachian territories
                1. Brits couldn’t protect Americans w/ Native Americans
          2. Stages
            1. Noncompliance with British laws
            2. Reprisals by the British
            3. Protests: boycotts, violence, letters and declarations to the British crown
              1. Famous pamphlet – Common Sense – Thomas Paine
                1. Before – most colonists apathetic – British sympathy
                  1. Or…Britain too strong to defeat
                2. Said monarchy takes away from American’s natural rights
                  1. Printing press became powerful tool
            4. Cycle of escalating protests and reprisals
              1. Boston Harbor – terrorism > British troops stationed in Boston
              2. Conflict at Lexington and Concord
            5. Declaration of Independence – 1776
            6. War
            7. Alliances with Britain’s enemies
              1. France more than happy to help out
                1. 1777 French committed ships, soldiers, weapons and money
                2. 1781 French and British troops cornered Cornwallis
            8. Defeat of the British forces
            9. Peace Treaty, 1783
          3. Outcome/Effects
            1. Establishment of the United States of America in 1776
            2. Recognition by other nations and finally the British
            3. Loss of territory and revenues by the British
        5. France
          1. Causes/Impetus
            1. Long-term effects of rule by absolute monarchy
            2. Policies of Louix XVI
            3. National debt and financial collapse
              1. Living in lavish luxury at Versailles
              2. France’s war debts
              3. Droughts damaging French harvests
              4. Spending of Marie Antoinette
              5. Catalysts
                1. Inflation, unemployment, poor harvests, food shortages
              6. Nobility scoff at spending restrictions
              7. Louis XVI needed to raise taxes
                1. Unfair tax system – wealthy First/Second Estates exempt
            4. Privileges accorded the nobility; abuses
              1. Wide social and economic gap between ordinary citizens and the country’s elite
              2. Second Estate – 2% of opulation
            5. Privileges accorded the Roman Catholic Church; abuses
              1. First Estate – 1% of population
            6. Rise of the bourgeoisie; rivalry for power with nobles and Church
              1. Frustrated middle class – possessed wealth and education
              2. Seen as equals to the peasants of the Third Estate
            7. Conditions of peasants; series of poor harvests
            8. Conditions of urban workers; sans culottes
            9. Enlightenment ideas; philosophers
              1. Many of whom were French
              2. Made powerful arguments in favor of
                1. Fair government
                2. Equal treatment of all citizens
                3. Separation of governmental powers
                4. Civil rights
            10. 11. Example of the American revolution
          2. Stages
            1. Four stages
              1. Aristocrats challenge king
                1. Louis XVI calls Estates General – hadn’t met in 175 years
                  1. Bourbon monarchs ruled through divine right
              2. Bourgeoisie challenge voting process in Estates-General
                1. Three Estates – clergy, nobility, everybody else
                2. Third Estate wants sweeping changes that would hurt others
                  1. Other two outvote 2-1
                  2. Third Estate declared themselves National Assembly
                    1. Tennis Court Oath
                    2. Demanded a Constitution – not just change
                3. King pressures other two to join National Assembly
              3. Popular revolution, the people in the cities, Paris especially support bourgeoisie
                1. Storming the Bastille – July 14, 1789 starts wave of revolution
                  1. Found out Louis XVI actually summoned troops
                  2. Sans-culottes radicals utilized for muscle
              4. Peasants in the countryside support the revolution in Paris
                1. Peasants attack nobility and clergy
                2. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette brought to Paris for “safety”
            2. French Republic: National Convention
              1. Adopt Declaration of the Rights of Man
                1. Natural rights based on the Enlightenment, English Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence
                2. “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”
                3. Guaranteed freedoms of the press/religion – increased voting rights
                4. These ideas swept across Europe – encouraging other revolts
                  1. Freedom, equality, rule of law
              2. Abolished the feudal system
              3. Altered the monopoly of the Catholic Church
                1. Freedom of worship
              4. 1791 – Constitutional monarchy
                1. Angers those who want to get rid of king
                2. ii. Angers those who want to preserve feudal system
              5. Austria (Marie Antoinette’s home country)/Prussia invade to restore monarchy
              6. New constitution – Jacobins, National Assembly replace king > republic
              7. Reign of Terror
                1. Afraid of foreign threats (Britain and Spain join)
                  1. Afraid of domestic chaos
                2. Committee of Public Safety – all powerful enforcer of revolution
                  1. Beheading tens of thousands of Frenchmen
                3. Went too far, leader Robespierre eventually beheaded
                4. Universal male suffrage - precedent
                5. Universal military conscription - precedent
            3. Directory
              1. Five man government – 1795
              2. Weak at dealing with domestic problems
              3. Good at building up military
                1. Great strategy – focus on issues abroad – take mind off of domestic problems
            4. Unsolved problems
              1. Continuing war with Great Britain, Austria
              2. Corrupt politicians
              3. Bread riots
              4. Anger over policies related to the Church
              5. Growing royalist support
            5. Cycle of revolution
              1. Initially – liberal nobility + wealthy middle class
              2. This doesn’t go far enough – radical representatives of poor take over
              3. This is too radical – end up moving to middle – conservative backlash
              4. People want the good ol’ days – go back to an autocrat
          3. Outcome/effects
            1. National Assembly – Moderate Phase – 1789-1792
              1. Formal abolition of feudalism
              2. Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
              3. Revocation of privileges of the Roman Catholic Church
                1. Reorganization of the Church under the state
              4. Set up limited monarchy – Louis XVI sat on throne, but power to assembly
              5. Didn’t go far enough
                1. Rights not extended to Jews, Protestants, blacks
                2. Not extended to women
                  1. Major role as intellectuals, organizers, workers of Revolt
            2. National Convention – Legislative Assembly – Radical Phase – 1792-1794
              1. Abolished the monarchy and the aristocracy
                1. As protection from foreign threat
                  1. Attack from Austria/German states
                  2. Emigres plotting return of throne
                2. Royal family even plotted with nobles from foreign countries
                  1. Eventually captured trying to escape France
              2. Extended suffrage to more but not all male citizens
              3. People getting more ticked off
                1. Economy worsening
                2. Threat of foreign invasion
                  1. Prussia, Russia, Austria, Great Britain try to maintain monarchy – a bit nervous about precedent
              4. Committee of Public Safety
                1. Mobilized entire economy for combat
                2. Instituted world’s first national draft
              5. Reign of Terror (Jacobin Club)
                1. Searching for spies, traitors, counterrevolutionaries
                2. Civil liberties irrelevant – no due process
                3. Even other radical parties targeted
                4. 300,000 arrested – 30,000 put to death
            3. Directory – Thermidorian Reaction – 1794-1799
              1. Robespierre killed
              2. 5-man council, absolute power
            4. Napoleon “asked” to assume power
              1. 1799 overthrows Directory
              2. “Voted” in as First Consul by popular vote
              3. Creates new Constitution (4th Constitution)
              4. Good or bad
                1. Bad
                  1. wars lasted for years, cost a ton, killed a ton
                  2. Denied women basic rights
                  3. Censored speech and the press
                2. ii. Good
                  1. Bank of France
                  2. Napoleonic Code – Civil Law Code – French law
                  3. Established universities
                  4. Granted religious freedom
              5. Domestic reforms
                1. Agriculture, infrastructure, public education altered
                2. Normalized relations with the Church
                3. Restored tolerance of other religions
                4. Napoleonic Codes – equality of Frenchmen
                  1. Paternalistic – women/children severely limited
                  2. Recognized basic rights of men
              6. External impact
                1. Fended off aggressors and made France an aggressor
                2. Conquered Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Italy
                3. Dissolved Holy Roman Empire
                  1. Becomes confederacy of German states
                4. Makes himself king of new empire
                5. Power undermined by nationalistic uprisings and guerilla warfare
                6. Defeated in Russia
                  1. Lured into Moscow, but then city was burned
                    1. No way to house troops, hung out to dry
                  2. Retreat back to France turns into disaster
                7. Army decimated – Napoleon exiled
              7. Austria, Russia and Britain unite to overthrow Napoleon again upon return
                1. Finally exiled to St. Helena – eventually dies
              8. Congress of Vienna – 1815
                1. Maintain balance of power in Europe – no major wars for 100 yrs
                2. France not punished, just returned borders to pre-Napoleon levels
                3. Reaffirmed absolute rule
                  1. returned monarchs to France, Spain, Holland, Italy
                4. Ignored ideals, rights established during French Revolution
                  1. Return Europe to the good ol days or autocracy
                  2. Agree to fight liberal reforms
                  3. Political controls actually tighten
                    1. Limited freedom of expression, press, censorship
                    2. More secret police forces
                5. Very conservative
                6. Peace could be secured if equilibrium of geography/military kept
                  1. Austrian Klemens von Metternich’s Congress System
                    1. Concert of Europe
              9. Impact of French Revolution
                1. Didn’t the Revolution fail?
                  1. Dream of popular government faded – Comm Pub Safety
                    1. Napoleon a dictator
                    2. Old royal family actually restored to power
                2. But…
                  1. It did do away with absolute monarchy
                  2. monarchs still sat on thrones – no longer all-powerful
                    1. Yield to ministers, parliaments, assemblies
                  3. Gov’ts had to be more attentive to people’s needs
                  4. Starts trend of greater popular representation
                  5. Can no longer ignore the voices of the people
                  6. Spread the ideals of the revolution outside France
                    1. Thanks to Napoleon
                  7. Creates spirit of nationalism throughout Europe
                    1. Reaction to Napoleon’s invasion
              10. Aftermath of Napoleonic Wars
                1. Spirit of conservatism following 1815 defeat of Napoleon
                  1. Restore monarchs
                  2. Maintain balance of power to prevent future conflicts
                2. Liberalism
                  1. Protect the rights of the properties class
                3. Radicalism
                  1. Broader suffrage and social reforms for the lower class
                4. Nationalism unites Italy and Germany
          4. Comparing American and French Revolutions
            1. US – colonial uprising against imperial power – independence movement
            2. French Revolution – more of a revolution
              1. Actually want to change political/economic system
              2. Not merely a transfer of power from one elite group to another
              3. Social-political structure radically changes
                1. For US/Britain – structure remains essentially the same
            3. But US a revolution – set precedent for colonies breaking away from empires
              1. First to break away since Age of Exploration – 300 years
              2. Ideas adopted in Declaration of Independence, Constitution and French Revolution borrowed around the world
          5. Politics in Europe – 1815-1848
            1. Great Britain
              1. History of parliamentary system
              2. Slow progress toward liberties
              3. Less than 5% actually participated in parliament
              4. Lower classes lobby for more powers
                1. Govt gradually gives in to demands to avoid rebellion
            2. France
              1. Unlike Britain’s gradual reforms, France has a few mini-revolutions
              2. Louis XVI family returns – parliamentary monarchy
              3. Replaced by “Citizen King” – but still didn’t go far enough
              4. Leads to revolution of 1848
            3. Central and Eastern Europe
              1. Remained more oppressive
              2. Prussia remained militaristic and authoritarian for years
                1. Though technically emperor shared power with legislature
              3. Russia – tsar continued to be all-powerful
                1. Serfdom kept people down – inefficient and kept economy back
          6. Revolution of 1848
            1. Massive disturbance that shook every country of Europe
            2. Underlying causes
              1. Impatience with over three decades of reactionary (conservative) rule
              2. Social and economic negative effects of Industrial Revolution
              3. Growth and strength of nationalism
              4. Long series of economic downturns and bad harvests – “Hungry Forties”
                1. Irish Potato Famine – best-known, most deadly
            3. Events
              1. France – Citizen King Louis Philippe refuses reform demands
                1. Revolts result – Napoleon’s nephew – Louis Napoleon – takes over
                2. Metternich – “Everytime France sneezed, Europe caught cold”
              2. Ideas spread to rest of Europe
                1. Only Britain (liberal) and Russia (ultra autocratic) weren’t effected
                2. Revolution broke out lasting months
              3. Eventually all revolutions crushed or faded away
            4. Effects
              1. Forced king of Prussia, emperor of Austria to grant constitutional reforms
              2. Demonstrated power of nationalism
              3. Laid the groundwork for unification of Germany and Italy
              4. Political, social and economic issues of people HAVE to be met
        6. Haiti
          1. Impetus/Causes
            1. Appeal of Enlightenment ideals to creoles and mulattoes
            2. French Revolution as inspiration to slaves
            3. Success of American Revolution – maybe timing was right
              1. Revolts/uprisings before, but they always failed
              2. Now…Europe in chaos with rise and fall of Napoleon - distracted
                1. Rebellious leaders opportunity to assert themselves
            4. French mercantilist policy
              1. exported coffee, sugar, cocoa, indigo from Haiti
              2. few large plantations with hundreds of thousands of slaves
                1. By 1800, 90% of population slave
          2. Stages
            1. Slave insurrection of 1791
              1. Toussaint L’Ouverture – former slave
            2. Britain and Spain send troops; slaves and French join to oust them
            3. At the end of civil war, slaves freed and in power; still a French colony
            4. 1802, troops under Napoleon sent to end rule of former slaves
            5. Defeat of the French by rebels and disease
              1. Haitians capable fighters
              2. Yellow fever wipes out soldiers
              3. L’Ouverture captured and imprisoned in France
              4. Napoleon gives up attempt to reconquer Haiti
          3. Outcome
            1. Independence declared in 1804
              1. Jacques Dessalines – also slave – governor-general for life
              2. Haiti first independent nation in Latin America
            2. Civil war among rival factions
            3. Independent republic established in 1820
          4. Long term effects
            1. Napoleon chose to abandon effort to maintain French colonies in North America
            2. Sold vast Louisiana Territory to US for bargain
              1. Gave US control of the N. American continent
              2. Brought about major shift in global power – enter US
        7. Latin American Wars of Independence
          1. Causes
            1. Growing sense of national identity – same as US
            2. Local resentment of Spanish/Portuguese economic policies – same as US
            3. Frustration of American born Creole upper and middle class
              1. Would never be seen as equal to European born rulers
            4. Spark/catalyst was Napoleon
              1. Confusion over who was ruling
              2. Perfect opportunity to take advantage
          2. Political difficulties of 19th century Latin America
            1. Freedom alone did not bring about good government, social justice, health economy
            2. Political breakdown – instead of a few states, many independent smaller states
            3. Failure of constitutional rule
              1. Based on Napoleonic Law, US and French revolutions
              2. But…imposed artificially on Latin America
              3. Because there was no tradition of constitutions, civil liberties, political right
                1. It all just became words…red alert – consider connection to Iraq
            4. Prevalence of dictatorial/military rule
              1. Caudillos – military/political strongmen
                1. personal charisma, military force and/or oppression
              2. Reformers and liberals try to change, but doesn’t happen
          3. Economic backwardness
            1. Hundreds of years of shaping toward merely extracting natural resources
            2. Emphasized monoculture – one major crop – or a few crops
            3. Created condition that required importing finished goods
            4. Required large reserves of slaves/cheap labor to survive
            5. Failure to diversify economies means plantation owners need to recreate conditions to turn a profit
            6. Slow to modernize/industrialize
          4. Social and Racial Divisions
            1. Social inequality persisted regardless of laws
            2. People of mixed race, Indians, blacks victims of informal prejudice
            3. Economic income gap only worsened in 1800s
            4. Slavery even continued into 1800s in Brazil and Cuba
          5. Huge foreign influence persisted
            1. United States sets up sphere of influence
            2. Europeans either install or influence who will be leader
        8. Mexico (Revolution #1) – 1810>1820
          1. Impetus/Causes
            1. Revolution in Haiti
            2. Distraction of Spain by its war with France
          2. Stages
            1. El Grito de Dolores! Call to arms by priest
              1. Miguel Hidalgo – Creole priest – sympathized with Spanish abused
              2. led mestizos and Native Americans in rebellion in 1810
              3. Easily put down by Spanish – revolt – Hidalgo killed
            2. Fighting continued under new leader, killed in 1815; some scattered fighting
              1. Jose Morelos – picked up where Hidalgo left off
              2. Fought the loyalists
                1. Landowners turned against when he claimed redistributing land
                2. 1815 Morelos executed
            3. 1821 conservative creole joins with rebels and declares Mexico independent empire
            4. 1823 emperor overthrown by liberals
            5. 1824 republic created
          3. Outcome/Effects
            1. First rebellions demanded reforms such as abolition of slavery
            2. Lack of support from creoles for insurrection; collapsed
            3. Under republic, after years of turmoil, little change for ordinary mestizos/Natives
            4. French occupation
            5. Reforms instituted under Benito Juares
        9. Mexico (Revolution #2) – 1910-1917
          1. Impetus/Causes
            1. Long dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz
            2. Unequal distribution of wealth: a few wealthy landowners and mass of desperately poor peasants, factory workers, miners
            3. Liberal reformers
          2. Stages
            1. Demand for free elections; Diaz resigns
            2. Succeeded by Francisco Madero as president; murdered after two years
            3. Civil War: Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata
            4. 1917 election – Venustiano Carranza as president
          3. Outcome/effects
            1. Constitution of 1917 still in effect
              1. Broke up large landholdings
              2. Nationalized ownership of natural resources and Church property
              3. Restricted religion
              4. Provided for minimum wage
              5. Extended suffrage to all males
        10. China
          1. Impetus/Causes
            1. Increasing power of foreign nations
            2. Defeat in Sino-Japanese war in 1895
            3. Spread of reform ideas among Western-educated Chinese
            4. Discontent of poor rural peasants
            5. Grant of power to provincial governments by Qing in an effort to stem uprisings
          2. Stages
            1. Abortive rebellions in late 1800s
            2. Leadership of Dowager Empress Cixi
              1. Concubine that “ruled” for nephew into adulthood
              2. More oppressive rule
                1. Opposed all reform – pro-Western treason
                2. Even arrested nephew/killed reformers when they tried “Hundred Days Reform”
              3. Outlying possessions slipped away – Tibet, Gobi Desert, Mongolia
            3. Chinese Revolution of 1911
              1. Provincial secessions
              2. Declaration of republic
            4. Empire under Yuan shih-K’ai
            5. Years of civil war and chaos
            6. Establishment of republic in 1927 under Nationalist/Kuomintang Party
          3. Outcome/effects
            1. Abdication of Qing (Manchu) emperor in 1912
            2. Yuan declares self emperor – dies in 1916
            3. Warlords in power across China
            4. Unification of much of China begun under Sun Yat-sen
              1. Sun Yat-sen – father of modern China
                1. United a number of opposition groups – Revolutionary Alliance
                2. Military takeover that would become constitutional democracy
                3. People’s Principles
                  1. Nationalism – opposition to Manchu Rule
                  2. Democracy
                  3. People’s Livelihood
                4. Actually in America when revolt started
              2. Chinese Republic – 1912 – Sun as president
                1. Nationalist Party – Kuomintang
                2. 1st time in history ruled not by imperial dynasty/foreign conqueror
                  1. Politician brought to power by popular action
                3. Sun eventually forced to step down
                4. Civil war results
              3. Aided by Soviets
            5. Chiang Kai-shek successor to Sun
              1. Leads nationalist republic
            6. Fight for control of China with Communists under Mao Zedong
        11. Latin America
          1. Venezuela
            1. Cause
              1. Disputed authority – Napoleon appoints brother Joseph Bonaparte to Spanish throne
                1. Who to follow – Spanish or French?
            2. Events
              1. Simon Bolivar – Venezuelan leader
                1. Enlightened educated – traveled to Europe/United States
                2. Establishes national congress
                3. Royalists – defenders of crown – declare war
              2. Bolivar wins – envisions United States like South America
                1. Gran Colombia results – Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela
                2. Other nations become independendent
          2. Argentina
            1. Cause
              1. Disputed authority – see French/Spanish issue above
            2. Events
              1. Jose de San Martin – American-born Spaniard (Creole)
                1. Officer in Spanish army defects and leads rebels
              2. Joins with Bernardo O’Higgins of Chile
              3. Take revolution through Argentina, Chile, Peru
              4. By 1820s, huge chunk of South America freed from Spanish rule
          3. Brazil
            1. Cause
              1. Napoleon invaded – Portuguese king – John VI flees to Brazil
                1. Sets up Portuguese government from Brazil
                2. 1821 – Napoleon defeated, so John returns to Portugal
                3. But…leaves behind his son Pedro to rule
            2. Events
              1. Pedro was 23, spend entire life in Brazil
              2. Declares independence for Brazil and makes himself emperor
              3. 1831 Pedro gives power to sequel Pedro II – rules most of 19th century
                1. So…Brazil had early advantage of stable monarchy/gov’t through independence
                2. Accomplishments
                  1. Abolished slavery in 1888
                    1. Angers landowning class – they revolt in 1889
                    2. Set up a republic
                  2. Major exporter of coffee
          4. Effects of Latin American independence movements
            1. Europe booted out of vast chunks of American continents during 50 year period
            2. But…independence not accompanied by widespread freedom
              1. Slavery still existed for decades
              2. Peasants still worked on huge plantations owned by few landowners
              3. Middle class/merchant class didn’t emerge
              4. Enlightenment ideas didn’t spread beyond landowning class
            3. Why weren’t changes in South America?
              1. Catholic Church remained very powerful in Latin America
                1. Many priests fought for peasants, some martyred selves
                2. But…Church hierarchy wanted to maintain status quo
                3. Church – one of largest landowners in Latin America
              2. Economies largely dependent on Europe
                1. Still participated in European mercantilism
                2. Specialized in a few cash crops
                  1. Didn’t diversify – similar to US South
                3. Exported almost exclusively to Europe
            4. Exceptions
              1. Chile diversified economy fairly successfully
              2. Brazil and Argentina had some social reforms/broadened economies
                1. Middle class results
        12. Russia
          1. Keeps control over vast territory by giving absolute power to czars
            1. Majority of people serfs with no rights
            2. Alexander I and Nicholas I used secret police to squash rebellions/reform
          2. Reforms
            1. 1860s Alexander II – Emancipation Edict – abolish serfdom
              1. Serfs given small plots of land
                1. Had to give huge payments to the government
                2. Difficult to improve situation
                3. Some move to cities to work in industries – harsh conditions
            2. Beginning of some arts flourish
              1. Tolstoy – Anna Karenina and War and Peace
              2. Dostoyevsky – The Brothers Karamazov
              3. Tchaikovsky – Swan Lake and Nutcracker
            3. Russification – all Russians had to learn Russian language/convert to Orthodoxy
              1. Anyone who didn’t comply was persecuted – especially Jews
            4. Nicholas II doesn’t react to revolution
              1. Socialists began to organize
              2. Tried to rally Russians around the flag, but humiliated against Japanese
            5. Moderates march on czar’s palace peacefully – ask for reform
              1. Czar sends his troops against protesters – Bloody Sunday – 1905
            6. In response, Czar attempts legislative reforms
              1. Appoints Prime Minister – Peter Stolypin
              2. Creates Duma
                1. Has no real power
                2. Everytime they’re about to make a change, czar disbands
        13. India
          1. Educating native elite backfired
            1. Larger numbers of these educated agitated for freedom
            2. Saw that it was hypocritical for British not to apply liberties to India
          2. Indian National Congress – 1885
            1. English speaking, educated members of upper class
            2. Most influential – Mohandas K. Gandhi – 1869
              1. Lived in S. Africa from 1893-1915
                1. Defended rights of Indian workers living under apartheid
              2. Returned to India as central figure in freedom movement
                1. Policy of nonviolent resistance
      2. Major independence movements
        1. Latin American independence movements
          1. Mexico’s revolution unique
            1. Revolution of mestizos and Native Americans
          2. Other Latin American revolutions
            1. Led by wealthy, educated creoles
            2. Newly independent nations replaced governing peninsulares with elite creoles
            3. Little changed for the majority of the people
              1. Mestizos
              2. Mulattoes
              3. Native Americans
            4. Causes/Impetus
              1. Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin
                1. creoles both familiar with Enlightenment writings
              2. Spain engaged in wars with Napoleon
            5. Stages
              1. Between 1808>1824 all Spanish colonies became independent nations
            6. Outcome/Effects
              1. Bitter rivalries for power led to civil wars and more turmoil and suffering
              2. Little social, political, economic reform accomplished in former Spanish colonies
              3. Legacy of caudillo, strong man/military ruler, as head of government
      3. New political ideas
        1. Rise of nationalism
          1. Consequences of Napoleonic era was intensified nationalism
            1. Feelings of connection to one’s own home, region, language, culture
        2. Marxism
        3. Liberalism
        4. Conservatism
        5. Anarchism
        6. Rise of nation-states
          1. Unifications
            1. Italy and Germany were still feudal
              1. Center of warfare among the European powers
              2. Italy and Germany eventually unify which changes balance of power
            2. Italy
              1. Status before unification
                1. Mid-19th century – tangle of foreign controlled small kingdoms
                  1. Austria has North
                  2. France has Rome and Papal States
                  3. Spain has two Sicilies in the South
                  4. Only Sardinia controlled by Italians
              2. Events toward unification
                1. Victor Emmanuel II – king of Sardinia + Count Camillo Cavour
                  1. Both Sardinians push nationalism
                2. First Cavour sides with Europeans to kick out Austrians
                3. Giuseppi Garibaldi – Italian nationalist kicks out Spain
                4. By 1861 most of Spain unified under Victor Emmanuel
                5. Sided with Prussia to push out Austria
                6. France withdraws in 1870
              3. Effects
                1. Some still upset that parts of Austria and France aren’t Italian too
                2. Tough to unify culturally since it had developed regionally
                3. But…now able to assert itself on the world stage
                  1. Impacts Europe in the next century
            3. Germany
              1. Status before unification
                1. German and Austrian Empire provinces not united since Holy Roman Empire
                  1. After Peace of Westphalia – Austria/Prussia dominated
                2. Prussia under Frederick the Great pushed Industrial Revolution
                  1. Supported education – talented workforce
              2. Events toward unification
                1. William I in 1861 appoints Otto von Bismarck prime minister
                  1. Goal – build the military
                  2. Consolidating the region under Prussia’s authority
                    1. Defeated Austria, convinced Europe to not help
                    2. More wars to bring in other German regions
                    3. Brings in Catholic German states through war
                      1. Unite against France in 1870
                2. King William II then emperor of the German Empire
                  1. Second Reich – “second empire”
                  2. First Reich – “Holy Roman Empire”
              3. Effects
                1. Germany quickly industrializes
                  1. Strong economic/political power
                2. William II forced Bismarck to give up role
                  1. Becomes undisputed emperor in 1888
                  2. Built huge navy
                  3. Pursued colonial ambitions in Africa and Asia
                3. Germany becomes world power
                  1. By 1914, thought they could take on anyone
        7. Movements of political reform
          1. Gradual Move Toward Representative Government
            1. 2nd half of century moved toward representative govt
            2. Why?
              1. Industrialization, modernization, urbanization, population growth
                1. Too many issues for one man to handle
            3. Even in less democratic nations, power still spread to advisers, agencies, ministries and institutions
          2. Reform and Democracy in Great Britain
            1. Liberal and Conservative parties agreed to expand suffrage
              1. Second and Third Reform Acts – 1867/1885 – universal suffrage
            2. Problems still existed
              1. Aristocracy trying to retain privileges
              2. Growing middle class has ambitions of higher status
              3. Enormous working class striving for equality
                1. Labour Party ends up replacing liberal (middle class) party
              4. Irish home rule
                1. Should North – split Catholic/Protestant remain British or Irish
                2. Should Ireland be set free
          3. Democracy in France
            1. Louis Napoleon renamed himself Napoleon III
              1. Cancelled out some of the post-1848 liberties
              2. Deposed after losing Franco-Prussian war of 1871
            2. 1871 onward – France becomes democratic republic – universal suffrage
              1. Fourth Republic
              2. Still had problems
                1. Corruption and financial scandal
                2. Dreyfus Affair – Jewish officer accused of selling secrets to Germ
                  1. Exposed anti-Semitism
                  2. Pitted left vs. right – innocent vs. guilty
          4. Unification of Italy and Germany
            1. Showed power of nationalism – more powerful than demand for democracy
            2. Unified through combination of war and diplomatic intrigue/maneuvering
              1. Garibaldi – Italy
              2. Von Bismarck - Germany
          5. Austria-Hungary
            1. More conservative, but moved away from autocracy
            2. 1861 Emperor Franz Josef shared power with parliament
            3. Struggled on how much power to give to ethnic minorities
              1. Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Italians, Hungarians
              2. Minorities want autonomy – self-determination
              3. 1867 – Largest minority forced Austrians to give power
                1. Augsleich – “compromise” – becomes Austria-Hungary
          6. Germany
            1. Had to make concessions to growing working class
              1. Trade unions and socialism growing in power/influence
            2. Universal suffrage for Reichstag
              1. But…upper class votes weighed more than lower-class votes
            3. Laws for employment benefits
              1. unemployment insurance
              2. disability insurance
              3. pensions
              4. shorter work day
              5. Some workers actually better off than western world
          7. Russia
            1. Remained most autocratic
            2. No constitution, and until 1905 – no elected body
            3. Following embarrassing defeat in Crimean War – 1853-856
              1. Tsar Alexander II forced to implement liberal reforms
                1. Modernize Russia
                2. Emancipation of serfs in 1861
                3. Lightened censorship
                4. Widened powers of local government
                5. 1881 – Alexander II assassinated by radical terrorists
              2. Future tsars reversed policies
            4. 1905 – Uprising forces Nicholas II to share power with Duma
              1. But…Nicholas II ignored or disbanded Duma – neutered
          8. Japan
            1. Tokugawa Shogunate in the 18th century
              1. Ruled by Tokugawa clan – seized control in 1600s
              2. Technically authority with emperor, reality with shogunate
              3. Top of society – samurai – warrior class
              4. Early successes
                1. Helped centralize Japan
                2. Transformed from warring collection of states to peaceful country
              5. Problems
                1. Highly dictatorial
                2. Stratified society with no chance for social mobility
                3. Few personal freedoms – people left out of politics
                4. Isolated self from rest of the world
                  1. Only relations with Korea, some China, Dutch – Nagasaki
            2. Meiji Restoration
              1. Meiji Restoration of 1868 began Japan’s modern age
                1. Irony – rebellion anti-Western in nature, but
                  1. Must embrace West to survive/compete
                2. Revolution from above
                  1. Meiji’s govt radically alters politics, economics, social
              2. Politics
                1. Abolishes feudalism
                  1. Samurai have positions of power
                  2. No hereditary privileges
                  3. Stop payment to samurai
                  4. Samurai couldn’t wear swords
                2. Formal law code – Civil Code of 1898 drawn up
                3. Constitution of 1890 – elected parliament – Diet
                  1. Suffrage quite low – 5% - property qualifications
                  2. Emperor still has power over Diet
                  3. Created oligarchy – rule by Meiji and advisors
                  4. Less restrictive, but hardly representative
                  5. Women ignored – second class citizens
                    1. But…had some power with new working jobs
                4. Regional governments now run by prefects – state appointed
              3. Economics
                1. Modern efficiency – peasant #s decrease, productivity increases
                2. Industrialization
                  1. Sent young members of upper class to train in W. Europe
                    1. Engineering, economics, military
                  2. Ministry of Industry in 1870
                  3. State banks gave financing to growing industries
                  4. New railroads, steamships, ports, canals built
                  5. Zaibatsu – state sponsored huge corporations
                  6. Encouraged private enterprise
                3. Negatives of Industrialization
                  1. Taxes for farmers goes up
                  2. Working conditions for laborers goes down
                    1. Nagasaki – temps. up to 130, shot for escaping
                  3. Labor unions forbidden
              4. Social
                1. Rigid social hierarchy of Tokugawa ended
                2. Access to political positions increasingly based on merit
                  1. Civil service exam
                3. Middle class power grows
                  1. No longer negative stigma about trade and artisanship
                4. Negatives for lower class
                  1. Farmers taxed heavily
                  2. Industrial workers live/work in horrible conditions
                5. But…for lower class
                  1. state funded education
                  2. now allowed to serve in military
                  3. population skyrocketed – 35 million 1873 > 55 in 1918
        8. Democracy
          1. Rise
          2. Limitations
          3. Reform
          4. Women
            1. Women’s movements
              1. Founder – Mary Wolstonecraft – English writer
                1. A Vindication of the Rights of Women – 1792
                2. Equal rights – education, political, economic pursuits
              2. France – playwright Olympes de Gouges – argues for suffrage
            2. “Women Question” – what is their sphere/role
              1. “cult of true womanhood”
                  i. Virtues of submissiveness, piety, domesticity, modesty, femininity
              2. Feminists
                1. Women were individuals with different strengths and abilities
                2. Permitted to develop them without social restrictions
            3. Early phases of reform
              1. 1830s in US/Europe
              2. Focused on reforming family/divorce laws – own property/divorce
              3. Frustrated – lack of civil rights made it difficult ot argue for other causes
                1. slavery, temperance, improving schools, helping poor
              4. Jobs – teaching/nursing – women’s sphere
              5. Building social welfare institutions
                1. Providing aid to orphaned children/poor
            4. Next phase – mid century
              1. Pushed for suffrage
              2. Led by women of the upper class
              3. US suffragettes called for better working conditions/right to vote
              4. Took leadership roles in banning alcohol, child welfare, labor reform
            5. Not granted right to vote until after World War I
              1. Early exceptions – Norway, Finland, handful of US states in the West
          5. Racism
      4. Overlaps between nations and empires
    Subject X2: 

