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Fetal Pig Dissection

anatomical orientations -

  • anterior - head end
  • posterior - tail/hindmost end
  • dorsal - back
  • ventral - belly/underside
  • medial - middle of body
  • lateral - sides of body
  • distal - away from point of attachment
  • proximal - nearer to point of attachment

digestive system -

  • glottis - opening from larynx into trachea
  • epiglottis - tissue that closes off the glottis when food is swallowed
    • keeps food out of the respiratory tract
  • mouth - where starch digestion begins
  • esophagus - muscular tube that transports food
  • stomach - physical/chemical digestion of proteins
  • liver - produces bile to emulsify fats
    • largest internal organ
  • jaundice - yellow staining of tissues due to blocked excretion of bile
  • gallbladder - stores bile
  • pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine
  • small intestine - primary chemical digestion, nutrient absorption
  • cecum - pouch at beginning of large intestine
    • helps w/ cellulose digestion in herbivores
  • large intestine - vitamin production/absorption
    • compacts waste
  • anus - exit for waste products
  • sphincter - ring of circular smooth muscle
    • prevents food from moving back through digestive tract
    • humans lack true sphincters

lymphatic system -

  • thymus - around neck/heart
  • spleen - filters dead blood cells
    • flap to the left of the stomach

urinary system -

  • kidneys - filters blood, excretes nitrogenous waste
  • nephron - functional unit of kidney
  • ureters - passageway for urine from kidney to bladder
  • bladder - stores urine
  • urethra - connects bladder to outside

reproductive system -

  • male reproductive parts
    • testes - gonad where sperm is created
    • epididymis - sperm storage site
    • ductus deferens (vas deferens) - tubes through which sperm travels to penis
    • seminal vesicle - secretes into semen
    • prostrate gland - secretes basic environment into semen
    • bulbourethral glands - secretes lubrication into semen
  • female reproductive parts
    • ovaries - gonad where ova are created
    • fimbria - fingerlike projections that sweep ova into tube
    • oviducts (fallopian tubes) - where egg is fertilized
    • uterus - where fertilized egg implants
    • ectopic pregnancy - fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus
    • urogenital sinus - fusion of vagina, urethra
    • vagina - birth canal

circulatory system -

  • arteries lead away from heart, veins lead toward heart
  • pulmonary circulation - between heart and lungs
  • systemic circulation - between heart and rest of body
  • major arteries -
    • aorta - largest artery in body, carries blood from left ventricle
    • pulmonary artery - only artery to carry deoxygenated blood
    • common carotids - directs blood toward the head, along the trachea
    • subclavians - branches off from aortic arch towards upper body
    • branchiocephalic trunk - branches off from aortic arch, leads to carotids/subclavians
    • celiac artery - leads to stomach/pancreas
    • renal arteries - leads to kidneys
  • major veins -
    • anterior (superior) vena cava - major vein connecting upper body and right atrium
    • posterior (inferior) vena cava - major vein connecting lower body and right atrium
    • internal/external jugulars - returns blood from head
    • branchiocephalic veins - returns blood from upper body
    • renal veins - returns blood from kidneys
  • heart - 4 chambers
    • atria - receives blood from body/lungs
    • ventricles - pumps blood to body/lungs
    • atrioventricular valves - separates atria from ventricles
    • semilunar valves - separates ventricles from outside of heart
    • chordae tendonae - “heartstrings” that keep valve flaps closed >> prevents backflow
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