    Questions of Periodization

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Questions of Periodization
      1. Continuities and Breaks
        1. Continuities
          1. Absolutism in France
          2. Sense of cultural superiority of the Chinese
          3. “Revolutionary” change didn’t supplant everything
            1. People learned to be both scientist and Christian
            2. Slavery outlawed, but former slaves not embraced into society
            3. Racism – both social and institutional continued
        2. Breaks
          1. French Revolution
          2. End of Japanese isolation and rapid modernization in Japan
        3. What makes the “modern age”
          1. Politics
            1. Trend away from monarchy toward greater political representation
            2. Form of democracy or at least an appearance of democracy
          2. Economics
            1. Mechanization and industrialization become driving forces
            2. Shift from mercantilism/feudalism to capitalism
            3. No longer based primarily on agriculture – increasingly on industry and commerce
          3. Society
            1. Class transformation
            2. Old aristocracies – derive power from noble birth – gradually fade away
            3. New elites status comes from wealth
            4. Middle class and industrial working class expand
            5. Modern societies become urbanized
            6. Population growth accelerates
          4. Culture
            1. Scientific, secular world view becomes dominant
            2. Artistic styles change more rapidly and radically than ever before
        4. End of the era – 1914
          1. 19th century – Europe at the peak of its power – replaced by the US in 20th century
          2. New philosophies, scientific theories, cultural movements attacking Western values
          3. Diplomatic trends bringing nations towards war
          4. World War I would speed up process of European decline
        5. Continuities
          1. Conservative backlash – reaction – strove to keep this power in check
            1. Some more successful at fighting liberalizing/democratizing elements
      2. Causes of changes from the previous period and within this period
        1. West major causal agent of change
          1. Underwent vast changes/caused vast changes in other areas of the world
          2. Begun process in 1400s with
            1. Voyages of exploration
            2. Colonization
            3. Appropriation of world trading networks
            4. Establishment of new trade routes
          3. W. Europe consolidated hold on
            1. Foreign colonies
            2. Global trade
          4. Unprecedented – never before/since has one civilization truly dominated the world
          5. With it come huge moral and ethical price
            1. Imperialism linked to warfare, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, slavery
            2. Harmful effects still felt in Africa, Latin America, and Asia
        2. Industrialization
          1. Changed the way the world made goods
          2. Changed the way the world did business
        3. Political changes in Europe led to first world war
          1. Enlightenment
          2. Attempts at radical reform
          3. Unification of Germany and Italy
          4. Shifting balance of power among European nations
          5. End of absolute monarchies
          6. Revolutions established set of ideals that could be pushed for in the future
        4. Important changes independent of Europe occurred
        5. Imperialism
          1. Industrialization and imperialism both interconnected
          2. Developments in one region have impact on other regions
          3. Improvements in communication/transportation allow regional developments to expand
          4. Movement away from Western Hemisphere
            1. W. Hemisphere freed self from European control by early 19th century
            2. Imperialists turn eyes toward Africa and Asia
              1. Exploitation easy
              2. Markets huge
        6. Nationalism
          1. Nationalism a huge force – why did it grow
          2. Sparked rebellions, independence movements, unification movements
          3. Sparked domination and colonialism
        7. Eugenics/Ethnocentrism – ideological explanations for racial superiority
          1. Most Europeans ethnocentric – viewed other cultures as barbarian/uncivilized
            1. Ethnocentrism leads to social improvements – can’t exactly treat selves bad
          2. Social Darwinists
            1. Applied theory of natural selection to sociology
              1. Dominant races rose to the top due to “survival of the fittest”
              2. Britain obviously most fit – must be the superior race
          3. White Man’s Burden – Europeans have moral obligation to teach others how to be civilized
            1. Rudyard Kipling poem
            2. Convert to Christianity and civilized in the European fashion
            3. Europeans knew what was best for everyone
          4. Compared to other cultures
            1. Chinese – Middle Kingdom – “center of the world”
            2. Japan also believed they were racially superior
            3. Difference
              1. Europe has military technology to act on these beliefs
              2. Quite capable of subjugating peoples for economic/military/political reason
              3. Success only encourages them to do it more
        8. Why did changes occur so quickly during this time period?
          1. Communicated more quickly than before
            1. Trains and ships raced across the continent and seas
            2. Telegraph cables were laid
            3. By 1914 telephones ringing
            4. By 1914 planes in the air
          2. Consider speed of Japanese industrialization
          3. Consider speed of colonizing Africa vs. colonizing Latin America
          4. Urbanization
            1. Ideas spread more quickly
            2. Like-minded people able to associate
            3. Individuals had contact with greater variety of people – greater variety of ideas
                For example, India learns English customs, culture quickly
            4. Countryside maintains conservative views
    Subject X2: 

    Rise of Western Dominance

    Unit 4
    The Modern Era

    1. Rise of Western Dominance
      1. Economic
        1. Technological, economic military rise of the West
        2. Altered the balance of global power
        3. Industrialization replaced agriculture as largest, most important sector of economy
          1. Began in England 18th and 19th century through Europe, later rest of the world
        4. Dominant mode of economic organization – free-market, laissez faire capitalism
          1. Commerce and banking – foundations of money-based economy – not land-based
        5. Transformed class structures
          1. Aristocracy based on land and family prestige faded
          2. Those employed in agriculture shrank
          3. Middle class grew tremendously, gained great wealth, diversified
          4. New lower class – industrial working class was born
        6. Industrialization led to urbanization – cities grew in size, more cities established
        7. First decades of industrialization painful for lower classes
          1. Working conditions poor, wages were low
          2. Over time, industrialization greatly raised the average properity of a society’s population
            1. Even lower classes benefit over time
        8. Non-Western worlds adopt industrialization in varying ways
          1. Some European imperial powers introduced to colonies
          2. Rulers of free non-Western nations tried to impose from above
        9. Slavery still key to 18th/19th century world economy
          1. Africa primary victim of slave trading
          2. East African and Atlantic Slave Trade continued into the 1870s/1880s
        10. Fall of mercantilism, rise of capitalism
          1. Economies more likely to flourish if left alone to function freely
            1. Need competition, free trade, laws of supply and demand create greater wealth
            2. Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations – 1776 – “invisible hand” of supply and demand
        11. “dismal science” – negative view of capitalism
          1. Thomas Malthus – Essay on Population – 1799 –
            1. Population growth led to poverty
            2. War, disease, starvation – necessary to control population
          2. David Ricardo – “iron law of wages”
            1. Employer will pay lowest possible wage to make money
            2. If supply of labor goes up, salaries will drop
        12. Socialism, Marxism and Communism
          1. Socialism – economic competition is inherently unfair and leads to injustice/inequality
            1. Utopian socialists – with good planning and regulation – everyone can be happy
          2. Marxism – more radical socialism – Communist Manifesto
            1. History always driven by class struggle between upper class/lower class
              1. Karl Marx – all history result of class struggle - bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
                1. middle class vs. working class
            2. Workers would overthrow which would lead to communism – revolution necessary
              1. Would eventually revolt and form “dictatorship of the proletariat”
                1. Would ensure social and political freedom
              2. No longer a need for the state – eventually wither away
              3. Result – pure communism – classless society
          3. Communism
            1. Ideally – perfect justice, social equality and plenty
      2. Political
        1. Broad trends
          1. World affairs determined by policy choices in Europe
          2. United States broke away from English rule, went on to dominate Americas
          3. Spanish/Portuguese colonies freed themselves of European rule
          4. Eastern Question – gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire presented Europe with choices
          5. Between 1814 > 1914 – 35% to 85% of European control of habitable territory
          6. Japan only non-Western nation to develop effective, modern colonial empire
          7. New nations of Germany and Italy created
          8. Tensions over diplomacy, nationalism, competition for overseas possessions led to alliances
        2. Political developments
          1. greater popular representation in government and politics
            1. American Revolution and French Revolution were precedents
          2. During 1800s, especially after 1848 – Europe and West politics more representative
            1. Bureaucracies and parliamentary bodies becoming increasingly important
            2. More important than arbitrary will of rulers/monarchs
          3. Other parts of the world slower in moving from traditional monarchies/oligarchies
            1. Japan/Ottoman Empire developed parliamentary monarchies by 20th century
            2. Latin America had parliamentary monarchies in theory
              1. But usually slipped into dictatorship or military rule
          4. Much of the non-Western world spent the 19th century under European colonial domination
        3. Middle class representation
          1. Through revolt and reform were able to gain more political and economic rights
        4. Working class radicalism
          1. Most desperate option – radical forms of agitation – socialism, communism, anarchism
            1. Radicalized workers led by intellectuals
          2. Trade unions
            1. At first, illegal – in danger of arrest, injury – especially if went on strike
            2. Government oftentimes supported corporation
            3. Left leaning, but not as far as socialism, communism
      3. Social
      4. Cultural
        1. Starting in West, scientific, secular worldview became paramount
          1. Technological/scientific advancements of Industrial Revolution accelerated process
          2. Theories of Charles Darwin accelerated process
            1. Evolution is a random process – physical changes that increase survival passed on
            2. Common ancestor of humans and apes
            3. Erode faith in traditional religion and encourage more secular view of the world
        2. Greater access to public education increased through 1800s
          1. Literacy rates rose
        3. Tremendous movement of peoples
          1. Massive waves of emigration from Europe and China > N. and S. America
          2. United States preferred destination, but also to Canada, Argentina, Chile
        4. Nationalism became an incredibly powerful cultural attitude in Europe
          1. By end of 1800s nationalist movements more prevalent in non-Western parts of the world
            1. Especially those dominated by Europeans, and educated by Europeans
        5. Modernist thought and culture – late 1800s/early 1900s
          1. Diversity and innovation
          2. Artists broke rules of traditional culture and experimented with variety of styles
            1. Expressionism, Cubism, abstraction
          3. Time of crisis and uncertainty in art
          4. Fridrich Nietzche
            1. “God is Dead”
            2. All systems of morality valueless in the materialistic modern age
          5. Science of psychology to understand human mind
        6. Adopted Western behavior
          1. Japan adopted – fashion, manners, calendar, metric system
      5. Artistic
        1. Non-Western world began to adopt many of the artistic and literary forms of the West
          1. Especially the print culture and writing styles, but also architecture
          2. Styles from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East had influence on West
            1. Especially painting, sculpture, decor
        2. Europe and Americas, pace of cultural change sped up considerably
          1. End of the 1800s, new artistic and literary trends were emerging at rapid rate
          2. New artistic and literary trends were breaking rules and defying conventions
        3. Romanticism
          1. Originated with German authors and French philosopher Rousseau
          2. Backlash/reaction to logic/reason-oriented outlook of Enlightenment
          3. Most important – emotion/passion
            1. Self-realization of the individual, heroism, love of the natural world
        4. Realism
          1. Rejected Romanticism’s idealized dramatic outlook
          2. Focused on sober, critical view of life
          3. Details of everyday existence
            1. Social problems – poverty, social hypocrisy, class injustice
          4. Looked at psychological workings of charaters’ minds
      6. Patterns of Expansion
      7. Imperialism and Colonialism
        1. Causes of Imperialism
          1. Economic - Industrialization gave West the ability and reasons to conquer the world
            1. hungry for raw materials
            2. Markets for goods
              1. Economists today say industrialized nations better markets than colonies
            3. Immense wealth allowed it to afford military, transportation, communication tools
            4. Economic imperialism
              1. Exertion of economic influence rather than political control over a region
                1. America over Hawaii – sugar and pineapple
                2. Latin America dependent on Europe for finished goods
                3. Cuba – American economic imperialism led to territorial gains
                4. Central America and Caribbean – dependent on foreign loans
                  1. US protects these regions from European threat - Monroe
          2. Military factors
            1. New weaponry – steam powered ocean fleets, modern rifles, machine guns, artillery
              1. Steamships could travel previously unnavigable rivers – can reach interior
            2. Rarely could native win
              1. Except for instances of overwhelming numbers, miscalculation, good luck
            3. Need to maintain bases and coal stations around the world
              1. Both for navies and civilian fleets
              2. Needed elaborate repair and fueling facilities
              3. Islands and ports around world crucial
          3. Social factors
            1. Rapid population growth
              1. Emigration to Americas – chance to make fortune/improve life
          4. Science and technology
            1. New knowledge – exploration brought better maps/familiarity w/ local environments
            2. Medical advances
              1. Penetrate tropical regions without fear of
                1. sleeping sickness, yellow fever, malaria
              2. These illnesses had worked as natural guard against earlier invasions
          5. Cultural factors
            1. Racial superiority
              1. Entitled to conquer and colonize areas that seemed “backward”/”primitive”
                1. Cecil Rhodes – Britain/Africa – “I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better it is.”
              2. Justified in crude/prejudiced terms
                1. Social Darwinism applied to humanity
                2. ii Those technologically/culturally advanced should conquer others
            2. Duty of Westerners to teach/modernize darker-skinned “primitive” peoples
              1. Rudyard Kipling – “White Man’s Burden”
              2. A bit condescending? Or heartfelt desire to civilize?
            3. Trampled on/eradicated native cultural practices
        2. Western Approaches to Empires
          1. “The sun never sets on the British Empire”
            1. British allow more self rule, introduce positive social reforms, useful knowledge
            2. French similarly subscribed to “la mission civilisatrice”
            3. Portuguese and Belgians especially harsh in Africa
            4. Germany and Italy also harsh – poison gas in North Africa
        3. Europe in India
          1. Long time a destination for European traders – luxuries
            1. tea, sugar, silk, salt, jute (strong fiber for ropes)
          2. Mughal rule – fighting between Hindus/Muslims gave opening to Europe
            1. Many regions slipped to independent kingdoms/city-states
            2. Increased pressure from European outsiders destabilized power
          3. British East India Company – 1750s conquered Bengal – Bangladesh
            1. Exclusive trade over India
            2. This corporation defeated French
              1. French worked out of Madras and Pondicherry
                1. Portuguese and Dutch still had some coastal settlements
            3. Gradually set up administrative regions throughout empire
            4. Used Mughal jailing of British population in Black Hole of Calcutta
              1. Catalyst for decisive military action - 1757
          4. Why was British East India company successful?
            1. Naval might allowed military superiority
            2. Governed directly or through the authority of local rulers
            3. Some times British conquered regions they didn’t want – put back insurrections
          5. Sepoy Mutiny
            1. British East India Company used Indians – Sepoys – as soldiers
            2. Sepoys start to get frustrated - 1857
              1. Taking up too much of India
              2. Not respecting Muslim/Hindu customs
                1. British trying to undermine Hindu/Muslim religious practices
                2. Bullet cartridges greased with pork/beef fat – both forbidden
                3. Fear of being sent overseas – break Hindu caste
            3. Massacres and atrocities on both sides
              1. Tens of thousands killed – British soldiers, civilians, Indian troops, civilians
            4. Hindus/Muslims failed to cooperate with each other
            5. Reaction
              1. British make India a crown colony
              2. Mughal emperor – Bahudar Shah II – sent into exile
              3. 300 million Indians become British subjects
          6. British Colonialism
            1. India model of British imperialism
              1. Raw materials flowed to Britain, finished materials back to India
                1. Primarily textile industry
              2. Upper castes taught English language/English attitudes
              3. Christianity spread
              4. Railroads and canals built
              5. Urbanization increased dramatically
              6. Educated upper castes dream of freeing India from British rule
            2. 1885 Indian National Congress
              1. Begin path toward independence
              2. Over next 60 years adapt British customs while holding on to traditions
            3. Proverbial “jewel in the crown of the British Empire”
              1. Conquest and ownership of largest/most populous regions on earth
                1. Tiny group of islands 5000 miles away – central/telling fact
              2. Global impact
                1. Affected global economies
                2. movement of navies
                3. international relations
                4. balance of world power
                5. gave Britain immense wealth and prestige
              3. Affected course of Indian history
                1. changing politics, economic development, social practices, language, virtually every aspect of Indian culture
            4. Advantages and disadvantages of rule
              1. Disadvantages – 1700s
                1. Profits generated by raw materials sent back to Britain
                2. Size/efficiency of British mills drove locals out of business
                3. British could confiscate peasant land if didn’t pay taxes
                  1. Local zamindars abused system to get more land
                  2. Mass famines kill one third of Indian population
                4. Goal economic exploitation through military force
              2. Advantages – 1800s
                1. Motivated by increased efficiency
                  1. Selfishness
                  2. White Man’s Burden
                2. Modernized country
                  1. Infrastructure – roads, railroads, telegraph, postal
                  2. Educational system
                    1. Raise scientific/technological advancement
                    2. Create educated pro-Western natives
                    3. “Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect.”
                  3. Civil service exam
                  4. Eliminated inhumane cultural practices
                    1. Sati – burning widows alive
                    2. Thuggee – ritual assassination of travelers – Kali
                    3. Harsh treatment of untouchables
                  5. Reduced level of sectarian strife
        4. Europe in Southeast Asia
          1. By 1900, only small portion of Southeast Asia not controlled by Europe
          2. National resistance movements beginning to form
            1. For the time being, unable to move foreign masters
            2. Laid foundation for freedom movements that would expel foreigners after WWII
          3. Southeast Asia before 1800
            1. Only major regions controlled by Europe – Philippines and Indonesia
              1. British influence in Malay peninsula
              2. Portuguese controlled part of Timor – Indonesia
              3. Indonesia – controlled by Dutch East India Company
                1. Handed responsibility over to upper-class natives
                  1. Western-educated
          4. Malaya and Singapore
            1. Rich in rubber, tin, oil, copper, iron, aluminum ore
            2. Singapore – Stamford Raffles – trading center and fortress, naval base
              1. With India and Hong Kong, one of Britain’s most prized possessions
          5. French Conquest of Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
            1. France needs to stop Britain from having uninterrupted control of Asia
              1. Britain takes over Burma
            2. 1879-1859 – pressured Nguyen dynasty to accept foreign rule
              1. Most profitable natural resources – tin, rubber, chrome, oil, bauxite
            3. Government related to that of British
              1. More religious than British – conversion
                1. Local elite of upper-class, Westernized natives
              2. Exploited economy – a la British
              3. la mission civilisatrice – modern technology and science to the colonies
              4. more willing to resort to repression and violence to maintain order
          6. Thailand
            1. Remained independent due to leadership and good luck
              1. King Mongkut and King Chulalongkorn (The King and I)
                1. Modernized monarchs – introduced industrialization/Western reforms
              2. Geographic setting
                1. lay between British Burma and French Indochina
                2. Mutually agreed informally to let it be buffer zone
          7. US Annexation of the Philippines
            1. In Spanish American War of 1898 – Americans + Natives overthrew Spanish
            2. Debate in Europe over what to do with Philippines
              1. Turn into US colony
                1. Prevent from falling into hands of Japanese
                2. Superb naval base in Pacific
                3. Way station with China
                4. “Moral” obligation to help poor yellow brothers
            3. Pattern of practical selfishness + condescending idealism
            4. Savage war in jungles for US to maintain colony
              1. Emilio Aguinaldo now turns against Americans – bloody battle
        5. Europe in China
          1. Much of Chinese history remained isolationist
            1. Frequently traded, but didn’t make exploring a priority
            2. Napoleon saw China as “sleeping dragon” – untapped population, size, resources
            3. Expanded by conquering neighbors, but didn’t take expansion beyond region
            4. Backwardness – unwillingness to modernize/industrialize left vulnerable
              1. Deluded sense of grandeur/past accomplishments
            5. Allowed European traders to trade only in port city of Canton
              1. Established strict limitations on what could be bought or sold
              2. Eventually British used weapons/warship/industrialization to push in
          2. Why China was weak?
            1. Under Qing, several negative trends occurred simultaneously
              1. Quality of leadership declined – weak, incompetent emperors
              2. Government corruption
              3. Cost of maintaining borders cumbersome
              4. Population growth too rapid
              5. Open revolt on several occasions
              6. Increased economic and diplomatic pressure from the West
                1. Until 1810 – too strong to conquer
                  1. Held advantage in trade balance
                  2. Could only trade in Macao and selected ports
                  3. Vast Western bullion in exchange for tea, porcelain
                2. Europe wants to sell more products to China
                  1. In response to Lord Maccartney – “Your country has nothing we need.”
                  2. Reaction from tough business sense
                  3. Feelings of superiority
                    1. Middle Kingdom
                    2. Center of the universe
                    3. All outsiders barbarians
              7. So…foreigners start refusing embarrassing/unprofitable trade imbalance
          3. Opium Wars
            1. 1773 – British introduced opium
              1. Clever, but unethical way to break into Chinese markets
              2. Prime source Northeast India
              3. 1820s/1830s British flood China with opium
              4. Other countries get involved – France, Portugal, United States
                1. But British have 80% of trade
              5. Trade balance had swung
            2. 1839 – Manchu Emperor edict forbidding sale or use of opium
              1. Chinese government angry for many reasons
                1. China had become a nation of addicts
                2. Silver bullion flowing out and not in
                3. Economic productivity declines – farmers/workers incapacitated
                4. “The foreigners have brought us a disease which will dry up our bones, a worm that gnaws at our hearts, a ruin to our families and persons. It means the destruction of the soul of our nation.”
              2. Chinese seized British opium in Canton in 1839
                1. Arrest dealers, seize supplies, intercept boats
            3. 1839-1842 – British/Chinese war over opium trade
              1. Forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing
                1. Easily defeated
                2. first of the “unequal treaties” – allowed to expand trade to China
                  1. Right to create more opium addicts
                3. Forced to open five new ports, lower tariffs
                4. British law prevailed in heavily British population areas
              2. 1843 established Hong Kong as its own crown possession – colony
              3. 1844 Christian missionaries allowed back in
                1. More common for Protestants/Catholic volunteers to travel
                  1. Teach Christianity/English language
                  2. Interfered with an eroded Chinese culture
                2. Brought scientific/technological knowledge
                  1. Treated diseases with modern medicine
                3. Helped eliminate oppressive cultural practices
                  1. Footbinding
                4. mixed legacy of positive and negative impact
            4. 1856-1860 Second Opium war
              1. Humiliating defeat
              2. Result – all of China opened to European trade
              3. But…Hong Kong the exception – no desire to fully colonize – just market
              4. Territory along Chinese coast becomes extraterritorial
                1. Controlled by foreigners
                2. Japan, Germany, Italy, Portuguese, French, British, US, Russians
            5. Fall of China
              1. Internal rebellions
                1. White Lotus Rebellions – Buddhist anti taxes/corruption
                2. Taping Rebellion – nationalist Chinese
                  1. Second deadliest war in world history
                  2. 20-30 million lives lost
                  3. “Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace” – taiping
                  4. Hong Xiuquan fails civil service
                    1. Thinks he’s Jesus’s brother
                  5. Resented taxes, arbitrary rule, foreign rule
                  6. Eventually defeated
                    1. Competent Qing generals
                    2. Ever-Victorious Army – run by American
                      1. Then British general
              2. External losses
                1. Korea claims independence – 1876
                2. Vietnam goes to French – 1883 – Sino-French War
                3. 1895 Japan defeats China – Sino-Japanese War
                  1. Japan takes Taiwan
                  2. Has Europeanesque trading rights
                  3. Took over Korean peninsula
              3. European spheres of influence
                1. France, Germany, Russia, Britain
                2. Not colonies – set up – military businesses, invested in
                  1. business, transportation, communication
              4. US wants peace of the action – Open Door Policy
                1. China open to all of the world – OK…Europe and US
              5. Attempted reform with the self-strengthening movement
                1. Encouraged Western investment
                2. Modernized the Chinese army
            6. Boxer Rebellion
              1. Boxers – Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
                1. Anti-Manch, anti-European, anti-Christian
                2. “Boxers” – martial arts experts
              2. Goal – drive Europeans and Japanese out of China
                1. Most of anger directed at Beijing
                2. Foreign residents and foreign legations
              3. Tactics – guerilla warfare against Christian missionaries/embassies
              4. Easily defeated once Europeans/Japanese sent in reinforcements
              5. Forced to sign Boxer Protocol – payments to Japanese/Europeans
            7. China starts to fall apart
              1. Foot binding abolished 1901
              2. 1905 – Chinese examination system ended
              3. Attempts at reform
                1. 1905 – Empress Cixi formed a committee to discuss constitution
                2. Last Emperor – Henry Puyi – local assemblies
                  1. Election for national assembly planned for 1910
              4. 1911 – Government toppled
        6. Europe in Southeast Asia
          1. Britain takes Burma, Malay peninsula (Singapore), northern Borneo, Australia
          2. Dutch take Indoneseia
          3. Philippines controlled by Spain then US
          4. France took over Indochina – Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam
          5. Germany Pacific islands as naval posts
        7. Europe in Africa
          1. Africa held little interest to Europeans prior to Industrial Revolution
            1. Though North of Sahara – Egypt especially – had interest/historical impact
            2. Vast interior unknown to outside world
            3. 1880-1910 able to take over “Dark Continent” in “Scramble for Africa”
              1. Almost brought Europe to war
              2. Berlin Conference – 1884-1885 set up rules
              3. By 1910 only Liberia – guaranteed by the US and Ethiopia free
                1. Ethiopia – armed self with modern weapons – drove off Italy
                  1. Coptic Christian kingdom – modernized under Theodore II
                  2. Arabs drove Portuguese from coast
            4. Though North Africa easier to control – Sub-Saharan inland tougher
              1. Disease – naval superiority inefficient until steam
                1. Better medicines
              2. Lacked geographic knowledge of region
            5. Before 1880 – 10% of Africa controlled, by 1914 – all but 2 countries
            6. During Age of Exploration – coastal regions important for limited trade
              1. Strategic positioning – stopping points for merchant ships to India/China
              2. Became center of slave trade
              3. Resources plundered – gold, ivory, timber
              4. Established outposts, naval bases, small colonies
          2. Imperialist powers improve infrastructure
            1. Railways, roads, public works, hospitals, improved sanitation
            2. Most improvements initially for benefit of European colonists
            3. Improved health care
          3. African reaction
            1. Strong African states resisted foreign domination
              1. Ironically they got the power from Atlantic Slave Trade – weapons
          4. The Slave Trade Ends
            1. Enlightenment principles make people outraged at slavery
              1. 1807-1820 – Most European nations outlaw slavery
              2. Outlawed decades later
              3. So…slave trade ends (at least legally), but slavery continues
                1. Some slaves returned to Africa – emigrated to Liberia
              4. But…within 50 years Africans now subjugated on own homeland
          5. African states during late 1700s and 1800s
            1. Number of states strong enough to resist foreign domination
              1. Others useful, cooperative enough for Europeans to work with
              2. Some Western states remained independent – Muslim theocracies
                1. Fulani Empire, Masina, Tukolor
            2. Ashanti Kingdom
              1. Strongest and most unified of West African states
              2. Used profits from slave trade to buy guns
              3. Power increases as neighbors fight each other/succumb to foreign rule
              4. Fought British, French, American attempts to end slave trade
              5. Next to Zulus, toughest group to subdue
                1. Finally overthrown by British in 1900
          6. South Africa
            1. Prior to discovery of gold/diamonds – S. Africa only important for shipping/military
              1. Dutch arrived first, set up Cape Town as stopping point for ships
              2. 1795 British seized Cape Town
                1. S. African Dutch – Boers/Afrikaners moved Northeast
                  1. In Transvaal, they discovered gold/diamonds
              3. British then fought bloody battles for resources
                1. Boer War – 1899-1902
                  1. All of S. Africa becomes part of British Empire
                  2. Natives have no claims – work mines
              4. Boers came in contact with Zulus – most fearsome African enemy
                1. Shaka Zulu in 1816 seized power and united clans
                  1. Black Napoleon
                  2. Taught how to fight in organized, efficient fashion
                  3. Warlike, conquering tribe
            2. Became significant British colony
              1. Extensive investment in infrastructure
              2. 1910 – colony had its own Constitution
                1. Union of South Africa – self-rule + part of British commonwealth
                2. Only white men could vote
              3. 1912 – African National Congress organized
                1. Opposed to colonialism and specific S. African policies
          7. Discovery of Diamonds
            1. Modern era of African history began w/ discovery of diamond deposits in 1870s
              1. Increased exploitation of African labor
              2. White control sharpened racial attitudes already bigoted
                1. Racial segregation in the mines
                2. Laws that restricted African workers
                3. Set precedent for Apartheid laws
              3. Kimberly, South Africa – peopled by many ethnic groups – annexed by Brit
          8. Egypt
            1. In theory, Ottomans ruled Egypt from 1517-1882, but toward end had little power
              1. Local rulers – byes – had far more influence
                1. Muhammad Ali defeated French/Ottomans – gained control – 1805
                  1. Began industrialization of Egypt
                  2. Expanded agriculture toward cotton production
                    1. Exported to Britain at a profit
                2. Abbas I slowed westernization
                3. French + Egypt begin construction of Suez Canal
                  1. Canal completed in 1869
                  2. More valuable to British – connection to India
              2. British take control of canal
                1. Egypt sells stock in canal to pay for substantial gov’t debt
                2. By 1882, controlled canal, plus had a ton of power in Egypt
                3. Became British protectorate – puppet local government
              3. Pushed out of Egypt, France looked elsewhere
          9. The Berlin Conference
            1. 1884 – Otto von Bismarck hosted major European powers
            2. Set up rules for how future colonization and boundaries would be determined
            3. Europeans left Congress in haste – on your mark, get set, go
              1. Needed to be first to establish possession
              2. Within three decades almost entire continent colonized
                1. Only Ethiopia and Liberia free of European rule
                2. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium
            4. Positives – added substantial infrastructure – railroads, dams, roads
            5. Negatives
              1. Stripped Africa of its resources
              2. Treated natives harshly
              3. Europeans put in positions of authority
              4. Natives adopt European customs
                1. British gave natives a little more autonomy – focused on India
              5. Borders based on European political/economic priorities
                1. Not on African history or culture
                  1. Tribal lands cut in half between two colonies
                  2. Two rival tribes brought together under one rule
                    1. Better for Europe – can’t organize opposition
              6. Traditional African culture hurt
                1. European schools
                2. Christian missionaries
                3. Western business practices
                4. Like elsewhere in global colonial – native culture breaks apart
          10. Why European conquest so easy?
            1. External reasons
              1. Industrial/military superiority of Europe
              2. Motivation of Europe for nationalistic purposes
              3. Europeans effective medicines – quinine/malaria
            2. Internal reasons
              1. Technological backwardness
              2. Economies based on herding and small-scale agriculture
                1. Failed to develop industrial economies
              3. Frequent intertribal and interkingdom warfare
          11. Individual European control after “Scramble for Africa”
            1. British – “Cape to Cairo” – East Africa dominated
              1. Administrative style similar to in India
                1. “White man’s burden” approach
                2. Took advantage of native elite
                3. Deployed native troops in the Western style
                4. Brought new science and technology to region
            2. French – Primarily Saharan North
              1. Civilizing mission - la mission civilisatrice
                1. Acted reasonably responsibly
            3. Portuguese – Angola
              1. Quite harsh with African colonies
            4. Belgium – Congo
              1. Record among the worst of the Europeans
              2. Overexploited rubber trees and vines
              3. Brutally forced Congolese villagers to meet quotas
                1. Cut off hands of those who did not meet quotas
                2. Massacres of Congolese rubber workers
              4. Population drops from 20 million to 8.5 million
            5. Italy
              1. Poor luck in colonizing
              2. Humiliating loss to Ethiopia at Battle of Adowa
            6. Germany
              1. Recent military prowess allows them to take parts of E. Africa
                1. Colonies that no one else wanted
                2. Actually lost money for Germany
              2. Brutally put down rebellions
                1. Herero Wars – genocidal – 64,000 of 80,000 slaughtered
          12. Effects of European imperialism
            1. Many African families broken up
              1. Men went to work on plantations/mines
                1. Neglected tilling home/village plots
                2. Led to decreased food supply and malnutrition for families
              2. Rise in the level of prostitution/STDs
              3. Women forced to grow food for mere survival
            2. Effects on European diplomacy
              1. Only intensified European conflict
              2. Otto von Bismarck’s Berlin Conference 1885
                1. Artificial boundaries that didn’t take into account local needs
                2. 177 ethnic groups – compromised natural economic/social growth
              3. Germans support Dutch Boers worsened Anglo-German relations
              4. One of the causes of World War I
                1. Which led to the eventual loss of Europe’s empires
        8. Europe in Central Asia
          1. Great Game – Britain vs. Russia for control of the stans
            1. Russia wants warm water port – Indian Ocean
              1. nationalistic pride, resources (cotton), strategic policy – border
            2. British afraid they could then get Middle East/India
            3. Locked in game of espionage/intrigue – put nations on tense relationship
              1. The “Great Game” resulted
        9. Europe in the Middle East
          1. The “Eastern Question” – how to fill in void of failing Ottoman Empire
            1. Ottoman Empire seen as non-threat, predictable, held together volatile area
              1. To destroy might lead to chaos or stronger/more hostile state
            2. European countries didn’t trust each other
              1. Who would step up and take advantage of situation?
            3. Solution – nothing drastic – prop Empire up to keep it in survival
              1. Helped out Greek independence – after lengthy delay
              2. Helped Ottomans put down Muhammad Ali in Egypt
              3. Helped Turks fight Russians in Crimean War – 1856
            4. Growing conflict in Balkans – seeking independence
              1. Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria want autonomy
            5. Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878 – Balkan states get independence
              1. Russians then beat Ottoman Empire
              2. But…forced to give more peaceful terms to Ottomans
                1. Congress of Berlin – 1878 – Europe pressures Russia
            6. Young Turks – pro-Western army officers
              1. Took control of empire in 1908
              2. Deposed Sultan – created parliamentary government
              3. Modernized military, aligned selves with Germany
              4. Social, economic, and political reforms
          2. French/British/Spanish take parts of North Africa
            1. Ottomans unable to make sure N. Africa follows Istanbul mandates
            2. Napoleon in 1798 tries to cut off Europeans from India – attacks Egypt
              1. Creates era of chaos
            3. Egypt – Muhammad Ali revolt 1805 took over Egypt from Ottomans
              1. Western-style military, modernized agricultural production – cotton
              2. Recruited large number of Europeans to teach skills – transform Egypt
              3. But…when he starts to expand empire
                1. France and Britain step in…no one can topple Ottomans
                2. Convinced Ali to be happy with Egypt – still weakened Ottoman
            4. N. Africa now cut off from Ottoman Empire – goes to Europe
              1. French – Algeria – 1830 – most important French colony
                1. Like India to Britain
                2. 150,000 colonists
              2. French – Tunisia
              3. Morocco – French then Spanish
              4. Libya - Italy
          3. Egypt goes under control of British after they paid off debts – got control of Suez Canal
            1. Ali’s grandson Isma’il decides to continue reforms
              1. Build canal across Suez land – link Mediterranean to Red Sea
              2. Built schools and hospitals
            2. Canal not a benefit to Egypt
              1. Built by French engineer, British/French companies
              2. Thousands of Egyptians died in construction
              3. Most shares in canal owned by British/French
              4. Britain owns so much they feel they have say in Egyptian economics
            3. When Britain helps put down 1881 military revolt
              1. They essentially control region – protectorate
                1. Anglo-Egyptian Administration – yeah right…Britain calls shots
            4. Britain expands south to the Sudan
              1. After humiliating defeat by Mahdi and followers
              2. Horatio Kitchener comes in and massacres thousands with machine guns
          4. Persia
            1. Russia and Britain divide up Safavid empire – spheres of influence
              1. Russia gets North, Britain gets South
              2. Britain pour in a ton of money when oil is discovered
        10. Europe in Latin America
          1. Compared to Africa
            1. Boundary lines determined away from the scene
              1. Total disregard for societies that existed before
            2. Multiple countries held claims
            3. Governed by direct rule – except for British – granted a bit more autonomy
              1. Europeans sent in to occupy positions of authority
            4. Native traditions something to overcome, not something to be tolerated
              1. Not something to be developed
            5. Different than in China where priority was making money
              1. Not really concerned about changing entire cultures
            6. Comparing reactions to European imperialism
          2. China vs. India
            1. India – multiple Europeans traded, but British eventually dominate
              1. China – British dominated, gave way to most of Europe
            2. India – British establish colony – running government/improving infrastructure
              1. China – Europe/Japan wanted trade benefits – no government
            3. Independence movements – India targeted British
              1. China targeted Manchu Dynasty
        11. Europe in Europe
          1. “Long Peace” between 1871 and 1914, but tensions getting worse
          2. Destabilizing factors in European balance of power
            1. Nationalism – patriotism turned aggressive
            2. Competition over empire – fewer places to expand
            3. Ambitious nature of German foreign policy
              1. Wanted equal military and imperial status to older nations
              2. Openly aggressive and forceful in pursuing goals
              3. Had industrial/military power to back threats
          3. Alliance system
            1. Didn’t keep peace but guaranteed all out war
            2. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
            3. Triple Entente
              1. Russia no longer friendly with Germany – joins with France
              2. Britain joins – threatened by Germany’s military/industry
            4. All pledged to go to war if two sides quarreled
            5. Only way to win is if you have a knock-out blow
              1. Von Schlieffen Plan – take out France first before Russia mobilizes
              2. Ends up failing
        12. Japanese Imperialism
          1. 17th and 18th centuries Japan successfully kept Europe out
            1. Developed highly ethnocentric, self-involved society
            2. Didn’t allow citizens to travel abroad
          2. 19th century proved too difficult
            1. 1853 –US Commodore Matthew Perry scared the heck out of Japanese
              1. Came on steamship
              2. Showed off big guns
              3. Japan realize isolation led to military/economic disadvantage
            2. Like China, Europe/US set up unfair trade treaties
            3. But…Japanese nationalists – aka samurai – were organized
              1. Put Emperor Meiji into power
          3. Meiji Restoration
            1. Era of Japanese westernization
              1. Japan emerges as world power
              2. 1870s building steamships/railroads
              3. 1876 samurai class abolished – universal military service of all males
            2. 1890s industrial/military power ready to show off
              1. Kept US and Europe checked
                1. Traded on more equal footing
              2. Extremely fast industrial revolution
            3. Expanding empire
              1. 1895 – Sino-Japanese – gain control of Taiwan and Korea
                1. Started as Korean peasant uprising – both took sides
              2. 1904 – Russo-Japanese War – kicked Russia out of Manchuria
                1. Asian power beat European power? Shocking!!!
                2. Japan annoyed with Russia’s expanding Trans-Siberian Railroad
                3. Surprise attack on Russia’s naval base at Port Arthur
                4. Smaller army, but closer – not transported 4000 miles
                5. Japan gets access to Liaotung Peninsula – w. of Korea
                  1. And…access to Manchuria
              3. Japan now has its sphere of influence – a world power
              4. Huge precedent
                1. First time in 500 years, non-Western power beat Wester
                2. No longer world’s dominant civilization
                3. Empires would start fading over course of the century
                4. Imperial ambitions spin out of control
          4. Meiji militarism and imperialism
            1. Nationalistic sentiment ran high during late 1800s > increased desire for empire
              1. State-sponsored religion of State Shintoism
                1. modern revival of Japan’s ancient faith
                2. emphasis on Japanese superiority
                3. veneration of emperor as descendant of gods
            2. Expanded due to need for markets – resource poor nation
        13. Ottoman Empire
          1. Began decline in 16th century
          2. Continually fought foreigners at borders
            1. Russians for Balkans, Black Sea, surrounding areas – warm water port
            2. Greece, Egypt, Arabia launched successful independence movements
          3. Britain and France provide military and financial support to prop up Ottoman Empire
            1. Fear their fall could lead to a Russian takeover of region
            2. Crimean War – 1853
            3. Britain gradually gains control of region
          4. Internal factors
            1. Mediocre rulers/governmental corruption
              1. Any sultan that tried to reform had opposition from traditional groups
                1. Armed forces – janissary-led refuse to change
                2. Refuse to lose their privileged position
              2. Attempts at reform
                1. Secularized to a degree
                  1. Pursued scientific knowledge in spite of clergy complaint
                2. Tanzimat reforms – 1839-1876
                  1. Religious tolerance for non-Muslims
                  2. Schools for Western science/technology
                  3. National telegraph/postal systems
                  4. Possible Constitution
                  5. Schools for women
                3. But…reforms alienated conservatives and not far enough liberals
        14. US Empire
          1. Monroe Doctrine - 1823
            1. Ensure Europe wouldn’t recolonize Americas
            2. US idea that used British navy to enforce
              1. British fear Spanish involvement so they’re more than willing to help
          2. Europe makes huge financial investments in Latin America
            1. But avoids territorial claims
          3. Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine – 1804
            1. Would maintain peace between Europe and Latin America over financial issues
              1. Europe goes to Venezuela with warships to collect debt
            2. Gave rise to anger in Latin America – US looks imperialistic
          4. Encourages Panama to revolt from Columbia
            1. US can then buy the rights to a canal – known as the Panama Canal
              1. Construction 1904-1914
          5. Spanish-American War
            1. US sympathizes with Cubans trying to break free from Spain
            2. Few months US defeats Spain in Cuba and Philippines
            3. US becomes world power
              1. Given territories in Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
              2. Two military based on Cuba, plus right to intervene if in trouble
          6. United States global importance
            1. Inspiring freedom – representative government and civil liberties
        15. Overall impact of imperialism
          1. Yes…pretty impressive – military expertise, technological mastery
            1. Brought extreme wealth to Europe and America
          2. But…Inseparable from bloodshed, racial prejudice, slavery and violence
          3. Colonization and influence left deep political scars around globe – still recovering from
          4. European foreign policy more aggressive second half of century
            1. Congress of Vienna fairly successful at keeping peace early on
            2. But…nationalism put premium on patriotic sentiment
            3. Competition over imperial possessions overseas
              1. Amount of desirable territory started to grow smaller
      8. Different cultural and political reactions
        1. Reform
        2. Resistance
        3. Rebellion
        4. Racism
        5. Nationalism
          1. Drove movements in Germany and Italy to unify
            1. Drove movements in Americas to declare independence
            2. Drove resistance to colonialism in India, China and Africa
            3. Drove Europeans to compete with each other to promote national pride by establishing colonies in the first place
            4. Drove Chinese peasant movements against Manch government
              1. Targeted for not being nationalistic enough
            5. Drove French to unite behind Napoleon to take over Europe
            6. Drove the Japanese to industrialize quickly
            7. Drove Egyptians to limit the power of the Ottomans
          2. By 1914, the world had become one where people identify strongly with nation
            1. Or with the dream of creating own nation
          3. Oppressors used nationalistic feelings to justify their superiority
          4. Oppressed used their nationalist feelings to justify their rebellion
          5. Jingoism – belligerent patriotism – British term
      9. Impact of changing European ideologies on colonial administrations
    Subject X2: 

    1914 - Present

    Notes that cover an entire section of World History and not just one particular chapter.

    1914 - Present702.5 KB
    Subject X2: 

    Demographic and environmental changes

    1914 to Present

    1. Demographic and environmental changes
      1. Migrations
        1. Forced migration due to Peace of Paris
          1. Turks moved back to Turkey from Southeastern Europe
          2. Greeks moved back to Greece from Ottoman Empire
        2. Latin America
          1. Massive Urbanization
          2. Immigration w/in and to US – legal and illegal
        3. Massive immigration
        4. Limited immigration at times
          1. US puts quotas on immigrants in 1920s
        5. Refugees displaced during WWII
          1. Nazis then communists push West
        6. Pull factors
          1. Economic opportunity
          2. Political repression
          3. Local violence – (often caused by Cold War policies)
        7. Breakup of empires
          1. Former colonial subjects migrated
        8. Guest workers to Europe from middle east – 15 million
        9. Collapse of communism led to massive migration from Eastern Europe
        10. Benefits
          1. Much-needed labor force
          2. Enriches diversity of nation
        11. Negatives
          1. Stirs up xenophobia – nativist movements
            1. Especially when economy is tight
        12. War years
          1. WWI - Death of 10 million Europeans – generation of men
            1. European women remain unmarried
            2. Lowered European birth rate
            3. Lowered population growth for future generations
            4. Bombings/troop movements destroyed cities, industry, agriculture
          2. WWII – killed another 35 million
            1. boundary changes – hundreds of thousands of refugees
        13. Postwar population changes
          1. Labor shortages – Western Europe seeks workers from outside
            1. “guest workers” came from W. Indies, N. Africa, Turkey, Pakistan
              1. Low wages, discrimination
              2. Labor not needed later
            2. US opens door to L. America/Asian immigrants
          2. Soviet Union – Muslim population growth threatened Russian culture
            1. Industrialization severely polluted half rivers, endangered farms
            2. Responsible for respiratory diseases and infant mortality
        14. Migration patterns
          1. 1980s – South Korea highest population density in the world
          2. Japan addressed increasing population w/ birth control/abortion
          3. Latin America – population explosion plus urbanization
            1. Newcomers live in shanty towns outside urban areas
            2. Sometimes settlements incorporated into city
            3. Migration huge seeking employment
            4. Migration to US to escape political oppression and warfare
          4. Divisions of countries
            1. Partition of Pakistan and India – hundreds of thousands displaced
            2. Arab-Israeli War – 1948 – hundreds of thousands Palestinians
            3. Africa and Balkans warfare/boundary changes = refugees
          5. Migration from South Asia/Arab to oil-producing nations
        15. Population growth
          1. Religious/cultural forbidding birth control
          2. Eradicate disease
          3. Improve sanitation
          4. Better diets
      2. Changes in birthrates
        1. Population Growth
          1. 1900 – 1.6 billion to 2000 – 6 billion
            1. Developed world – population growth tended to decline
            2. Developing world – population explosion
          2. However, overconsumption of food/energy/waste/pollution still comes from developed world
      3. Changes in death rates
      4. New forms of urbanization
        1. Latin America
          1. urbanized peasants fail to have access to industry
      5. Threats to the environment
        1. Deforestation
          1. Issue between developed and developing nations
            1. Developing say they need resources to spur economy
            2. Environmentalists want to save for all people – Amazon
          2. But…hypocritical because global warming/acid rain from developed nation
        2. Global warming
        3. Acid rain
        4. Warfare
          1. US chemical warfare in South Vietnam
          2. Saddam Hussein – spilled oil into Persian Gulf, oil fields on fire
      6. Green/environmental movements
        1. Social activism and the rise of nongovernmental organizations – NGOs
          1. Demonstrations, protests, strikes
          2. Social movements, student groups lobbied and protested
          3. Most famous – 1960s
            1. Protested Vietnam War, Civil Rights in the US
            2. Temporary reform in Czechoslovakia
            3. Loosening PRI’s control of Mexico
          4. Key role in peace movements, anti-nuclear arms movements
          5. Women’s liberation, environmental
        2. Environmentalism/conservatism always around
          1. Post-World War II gained prominence
            1. Pollution and industrialization threat to ecological well-being
            2. Literature – Silent Spring – 1962 – dangers of pesticides – DDT
          2. Earth Day popularized movement
          3. NGOs – Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund – famous/influential
          4. “Green Parties” – have more political power in Europe
        3. Green Revolution
          1. Increased crop yields – high-yield, disease resistant crops
            1. Also fertilizers, pesticides, efficient irrigation
          2. Controversy – use of pesticides/fertilizer that cause cancer
            1. Only available to wealthy landowners
          3. Reactions to environmental/population issues
            1. Egypt – Presiden Nasser – Aswan Dam
              1. More farmland, but – blindness, salt in soil, lose Nile silt
            2. China – policies to limit family size
              1. One child per family
              2. But infanticide, abortion, sterilization
              3. Family members hide children in rulral areas
            3. Identified chemicals that cause ozone depletion
              1. Anti-pollution devices in cars, planes, industrial smokestacks
      7. Terrorism
        1. Since WWI – Gabrio Princip – political desires sought through terrorism
          1. Palestinian Liberation Organization
          2. Irish Republican Army
          3. Red Brigades
          4. anti-Israelis – Hamas and Hezbollah
        2. Osama bin Laden takes it to an all new level
    Subject X2: 

    Diverse interpretations

    1914 to Present

    1. Diverse interpretations
      1. Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the twentieth century?
        1. Cultural convergence
          1. Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution all move toward globalization
          2. Led to certain ways of thinking attractive and accepted by different people
            1. People agreed on how universe/government organized
          3. Speed of globalization picked up in 20th century
            1. transportation, communication, imperialism
            2. same multinational corporations everywhere – McDonaldization
            3. Interconnectedness of economies
            4. Economic downturn one place affects everywhere
          4. So…it looks like convergence
            1. Similar gov’ts – independent, democratic, constitution
            2. economic – stock market, low barriers to trade, strong banking
            3. cultures – educated people w/ English, Hollywood movies, cellfone
        2. Globalization doesn’t mean convergence
          1. Everything is spread around world, doesn’t mean everyone accepts
            1. Not everyone likes or wants, just available
          2. Could lead to larger # of people who lash out, resist – aggressive/violent
          3. Islamic Fundamentalist countries and historical identity – France
          4. Also, self determination and nationalism huge part of 20th century
            1. People want to chart own course
            2. Europe no longer rules the world
      2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using units of analysis in the twentieth century, such as the nation, the world, the West, and the Third World?
    Subject X2: 

    Global balance of power

    1914 to Present

    1. Global balance of power
      1. Reduction of European influence
        1. 1940s to 1970s – mass wave of decolonization
          1. Europe deprived of its empires
        2. Nations become free
      2. The League of Nations
        1. Hurt by American Congress refusal to ratify
        2. Well-meaning, but impotent to enforce plans
        3. Accomplished a great deal of humanitarian work
        4. Attempts to maintain peace and don’t fight wars
          1. Countries sign Treaty of Locarno and Kellogg-Briand Pact – outlaw war
        5. Original charter
          1. collective security for member nations
          2. disarmament
          3. arbitration of international disputes
      3. The United Nations
        1. Responsibility for settling postwar problems
        2. Led by five Allied victors – US, USSR, Great Britain, France, Republic of China
          1. Permanent members of Security Council
          2. All most vote “yes” for substantive measures
        3. Established relief agencies and peacekeeping missions
        4. US took on many of the costs – leading superpower/wealthiest nation
        5. Structure of UN
          1. Security Council – New York – keeping peace
          2. International Court of Justice – Hague – Netherlands
          3. Secretariat – administration – New York
          4. General Assembly – debate – New York
          5. Economic Social Council
            1. UNESCO – science/culture, UNICEP, children
            2. ILO – labor issues, WHO – global health, UNHCR – refugees
        6. Nations join voluntarily
          1. Cannot pass laws, but raise issues and suggest resolutions
        7. UN responses to military aggression
          1. Diplomatic protest and pressure
          2. Economic sanctions
          3. Collective military action by member states
        8. Declaration of Universal Human Rights – basic human rights of all people
      4. The Non-Aligned Nations
        1. Nonaligned movement – 110 nations – 1961
          1. Mostly developing nations seek to cooperate on political, economic, culture
      5. Post Cold War
        1. One superpower – United States
        2. Alliances and coalitions constantly shifting
        3. China increasing in power
        4. New kind of war – terrorism against citizens of enemy nations
          1. Islamic fundamentalism led to September 11, WTC bombing
    Subject X2: 


    1914 to Present

    1. Globalization
      1. Science and technology
        1. Advancement coming at breathtaking pace
          1. Innovative physics, biotechnology, rocketry, electronics, computers
            1. Physics
              1. Albert Einstein – theory of relativity
              2. Quantum physics
              3. Atomic theory
              4. Altered understanding of astronomy
              5. Led to atomic weaponry/nuclear energy
            2. Rocketry/space science
              1. German scientists initiated research – missiles
              2. Nuclear arms race sped up research
              3. Led to satellite communication
            3. Computer
              1. Most significant postwar invention
              2. Computers and components – microchips altered a ton
              3. How people communicate, transact business, analyze data
              4. Keep records, perform medical procedures
              5. But…with ease of usage…privacy becomes an issue
            4. Internet
              1. Originally – 1960s – method of integrating gov’t, business and academic computers
              2. WWW > “global village”
              3. “digital divide” those with computer technology vs. w/out
            5. Biotechnology and genetic science
              1. DNA – James Watson and Francis Crick – 1953
              2. Unprecedented gains – how human body works
              3. Genetic theory led to medical advances
              4. Power to clone human beings – controversial
          2. Full industrialization – world moved to petroleum/electricity primary energy
          3. Instant network becomes catalyst for international integration
            1. Boundaries of civilization not as clear – easy to surpass
            2. Able to link people with common interests, but geographically separated
      2. Culture
        1. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art
        2. Might make nation-state fade away
        3. Mass media/mass communications transform cultural sphere
          1. Now cinema, radio, television, electronic media make art
          2. Used to make music, literature, art for popular audience
          3. Inexpensive production of mass quantity of books, tv, music, drama
            1. Brought to more people than ever before
          4. But...
            1. Art dumbed down to satisfy taste of the masses
            2. Media used for propaganda, brain-washing
              1. Political or marketing purposes
          5. Westernize the pop culture of entire world
            1. American Jass and Hollywood alluring
            2. Disney, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola – recognizable all over world
          6. Technology made cultural exchange possible
            1. CDs, records, tapes
              1. Teenagers in 1960s could buy music from around world
        4. Bold experimentation
          1. Distortion/abandonment of traditional norms
        5. First 2/3 of century – pessimistic/uncertainty
          1. Optimism of 1800s replaced, especially after WWI
          2. Literature deals w/ dehumanization of industrial world
          3. Stream of consciousness prose – abstract mind
          4. abstract painters distort reality – Picasso anyone
          5. Surrealists – realistic objects in unrealistic situations
          6. Existententialism – you’re on your own – no deity
        6. Today – exuberance/energy of pop culture
        7. Postmodern Art
        8. Computers/Internet lead to information revolution
        9. Ease of travel – jet engines – able to explore other cultures
        10. Art and Literature in the Non-Western world
          1. non-western artists adapt, modify and add native elements to western form
          2. Artists oftentimes speak for the people/illustrate their plight
            1. Digeo Rivera – Mexico – urban poor in paintings
            2. Lu Xun – China – gov’t fails to take care of poor/fight off foreigners
            3. Rabindranath Tagore – Hindu religious concepts
          3. Common themes
            1. Problems of decolonization, resisting US cultural hegemony
            2. Political opposition to oppressive regime
            3. Some even criticize Islamic conservatism – dangerous idea
        11. After WWI
          1. Mass consumerism – especially household appliances, automobiles
            1. Automobile decreased isolation – created teenage years
          2. Women turned to shorter skirts, hairstyles, free behavior expression
          3. Movie industry – artistic expression + entertainment
          4. Art – new style cubism
          5. Architecture – new uses of concrete and glass
          6. New skepticism
        12. After WWII
          1. Women – higher divorce, effective birth control, NOW founded
          2. 1960s – Civil rights US plus anti-war movement
          3. 1970s and 1980s – people questioned welfare state
            1. Programs decreased
            2. Economic/educational opportunities spread
        13. Culture around the world
          1. Soviet Union
            1. Soviet schools taught religion as myth, western style as decadent
            2. Factories made heavy goods, not consumer goods
            3. Spreading industrialization led to increase in movies, sports, TV
            4. 1960s West and Soviets exchange culture
            5. USSR focuses on sports and kills everybody at Olympics
          2. Japan
            1. In 1920s experienced mass consumerism
            2. After WWII, women’s suffrage no more Shintoism national religion
            3. Social security for elderly
            4. After US occupation, gov’t takes over control of student textbooks
            5. Traditions such as tea ceremony, Kabuki, No theater continue
            6. Work schedules – less leisure time than US
              1. But…baseball becomes popular
          3. China
            1. After May Fourth Movement – women get more rights
              1. Footbinding outlawed
              2. Wider educational/career opportunities
            2. Guomindang tries to reduce role of women
            3. Communists give women larger role in revolution
              1. Women can bear arms
              2. Since 1949 – women expected to work outside of home also
          4. Latin America
            1. After Mexican Revolution – murals became big – Diego Rivera
              1. Scenes from revolutions blended with folk culture
            2. Majority Catholic, but Protestant denominations spread
            3. Women retain their traditional role
              1. By end of 20th century, women controlled small businesses
              2. Become active in politics
          5. Africa
            1. Women get suffrage in new constitutions
              1. Some even given political positions – reward for role
            2. Early marriage continued
          6. Global Culture
            1. Western dominated global culture
              1. Produced disapproval in East Asian/Islamic cultures
            2. English language of commerce/Internet
            3. Western appreciation for science spread
            4. Higher emphasis on monetary wealth, education, profession
              1. Not so much on land ownership/inherited position
            5. But…some traditions continue
              1. India still holds to caste restrictions
              2. Women suffrage widespread, patriarchal societies exist
            6. Global culture still has regional traditions/characteristics
      3. Patterns of Resistance
        1. Religious Responses
        2. Huge conflict between forces of traditionalism vs. forces of change
          1. China – 1919
            1. Gov’t wants to revert to traditional Confucian values
            2. Students want democracy, technology, science
            3. Stage protests – Tiananmen Square – Beijing
              1. May Fourth Movement – because Japan annexed China
    Subject X2: 

    Impact of Major Global Economic Developments

    1914 to Present

    1. Impact of Major Global Economic Developments
      1. The Great Depression
        1. Destroyed Europe and Latin America
          1. Reliant on American loans to recover from war
          2. Wave of bank failures has ripple effect around worlds’ banks
        2. Less effect on Africa and Asia
          1. Japan turns to military government – replaces civilian
          2. Needed natural resources – searches out territories
        3. International trade before WWII
          1. Sparked wave of protectionism
            1. Nations tried to shield industry and farms by imposing high tariffs
              1. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act – 1930
              2. Spread Depression to Europe, L. America, Asia
              3. Destroyed ability to export to United States
        4. International Trade Before WWII
          1. Trade had existed long before 20th century
          2. Scope of trade grew between WWI and Great Depression
        5. Causes of the global depression
          1. overdependence on American loans and buying
          2. Increase in tariffs and protectionism
          3. Industrial and farming surpluses leading to deflation
          4. Poor banking management
          5. World War I
            1. Expensive - $180 billion on war, $150 billion to rebuild
            2. Capitalism financed war
            3. Financial headquarters shifts from London to New York
              1. US lent Europe tons of money
                1. France in huge debt
                  1. Bolsheviks refuse to pay off war debts
                  2. Germany owes French tons of money
                2. Germany in huge debt – war + reparations
                  1. Borrows from US to pay French
              2. Problem…these loans could never be repaid
            4. Stock Market crash, bank failures – no more credit to Europe
        6. Impact
          1. Political extremism
            1. Communist say capitalism is a mess
            2. Fascists want to protect enterprise and promote their nation
      2. Technology
        1. Move toward postindustrial economies
          1. Less on manufacturing, more on service, information, computers
      3. Post World War II Policies – assistance by the superpowers
        1. Rebuilding Europe after WWII
          1. Soviet Bloc – COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
            1. Economies nationalized/centrally planned
            2. Collectivization under state control
            3. Massive industrialization
            4. “socialist division of labor” – every nation focuses in a few areas
            5. Soviet welfare systems
              1. education, medical care, pensions
            6. Poor quality consuper goods
            7. Focus on heavy industry/weapons
            8. Maintained through political repression
          2. Western Europe – Marshall Plan – European Recovery Plan
            1. A “miracle” – helped prevent the spread of communism
            2. W. Germany rose from ruins – European economic powerhouse
            3. Technical innovation – move to postindustrial world
            4. Put into place social welfare systems
            5. Created “third way” – blend of capitalism and social-welfare
          3. Free trade key to economic prosperity – and world peace
            1. FD Roosevelt – believed in John Maynard Keynes – Keynsian
            2. Nations that economically interacted less likely to go to war
            3. Met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
              1. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
                1. World Bank
              2. International Monetary Fund
            4. 1958 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
            5. USSR refused to join “Bretton Woods System”
              1. They are cut off from world trade
            6. Currency exchanges fixed on US dollar > based on gold standard
          4. Prosperity, modernization, recovery in Europe/Japan amazing
            1. Western Europe develops economic unions to protect/build Europe
              1. European Coal and Steel Community
              2. European Economic Community
              3. European Union
      4. Pacific Rim
      5. Multinational Corporations
        1. International trade increases
        2. Huge conglomerates though technically “from” a single country
          1. Maintained factories, subsidiaries, distribution networks around the world
          2. Employing foreign workers
          3. Selling directly to foreign markets
        3. Groundwork laid in 1980s and 1990s…but internet/communication/transporation made easier
        4. Criticism
          1. Exploiting regional labor
          2. Harming regional environments
          3. Preventing host economies from producing homegrown industries/mfg goods
      6. Regional diplomatic alliances
        1. European Union
          1. Out with divisive nationalism, support for union
            1. Enables Europe to boost economic strength
            2. Increase its diplomatic clout
            3. Work together to prevent war/political extremism
          2. First steps – economic
            1. 1952 – Six Nations – European Coal and Steel Company
              1. Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy, France, W. Germ
            2. 1957 – Treaty of Rome – European Economic Community
              1. Common Market
              2. Eliminate internal tariffs
                1. Encourage free movement of money, goods, services, labor
              3. Gradually added Britain, Ireland, Denmark
              4. 15 members by 1990s
              5. Monetary union - Euro
        2. Association of Southeast Asian Nations – ASEAN
          1. Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore
          2. Mostly diplomatic in nature, but tightened economic ties
        3. 1991 – African Economic Community
          1. Mimics many goals of European Union –see above
        4. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
          1. determines supply/demand
          2. Most successful and influential international coalitions in history
          3. Industrial Revolution huge boon to Middle East – sitting on 2/3 of oil
          4. When they cut prices in 1970s – billions of extra dollars to accounts
            1. Saudi Arabia uses to modernize infrastructure
          5. Since 1970s, tough to keep in line, someone always breaks deal
            1. Individual nations still have huge power
        5. Soviet Union and allies and China remained relatively isolated
      7. Economic Crisis – West in the 1970s
        1. West in the 1970s
          1. Energy shortages
            1. Oil embargo of 1973 damaged economy
          2. Recession
          3. Unemployment
          4. Slowdown of the West
          5. Stagflation – rare combination of inflation and stagnation
        2. Eastern Europe
          1. Difficult transition from communism to capitalism
        3. Devaluing of the U.S. Dollar
          1. Detached money from gold standard > monetary instability
        4. Eastern Bloc not killed by OPEC’s embargo, but…
          1. Inefficiency
          2. Food shortages
          3. Cost of the arms race
          4. Governmental corruption
        5. 1971 – Nixon takes US off the gold standard
      8. Economic Globalization During the 1990s
        1. Causes
          1. Chronologically/causally linked to fall of Soviet Union
          2. Linked to democratization of the developing world
          3. Explosion of computer technology/Internet activity
            1. Electronic transfer of money
        2. Group of Seven – G-7, then G-8
          1. US, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Russia
          2. Meet more often
        3. World Trade Organization (WTO) – regulates economic interaction of 100+ nation
        4. Regional economic unions more important
          1. North American Free Trade Agreement – NAFTA
          2. Western Europe – Maastricht Treaty
            1. Common monetary system
            2. Creation of single currency
            3. Establishment of European Central Bank
            4. Common policy making for
              1. Immigration
              2. Environmental protection
              3. Foreign affairs and security issues
        5. Benefits of Globalization
          1. Created great wealth/led to prosperity
          2. Free trade helps to preserve peace
        6. Costs of Globalization
          1. So interconnected – negative trend sin one region adversely affect world
          2. Nations unwilling to turn of economic policies to WTO
          3. Leads to constant state of change/economic instability
            1. Seeking profits, corporations constantly moving to cheap production
              1. Relocating to new city/country
                1. Best tax benefits
                2. Most lenient environmental standards
                3. Cheapest labor
              2. Negative effects
                1. lowering of wages
                2. Sudden unemployment
                3. Social stress
          4. Farmers can’t compete with cheap food from other countries
          5. Homogenizing effects o nculture
            1. Indigenous cultures crushed
            2. Replaced with foreign, American, pop culture and values
        7. Major themes of 20th century economics
          1. active commercial and trade interactions in every region
          2. Great Depression – impact of decline of trade one region on others
            1. National tariffs in US weakened global trade
          3. Price/supply manipulations by oil-producing nations affect globe
          4. After communism, more nations implement free-market economies
          5. Regional trade associations organized to facilitate trade
          6. Mass consumerism created truly global marketplace
        8. Global trade by region
          1. Middle East
            1. 1960 OPEC founded to regulate oil prices, control distribution
            2. Southwest Asia joins international drug trade
          2. Asia
            1. 1920s – Japanese silk exports reduced – US synthetic fibres
            2. Interwar period – China prospered in global drug trade
              1. Southeast Asian rubber exports damaged
              2. Vietnam became one of leading rice exporters
                1. But…monoculture left them hungry
            3. Japan’s regional empire supplies food/raw materials
            4. 1960s/1970s – Japanese electronics/cars cut into US market
            5. 1970s – Korea produces cheap textiles, steel, automobiles
            6. 1970s – Taiwan joins global textile trade
            7. 1980s – Hong Kong exports clothing/heavy industry
            8. Singapore 4th largest port
            9. Indonesia exports exotic woods
            10. Korea exports automobiles, supertankers, electronics
          3. Africa
            1. After WWI, Africa has no money to purchase industrial goods
            2. South African miners prosper from gold/copper mines
            3. After WWII – rely on sale of minerals/cash crops
              1. Constant fluctuation in prices hurts economic growth
            4. Nigeria – oil-producing country, member of OPEC
            5. Africa exports native art
          4. Europe
            1. During WWI, Europe surrenders export dominance to US/Japan
            2. Eastern Europe remained agricultural, exported to W. Europe
            3. 1958 – European Economic Community (Common Market)
              1. Reduces tariffs between
              2. Common tariff policy for other world nations
              3. Renamed European Union in 1990s
              4. 2002 – member nations accept Euro
                1. Britain the exception
          5. Latin America
            1. WWI/European trade brought prosperity to L. America
              1. Forced import substitution industrialization
                1. Have to make up for lack of European imports
            2. Great Depression kills export economy
            3. US Cuba’s leading trade partner till 1959 – fluctuation in world demand altered price
              1. Cuba’s economy tied to USSR after Cuban Revolution
              2. Economy falls apart after USSR dissolved
            4. Colombia major participant in international drug trade
            5. Brazil exports exotic woods
            6. Venezuela – member of OPEC, Mexico produces oil
          6. North America
            1. WWI -= US becomes creditor nation, huge exports
            2. US exports reach the world
              1. Food, wheat, corn, fast foods
            3. NAFTA – 1994 – abolished tariffs between US, Canada, Mexico
            4. 1999 – Seattle – demonstrators protest World Trade Organization
            5. US + advertising led to worldwide diffusion of products/culture
    Subject X2: 

    Impact on the Global Framework

    1914 to Present

    1. Impact on the Global Framework
      1. World War I – The Great War
        1. Causes
          1. Long term causes
            1. Competition over empire
              1. race for colonies in Africa, India and Southeast Asia
              2. Delicate balance of power after Congress of Vienna eroding
            2. Anglo-German rivalry over empire
              1. Germans jealous of Britain’s navy/empire
            3. Industrial competition
            4. Naval superiority
            5. Rising intensity of nationalism in Europe
              1. Especially in Balkans
              2. Russification – insistence on acceptance of Russian Culture
                1. Led to Pan-Slavic Movement
                  1. Bring all Slavic nations into commonwealth
                  2. Russia would be at the head
            6. Alliance system
              1. Two sides locked into place – Entente vs. Alliance
                1. Triple Entente – France, Russia, Britain
                  1. Britain’s commitment informal, but honored
                2. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
                  1. Italy changes sides
            7. France – German bitter
              1. French wanted to avenge humiliation of Prussian War – 1870
                1. Loss of land – Alsace-Lorraine
                2. Loss of Morrocco
              2. Both countries want a military rematch
            8. Austria – Italy
              1. Italy – Northern Territories controlled by Hapsburgs theirs
                1. Want war to bring these territories back
              2. Russia – Austria
                1. Austria controls domains with Slavic minorities
                2. Leading Slavic nation – felt paternal feelings to
                  1. Czechs, Bulgars, Bonsians
            9. Short term causes
              1. Balkans – “powder keg of Europe”
              2. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and wife Sophie
                1. Heir to Austrian throne
              3. Sarajevo had been annexed by Austria
                1. Serbs living there and in independent Serbia angry
                2. Bosnian student – Gavrio Princip – Black Hand
              4. Austria’s ultimatum – show Serbia who has more power
                1. Series of humiliating demands – declare war if not followed
              5. Slavic Russia – “big brother” to the Serbs
              6. Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm II – German support for any action
              7. France has to aid Russia
              8. So…July 28, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia
                1. Russia, Germany start mobilizing
                2. By August 4, major players at war
          2. War
            1. Up to 1/3 of world’s productivity going toward war
            2. Two sides
              1. Triple Entente – the Allies – Britain, France, Russia + colonies
                1. US joins in 1917
                2. Italy switches when promised Austrian territory
            3. The Beginning of the War
              1. The Schlieffen Plan – quick destruction of France
                1. Avoid two-front war
                2. Austria couldn’t have long war – would lose
                3. Germany – 75% of army against France
                  1. Illegal invasion of Belgium on the way to France
                    1. Brought Britain into war
                    2. Hurts Germany’s reputation
                      1. Propaganda – “barbarians””huns”
                4. 25% of army + Austrians hold off Russia
                5. Plan failed
                  1. Belgians fought back
                  2. Russians mobilized quickly
                  3. French army made stand at Marne River
            4. The Fronts
              1. Western Front
                1. Stalemate, evenly matched with numbers and weaponry
                2. Charging the enemy pointless
                  1. artillery, machine guns, modern rifles
                3. Trench warfare
                  1. 500 miles of trenches, bunkers, barbed wire
                  2. Exceptionally bloody combat with little movement
                  3. Gross conditions – lice, rats, disease, corpses
                4. 1917 – change in tactics/weaponry
              2. Eastern Front
                1. Much longer front – over a thousand miles
                2. Decisive battles
                  1. Germans and Austrians won initially
                    1. Hundreds thousands miles Russian territory
                  2. Russia cut off from allies
                    1. Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join
            5. Naval warfare and the use of submarines
              1. No traditional ship to ship battles
              2. British Royal Navy imposed blockade
              3. Germany responds with submarine warfare
                1. Economic damage to Britain – island nation – imports
                2. But…killed neutral boats, civilians, nations
                  1. Backfires, brings US into war
            6. Global Dimensions
              1. Started due to empire, spread throughout empire
              2. Former British colonies/dominions declare war
                1. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
              3. 5 million Africans involved
                1. Fought Germans in Africa
                2. Helped with infrastructure
                3. Brought to Western Front – thought of as cannibals
              4. Indian Sepoys and Nepalese Gurkhas in Middle East
              5. Japan took over German island colonies
              6. Austrialia/New Zealand try to take Ottoman Empire
                1. Gallipoli a failure
              7. Ottoman Empire
                1. Lawrence of Arabia
                  1. Convinces Arabs to rise against Ottoman Empire
                2. Armenian genocide – first genocide of century
                  1. 500,000 > 2 million killed
            7. War’s last stages
              1. 1917 turning point
                1. Combatants exhausted
                2. Germany turns to unrestricted submarine warfare
                  1. Knock out Britain
                    1. Works – Britain down to 6 weeks of food
                  2. But…diplomatically causes problems
                    1. US pulled into war
                3. Zimmerman Note – angers US
                  1. Germany tries to convince Mexico to join war
                4. Russia falling part
                  1. Tsarist regime falls apart
                  2. Army in full retreat/mass desertions
                  3. Lenin’s Communist takeover – pulls out of war
                  4. Germany sends troops to Western Front
              2. 1918 – who’s faster
                1. Germany moving troops to the West
                2. American getting involved in the war
                3. Germany has massive offensive against France
                  1. Allies hold strong – fight back
                4. War ends on November 11, 1918
            8. The Home Front
              1. Total war
                1. Must involve nations, mobilize all resources
                2. Affected civilian populations deeply
              2. Conscription
                1. Drafted more than 70 million people
              3. Economic Mobilization and Rationing
                1. Industry geared for war
                  1. Raw material needed
                    1. iron, steel, oil, rubber, cloth
                  2. Uniforms, weapons, tanks, aircraft, ships
                2. Agricultural production increased
                  1. Civilian populations needed
                3. Women needed
                4. Private enterprise coordinated/controlled by state
                5. Food, consumer goods, strategic materials rationed
                6. By 1918, running out of supplies
                  1. Russians sent in barefoot without weapons
              4. Restrictions on Civil Liberties
                1. Imposed censorship on press, mass media, mail
                2. Suspected of espionage or treason
                  1. Arrested, tried, sentences w/out due process
                3. All political parties agree to unite
                4. If you’re pessimistic or not patriotic enough
                  1. Might be traitor
              5. Women and the War Effort
                1. Most significant impact
                2. Greater production needed – but less men
                  1. Farms, factories, workplaces
                3. Economic contributions huge
                  1. 1.35 million women in Britain
                  2. 38% of Krupp – arms producer – employees
                  3. France – minimum wage to women
          3. Effects
            1. Europe’s position badly weakened
              1. But..retained its overseas empires for three more decades
              2. Had reached zenith of position between 1870>1914
            2. Butcher’s Bill
              1. 30 nations involved
              2. 40 million casualties, 10 million killed
              3. 3-5 million civilians – disease, starvation, military action
            3. Shattered four great empires
              1. German Reich
              2. Russia’s tsarist regime
              3. Austria-Hungary’s Habsburg dynasty
              4. Ottoman Empire
            4. Shift in cultural attitudes
              1. Spirit of optimism and faith vanished
                1. Replaced with fear, anxiety, gloom
              2. European’s view of themselves as civilized, culturally superior
                1. Just a bit shattered
            5. US emerges as leader
              1. Actually benefits from war
              2. Geographically untouched
            6. Social changes
              1. Final decline of the aristocracy
              2. Rise of the middle and lower classes
              3. Democratization of European politics
              4. Complete industrialization and modernization of Europ economies
              5. Women’s suffrage
            7. Independence movements around the world
              1. Colonial possessions becoming restless
              2. Not if they’d be independent, but when and how
            8. Paris Peace Conference
              1. Participants
                1. All Allied Nations invited, Central Powers left out
                2. Five treaties for each defeated nation
                  1. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman
                3. Treaty of Versailles – agreement w/ Germany
                  1. Agreed to on June 28, 1919
              2. Ideological disagreements
                1. American idealism vs. European desire for revenge
                  1. Wilson – make world “safe for democracy”
                    1. Fourteen Points
                      1. End to secret treaties
                      2. Freedom of the seas
                      3. Arms reduction
                      4. Decolonization
                      5. Self-determination
                      6. League of Nations – for disputes
                  2. Clemenceau – make Germany pay
                    1. Feared Germany rising again
                    2. Justify human/financial cost of war
                  3. Italy wanted Austrian land/German colonies
                2. European victors opposed decolonization
            9. Terms of the Treaties
              1. League of Nations created, but US Congress doesn’t ratify
              2. Fourteen Points watered down or ignored
              3. Main points
                1. Dismantling of Austria-Hungary – split and lost territory
                2. New nations from Hapsburg Empire – “self determination”
                  1. Yugoslovia, Czech, Poland, Finland, Latvia
                  2. Lithuania, Estonia
                3. Italy gets some of Austrian Empire – Tyrol
                  1. But not Adriatic Coast stuff
                4. Forced immigration
                  1. Turks moved to Ottoman Empire
                  2. Greeks moved back to Greece
                5. Middle East
                  1. Ottoman Empire stripped of possessions
                  2. Arab lands temporarily controlled by France/Britain
                    1. Mandate system supervised by League of Na
                  3. Arabs annoyed – thought granted independence
                  4. Britain takes control of Palestine
                    1. Balfour Declaration
                    2. Delayed creating Jewish homeland
              4. Treaty of Versailles
                1. War guilt – Article 231 – Germany must accept full blame
                2. Loss of territory
                  1. Lost 13% of territory, 6 million people
                  2. Alsace and Lorraine go to France
                  3. Poland, Belgium, Denmark get land also
                  4. Rhineland to remain demilitarized forever
                3. Loss of colonies – all colonies taken – controlled by Allies
                4. Disarmament – No military aircraft, submarines, battleships
                  1. Only small artillery and 100,000 soldiers
                5. War payments – reparations
                  1. Germany pay for full cost of war - $32 billion (400)
                  2. War payments until 1961
            10. Problems of Paris Peace Conference
              1. Made out of greed/revenge
              2. Ignorant creation of Eastern European nations – fall into chaos
              3. Harsh treatment (economic especially) of Germany would anger
            11. Long Term Effects
              1. Countless people made homeless/stateless
              2. Global epidemic of Spanish flu – 20 million people killed in world
              3. Destruction of eastern and central European empires
              4. Communism in Russia
              5. Instability in Eastern Europe – economic/political chaos
              6. social transformation – death to aristocracy
              7. Women’s suffrage – proved could do “man’s work”
              8. German resentment at peace treaty – anger
              9. General decline of European economic/global power
                1. Hard to control global empires, some lost them
              10. Sense of uncertainty and anxiety – loss of faith in progress
              11. Separation of ethnic groups across several nation-states
                1. Led to World War II
              12. Russia lost Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia Poland from its territory
              13. European colonialism didn’t end – former German territories become mandates
            12. Outcomes
              1. Britain destroyed – lost youth, debts, empire tired and a burden
              2. France – nation blasted flat, war widows/amputees everywhere
              3. Japan – fought for Allies, disappointed at Versailles
                1. Postwar economic downturn led to political/econ problems
                2. Couldn’t keep territory won from Germany
              4. Italy – didn’t receive as much land as they wanted
              5. United States – elevated to world power status, but doesn’t want it
              6. China – entered war late, lost land to Japan
              7. Russia – fell apart, Civil War (Reds vs. Whites), USSR formed
              8. Germany – economically/politically destroyed
            13. Monarchy gone, but Weimar Republic not trusted/legitimate
      2. World War II
        1. Causes
          1. Aggression on part of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, militaristic Japan
            1. Initially aggression met with passive response – appeasement
              1. Depression a killer
              2. Want to avoid another WWI
              3. League of Nations useless
          2. Hitler’s steps to war
            1. Ignores Versailles
              1. Rebuilds army
              2. Puts troops in Rhineland (supposed to be demilitarized)
            2. Supports Fascist govt in Spain
              1. Stalin goes it alone – annoyed with Brits/US
              2. Anti-Comintern Pact – anti-communism – Axis Powers
            3. Annexes Austria – Anschluss – “union”
            4. Sudetenland – Munich Agreement – takes rest of Czechoslovakia
              1. Pinnacle of appeasement
              2. Chamberlain looks like an idiot – “peace in our time”
              3. Stalin believes Britain/France bumbling idiots
                1. Signs secret deal w/ Hitler
                  1. Agree to not fight, divide up Poland
              4. Hitler looks smart when he takes rest of Czec
          3. Japan’s steps to war
            1. military takes control of government
            2. Takes Manchuria – renames Manchuko – Pu Yi as emperor
            3. Japan invades mainland China – commits a ton of atrocities
            4. Japanese fight in Siberia – undeclared war
            5. Japan attacks US Pearl Harbor
            6. starts taking over Southeast Asia – kicking out European colonist
          4. Economic causes
            1. huge reparations paid by Germany
            2. spiraling inflation in Germany
            3. decrease in prices for farm products, especially US
            4. collapse of the US Stock Market
            5. deepening worldwide depression
            6. Japan lacked energy resources for industrial development
          5. Political problems
            1. anger and frustration over the peace treaty – Hitler/Mussolini
        2. War
          1. New Technology
            1. Unlike WWI, not defensive warfare
            2. Favors rapid, dynamic warfare
            3. Aircraft carriers, landing craft, long-range submarines
            4. New artillery – distance huge
            5. strategic bombers – thousands of miles, kill civilians
            6. Makes war more global, more deadly
            7. Led to secondary civilian technology
              1. radar, jet aircraft, synthetic materials (nylon)
              2. rocketry, atomic energy, computer science
          2. Blitzkrieg “lightning war”
            1. Tanks + airplanes + troops – penetrate deeply
            2. France/Britain wait for Germany, think defense best, wrong war
              1. “phony war” – Sitzkrieg – winter of waiting for attack
            3. Spring/Summer 1940 – Hitler takes Western Europe
              1. Weeks, days, months – super fast
              2. France gone in 6 weeks
                1. Maginot Line just not that effective
            4. Britain left alone to fight Italy, Germany
              1. Battle of Britain – knock Britain out of war
                1. Royal Navy prevents invasion
                2. Royal Air Force/Radar protects skies
                3. Economic aid from US and Canada
            5. US helps with Lend-Lease program
          3. Germany goes South and East
            1. Protects Italy in Africa
            2. Operation Barbarossa – Invades Soviet Union
              1. 60-75% of Germany army fighting in USSR
                1. Smart movie Adolph
              2. Reached Leningrad, Moscow
                1. But winter and resilient population defeated Germany
          4. Japanese aggression
            1. European struggles in Europe makes it hard to protect colonies
              1. Southeast Asia goes to Japan
            2. Wants to establish Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
            3. US imposes economic sanctions in response to aggression
              1. Japan needs US steel, oil raw materials
              2. Embargo act of war, so…
            4. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, takes over Pacific
            5. Brings US into war
              1. Now you have most productive economy +
              2. Incredible natural resources and manpower
                1. No one can match America’s military industrialization + mass conscription of troops
          5. Civilians as targets
            1. Hitler killed 12 million Jews, gypsies, Slaves, religious groups
            2. Japan killed 300,000 civilians – mostly in Nanking
            3. Allied firebombing of Japanese cities and Dresden/Germany
            4. Atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima
          6. Allies on the Offensive
            1. Axis skill and quality armed forces vs.
            2. Allied geographic size, humanpower, economies, natural resources
              1. Longer war lasts, better chance Allies win
              2. Japan’s failure to take US, Germany’s fails Britain/USSR
            3. Turning point 1942 – Axis loses all three battles
              1. Midway – US Navy destroys Japanese aircraft fleet
              2. El Alamein – British defeat Rommell’s German tanks
              3. Stalingrad – Soviets prevent taking of S. Russia/oil
            4. Shifting Tide – 1943-1944
              1. Pacific – pushed Japan west + guerilla fighting
              2. Allies take N. Africa, invade Italy
              3. June 1944 – Normandy – Operation Overlord – D-Day
                1. Hitler now has 3 front war
            5. War at sea and in the air
              1. At sea, defeats submarine fleet
              2. Allies control skies after 1943 – bomb Germany indiscrimat
              3. 1944 – bomb Japan constantly
            6. End of World War II
              1. May 1945 Germany surrenders – surrounded
              2. Japan continues with no chance of winning
                1. Truman doesn’t want to invade
                2. Traditional bombing not defeating Japan
              3. Atomic bomb
                1. Japan warned
                2. Aug. 6 Enola Gay > Hiroshima
                3. August 9 > Nagasaki
                  1. Hundreds of thousands killed
                4. Japan agrees to cease fire
        3. Effects
          1. Europe in paradoxical situation
            1. Became Cold War battleground
            2. Dismantled Europe’s global dominance
            3. After repair, enjoyed greatest prosperity ever
              1. Wealthies/most technologically advanced in world
              2. Even Eastern Europe recovered and industrialized
          2. Short term effects
            1. Huge refuges – “displaced persons”
            2. Nations/cities in ruins
            3. Poverty horrendous
            4. Shortage of food, clothing, consumer goods
            5. Colonies push for independence
              1. In some cases, causes European gov’t to collapse - Algeria
          3. Left world power divided between US and USSR
          4. State of world after war
            1. United States occupied Japan
            2. Korea divided between US and USSR
            3. China regained territory – civil war between Nationalists/Communis
            4. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia become Soviet provinces
            5. Czechoslovakia, Hungaria, Bulgaria, Romania occupied
            6. Colonies renewed independence efforts
            7. European world dominance ended
            8. International dominance between two superpowers – USSR/USA
      3. The Holocaust and other war crimes
        1. 73 months of fighting – countless war crimes
          1. Half of 60 million killed were civilians
          2. Behavior fell outside the lines of international law/acceptable behavior
          3. “crimes against humanity” term emerges from WWII
        2. All sides guilty
          1. Axis Powers – holocaust/rape of China
          2. Soviet Union
            1. Rape, plunder, destruction of civilian property in E. Europe
          3. USA/British
            1. Strategic/carpet bombing of civilian areas
            2. Using atomic bomb?
        3. Japanese War Crimes
          1. Before WWII, Japan had committed thousands of atrocities
            1. Worse – Rape of Nanjing – 200-400,000
          2. Killed countless prisoners of war
            1. Against rules of military combat
          3. Prisoners of war used as scientific experiments – Unit 731
          4. “Comfort women” in Korea and Southeast Asia
            1. Forced into prostitution for Japanese soldiers
          5. During Tokyo Trials, Japan tried for these crimes
        4. Nazi Atrocities – based on notions of racial purity
          1. Before war, Nazis had created system of terror
            1. Secret police (Gestapo) and concentration camps (Dachau)
              1. Dissidents, religious figures imprisoned/executed
            2. Euthanize medical patients with incurable diseases, venereal disease, tuberculosis – homosexuals (mentally disabled)
            3. Performed medical and scientific experiments
              1. Usually mutilated or killed
          2. Racial policy/genocide
            1. Targeted groups deemed “subhuman” or “undesirable”
              1. Slaves, gypsies, Jews
          3. Series of laws against Jews
            1. Nuremberg Laws of 1935
          4. Violence doesn’t become “official” policy until WWII
            1. November 1938 – Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass”
              1. Jewish shops, synagogues, homes burned
          5. As Nazis took over more territory, more Jews rounded up
        5. Stages of the Holocaust – Final Solution
          1. 1939-1940
            1. Yellow star, ghettos, imprisoned in camps, sporadic execution
          2. 1941
            1. Execution of all Communist Members – invading USSR
            2. Orders to prepare for the “Final Solution”
            3. “special action squads” Einsatzgruppen – kill Jews in USSR
              1. too slow, too wasteful, hard on morale, buried bodies
            4. Experiments carried out to find “efficient” method
            5. Cyanide-based insecticide – Zyklon-B used
          3. 1942
            1. Wannsee Conference – decide on “Final Solution” – 15 meet
            2. Extermination camps go into operation
          4. 1943-1945
            1. Jews shipped from all over, gassed, cremated
            2. Soviet liberation of camps in Poland – 1944
            3. Camps in west liberated by US/Brits in 1945
          5. 12 million deaths – 6 million Jews
          6. Nuremberg Trials – Americans, British, Soviets
            1. Court for remaining military/political leaders
      4. The Cold War
        1. Overview
          1. Used nations as pawns in their struggle
            1. US/USSR never went to war against each other, but…
            2. Dozens of small/medium-sized war – 50 million deaths
          2. Fundamental shift in world power
            1. Previous 200 years, power in hands of Europe
              1. Shifting power between 6/7 nations
            2. But…Europe devastated by war
          3. Bipolar Equilibrium – two nations, evenly matched share global power
            1. Democratic capitalism vs. communism
            2. Deadliest arms race
          4. Both nations hugely wealthier/more powerful than any other power
          5. Affected decolonization
            1. Newly freed nations had to choose who to ally with
          6. Major features of competition
            1. Technological
              1. Arms race, space race
            2. Geopolitical
              1. vied for influence across globe
              2. Especially in developing nations
              3. Weapons training provided to side
            3. Ideological
              1. Capitalism vs. communism – which do you want
              2. Led to the division of nations
                1. N. and S. Korea
                2. N. and S. Vietnam
                3. E. and W. Germany
                4. People’s Republic of China vs. Republic of China
          7. Local conflicts before 1991
            1. Surrogate wars where superpowers didn’t fight, but…
              1. Supported combatants on both sides
        2. Wartime Diplomacy
          1. Alliance with Stalin only because needed to defeat Hitler
            1. Tension from the beginning
          2. Issues dealt with at Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
            1. Second Front – D-Day Normandy planned
            2. Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan after Germans defeated
              1. In exchange he wants territory and Korea divided
            3. Treatment of Germany – divided into four sectors
              1. Berlin in Soviet zone – but access to rail, road, train
              2. Denazification – former Nazis removed from office
              3. Germany also divided
              4. $20 billion in reparations
            4. United Nations – Roosevelt convinces Chruchill, Stalin
            5. Fate of Eastern Europe – toughest issue
              1. Soviet troops occupy all of Eastern Europe
                1. Stalin wants for sphere of influence
                2. Can’t push or he won’t fight Hitler
              2. Agreement at Yalta
                1. Soviets can have influence, but…
                2. They have to allow free elections
          3. Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
            1. 44 Allied countries meet to discuss future
              1. Committed to economic growth, free trade, stable money
            2. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
              1. aka World Bank
            3. International Monetary Fund
              1. Goal…rebuild Europe
              2. Lend assistance to Latin American, African, Asian countries
            4. Exchange rates tied to US dollar, which was tied to gold
            5. USSR refuses, isolates itself from the “First World”
          4. Churchill/Roosevelt criticized when “secret agreements” made public
            1. Abandoned Poland, E. Germany, Eastern Europe, China - communis
        3. The Cold War Begins
          1. Cold War begins with tensions before end of WWII
          2. 1945-1949 – first phase concerned with Europe
            1. Europe becomes superpowers’ battleground
            2. Europe divided into two camps separated by “Iron Curtain”
              1. West – NATO + European Union + Marshall Plan
              2. East – Warsaw Pact + COMECON
            3. Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe
              1. All but Yugosloavia – Tito and Albania
                1. Created independent communist regimes
              2. The rest under control/influence of USSR
            4. Soviets push communism/support parties in
              1. Greece, Turkey, Iran
            5. Soviets reasoning
              1. Destroyed by war
                1. 30 million people dead
                2. 1/3 of economy destroyed
                  1. Wants buffer zone
                  2. Stalin feels vulnerable due to atomic bomb
                3. Provoke US as far as can go
                  1. Thus the Berlin Blockade and Airlift
            6. US response – Containment – free world keeps USSR from expand
              1. Truman Doctrine
                1. moral/material aid to countries fighting communism
                2. Saves Greece and Turkey from communism
              2. Marshall Plan
                1. Try to avoid Great Depression – poverty = extremism
                2. Put $13 billion into economy
                3. Resistance in US Congress
                  1. end any chance of working w/ USSR
                  2. reestablish US as imperial power
                  3. bankrupt the nation
                  4. set up Europe as competitors for markets
                  5. should be aimed at Asia not Europe
              3. NATO – military alliance
                1. Troops remain in Europe – trip wire
                  1. As soon as one attacked, US in war
              4. All of these = containment
                1. USSR would expand as far as it could
                2. Must be contained
                3. Philosophy
                  1. Not war
                  2. Economic/military aid to those in need
                4. Problem – Soviets act, US reacts
                5. Affected how US chose allies
                  1. Not communist? We’ll support you.
                6. Spend a ton of money in arms race
            7. Resistance to Soviet rule
              1. Hungarian revolt 1956 put down by Soviets
              2. Prague Spring – Czech – 1968
                1. Resistance to censorship = Soviet invasion
              3. Poland – Soviet rule relaxed – land ownership/religion
        4. The Cold War Globalizes
          1. Globalization of the Cold War
            1. 1949 turning point – US creates NATO, USSR has nuclear bomb
              1. Civil War – Mao vs. Chaing Kai Shek comes to an end
                1. China allies with Russia
              2. Two largest nations on earth now joined by Communism
            2. Arena of Cold War would become Asia, Africa, Latin America
          2. The Korean War
            1. N. Korea invades S. Korea
            2. US and United Nations come to the aide of S. Korea
            3. Push N. Korea back until Chinese “volunteers” advance
            4. Cease fire puts boundaries at original line
            5. 1.25 million casualties
          3. New issues
            1. Stalin replaced by Khrushchev
              1. More global, but more unpredictable
            2. Nuclear Arms Race
              1. By 1960s, both had missiles, ICBMs, and submarine nukes
              2. Quantity kept increasing, though enough to blow up world
              3. Have to be extremely wary of catalyst that would start war
              4. MAD – mutually assured destruction – a deterrent, you’ll die
            3. The concept of the Third World
              1. Europe already divided, any shift could lead to war
              2. However, Africa, Asia, Europe prime targets
                1. Modernizing and decolonizing
                2. Who will have your back?
              3. USSR/China actively spread communism – Comintern
              4. US tried to stop – “domino theory” – one goes, they all go
                1. US willing to choose bad allies, better than Commun.
                  1. Dictators or authoritarian leaders
          4. The 1950s
            1. Khrushchev liberalizes, but also a firm hand
              1. Hungary invaded when it tries to leave Soviet Bloc – 1956
            2. Europe has minimal power – USSR/USA support Egypt’s natinonali
              1. France/England have to back down – give up Suez
            3. Space race – rocket technology linked to nuclear prowess – 1957
            4. Cuban Revolution – proximity to US key point
          5. The 1960s
            1. Tension of the first part
              1. U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers shot down – spying
              2. John F. Kennedy approves failed invasion of Cuba
                1. Bay of Pigs – US embarrassed
              3. Yuri Gagarin first man in space – not an American
              4. Berlin Wall vs. Kennedy “I am a Berliner”
              5. Soviets ship rockets to Cuba > Cuban Missile Crisis
                1. Leads to quarantine/blockade
                2. Closest to WWIII
                3. USSR pulls out in exchange for
                  1. US removes Turkey missiles
                  2. Promises to not invade Cuba
            2. Mid>Late 1960s
              1. Scared to death how close they came, start to cool off
                1. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
                2. Install “hot line” “red phone” – avoid Cub.MisCris
              2. Brezhnev takes over – more hardline
                1. Focuses energy on Soviet Bloc countries
              3. US wins space race – 1969 man on the moon
              4. USSR/China split – Sino-Soviet Split
                1. Disagreed on path of communism internationally
                  1. China – unite non-aligned nations
                    1. India/Indonesia etc.
                    2. Use these to combat Soviets
                2. Mao tired of being treated as “younger brother”
                3. Chinese felt treated as racially inferior
                4. Border becomes militarized zone
                5. US took advantage of split
            3. The Vietnam War
              1. Superpowers intervene in many civil/anticolonial wars
              2. Ho Chi Minh wants independence from French
                1. US doesn’t want Ho Chi Minh
                2. End up supporting unpopular dictator in South
                  1. Sends military to support South gov’t
              3. US eventually pulls out, Vietnam goes Communist
        5. Latin America as Cold War Battlefield
          1. All military dictatorships heavily in debt to United States
          2. Cuba attempted to export Marxist revolution to Latin America
            1. US supports any regime that opposes communism
            2. Pro-US regimes usually dictatorial and right-wing
          3. Perfect example of Cold War politics – Nicaraguan Revolution
            1. Marxist, Soviet-supported Sandinista movement
              1. Overthrows Somoza dictatorship – US supported
            2. US supports counterrevolutionary contras
            3. Becomes essentially a proxy war between US and USSR
        6. The Late Stages of the Cold War
          1. Détente – 1970s
            1. Both sides agree to relax tensions
              1. Economically suffering
                1. USSR needs grain shipments
              2. US still wounded from Vietnam
              3. USSR fears US and China becoming allies
            2. Still conflict around the world, plus arms race, but…
            3. Starting to work together
              1. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – prevent spread to other nations
              2. Signed first arms control treaties SALT – 1972
              3. Both sponsor Apollo-Soyuz space mission
              4. Helsinki Accords – USSR agrees to more human rights
          2. The Cold War resumes – 1980s
            1. USSR invades Afghanistan – threatens oil
            2. US elects Ronald Reagan – conservative, hard-line foreign affairs
            3. Arms race intensifies - $300 billion a year
            4. Publicly both very aggressive
              1. USSR called “evil empire”
              2. Both boycott Olympics
          3. The Cold War Ends
            1. Steady internal collapse of USSR
              1. Brezhnev and two successors die quickly
            2. Gorbachev tries to reform USSR – can’t keep up with USA
              1. Allows E. European nations to free themselves
              2. Enters into arms negotiations
              3. Berlin Wall comes down in 1989 – symbol of “iron curtain”
              4. 1991 – USSR collapses
      5. Nuclear weaponry
        1. Cold War
        2. Largest and most expensive weapons buildup in world history
          1. 1949 USSR explodes atomic bomb – let the race begin
          2. Both sides built up stockpiles of weapons and threatened each other
          3. Deterrence – both sides afraid to strike, fear of being destroyed
            1. Mutually Assured Destruction – MAD
        3. Détente – Nixon tries to ease tensions with USSR
          1. 1969 – nuclear nonproliferation treaty
          2. USSR needs wheat from US
          3. USSR wants to improve position against China
          4. SALT – Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties – limit antiballistic missiles
            1. Cooperate on health research, space exploration, trade, pollution
      6. International organizations
        1. Rebuilding Europe after WWII
          1. Soviet Bloc – COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
            1. Economies nationalized/centrally planned
            2. Collectivization under state control
            3. Massive industrialization
            4. “socialist division of labor” – every nation focuses in a few areas
            5. Soviet welfare systems
              1. education, medical care, pensions
            6. Poor quality consuper goods
            7. Focus on heavy industry/weapons
            8. Maintained through political repression
          2. Western Europe – Marshall Plan – European Recovery Plan
            1. A “miracle” – helped prevent the spread of communism
            2. W. Germany rose from ruins – European economic powerhouse
            3. Technical innovation – move to postindustrial world
            4. Put into place social welfare systems
            5. Created “third way” – blend of capitalism and social-welfare
        2. Military
          1. NATO
          2. Warsaw Pact
        3. Economic
        4. Political
        5. Human Rights
          1. League of Nations
      7. Emergence of the United States
        1. Became world’s richest and most powerful nation
        2. United States taken role as police officer/peace negotiator for the world
          1. Sent troops to Grenada, Somalia and Berlin to protect people/interests
          2. Acted as mediator between Israel/Palestinians, N. Ireland
          3. Used diplomacy to create wide coalition of support
            1. Persian Gulf War/Taliban in Afghanistan
        3. Willingness to engage in diplomatic dialogue shifted with War in Iraq
      8. New challenges
        1. Iraq – annexed oil rich Kuwait in 1990 led to Persian Gulf War
          1. 2003 – Iraq War – Weapons Mass Destruction/oppressive regime
        2. India/Pakistan – 1998 announce nuclear weapons
          1. Still fight over Kashmir region
        3. North Korea developing nuclear weapons
        4. Africa/Asia
          1. Lack resources to develop
            1. Look to World Bank and International Monetary Fund
          2. Violent ethnic conflicts
          3. Warfare continues between US and Iraq, and US and Afghanistan
        5. Good news
          1. South Africa ends apartheid
          2. India world’s largest democracy
          3. New governments based on civil rights in Iraq and Afghanistan
    Subject X2: 

    Major Comparisons and Snapshots

    1914 to Present

    1. Major Comparisons and Snapshots
      1. Patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and India
        1. Africa
          1. Patterns
            1. Began in 1950s and 1960s, later than Middle East/Asia
            2. Previous native political groups focused on living/working conditions
            3. By 1990s – 46 Independent countries
            4. Population 1960s – 300 million, 1990s – 800 million
          2. Legacy
            1. Security and economic stability problems rooted in European colonialism
          3. North Africa liberation – 1950s
            1. Several advantages for decolonization
              1. Relatively homogeneous religion, ethnicity, language
              2. Existed as political units for decades
              3. Colonizing powers left behind technology, industrial
                1. Infrastructure – railroads, telegraphs, canals
            2. Egypt, Libya – 1952, Moroccoa, Tunisia – 1956, Algeria – 1962
          4. Independence in Sub-Saharan Africa
            1. Major freedom movements became radical after WWII
              1. Usually nonviolent led by intellectuals
              2. Some violent – Mau Mau in Kenya
                1. Zimbabwe, S. Africa, Rwanda, Zaire, Angola, Moza
          5. Why varying transitions to freedom?
            1. Smoothly in Britain and France
              1. Native elites educated and prepared
                1. Greater participation by natives in interim gov’t
                2. Less chance for multiethnic conflict
            2. Conflict where white settler population maintains power
              1. War in Rhodesia
            3. Worst transitions in Belgium and Portugese colonies
              1. Colonial masters intensely exploitive
              2. No steps taken to educate population
              3. Either war against European aggressors and/or civil war
              4. Rwanda – left hated two tribes – Hutus and Tutsi
          6. South Africa
            1. Tainted by clash of white/black citizens
            2. Dutch Afrikaners given control by British
              1. Practiced apartheid – extreme racial segregation
            3. Diamond/gold resources make it most industrialized/richest in Af
            4. Extreme pressure on S. Africa to change
              1. Internal unrest
              2. Economic problems
              3. Extreme international pressure
            5. Nelson Mandela became sympathetic dissident while imprisoned
              1. 1990 Mandela released –
              2. African National Congress party wins in 1994
          7. Varying methods of modernization
            1. Capitalism – Kenya
            2. Socialism – Tanzania, Ghana, Congo, Guinea
            3. Pan-Africanism utopian goal
              1. 1991 – African Economic Community
          8. Problems facing Independent Africa
            1. Dictatorship – begin as democracies > turn into military strongmen
              1. Brutal, savage rule
            2. Corruption – function based on patronage, nepotism, graft
            3. Failure to modernize/diversify economies – maintain monoculture
              1. Exporting natural resources colonial masters set up
              2. Kept profits in hands of political rulers that inherited system
            4. Foreign debt – owe massive amounts of money to Western nations
            5. Cold War – nations became pawns in global chess game
            6. Rapid population growth/food shortages
              1. Not overpopulated, but rate has surpassed economic growth
              2. Many suffer from poor medical care/lack of food
              3. Only 22% of cultivatable land actually being used
            7. HIV/AIDS
              1. Containing disease impossible – too poor to afford medicine
            8. Lack of cultural/linguistic unity
              1. Political border lines meaningless
                1. Drawn by Europeans for their convenience/benefit
                  1. Congo – 200 tribes, 75 languages
              2. Only common tongue – that of colonial oppressor
              3. How can single state govern equally?
            9. Intertribal/interethnic conflict – almost all wars fought w/in borders
            10. Uncontrolled flow of small arms/light weapons
              1. Small arms part of daily life, armed conflicts
              2. Thousands of children forcibly drafted into paramilitaries
            11. Treatment of women
              1. More developed countries, cities some benefits
                1. Divorce, birth control, economic freedom, education
              2. Women still dominated by men
                1. 20% of students women
                2. Marriages arranged
                3. Polygamy permitted
                4. Clitoridectomy still practiced
          9. Comparing African/Indian Independence
            1. Tragically torn apart by ethnic/religious strife
              1. Tensions between Muslims/Hindus reemerged
              2. Africa – opportunity for long held tribal hatred to resurface
        2. Indian and Pakistani Independence
          1. Britain handed over power freely after decades of civil disobedience
            1. 1945 Britain ordered to turn over to “responsible Indian hands” 1848
              1. Hindu/Muslim clashes sped up process
            2. August 15, 1947 – India and Pakistan given independence
              1. Independence led to violence
              2. Transfer of population + border conflict = 1 million deaths
              3. Ghandhi assassinated in January 1948
                1. Hindu extremist upset w/ Gandhi’s tolerance policy
          2. Pakistan – modern republic – major regional power
            1. Original goal of Muhammad Ali Jinnah not attained
              1. Democratic republic – progressive and modern, but also…
              2. remain true to Muslim traditions/principles
            2. Pakistan plagued by corruption, political repression, military rule
            3. Huge, expensive rivalry with India
              1. Gained nuclear capability in 1990s
          3. Modern India
            1. World’s largest democracy
            2. Huge inefficiency – can’t balance population growth w/ economic
            3. Continued interethnic/interfaith strife
            4. Congress Party – Jawaharlal Nehru – pushed for secular India
              1. Modern, educated, industrial power