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1914 to Present

  1. Globalization
    1. Science and technology
      1. Advancement coming at breathtaking pace
        1. Innovative physics, biotechnology, rocketry, electronics, computers
          1. Physics
            1. Albert Einstein – theory of relativity
            2. Quantum physics
            3. Atomic theory
            4. Altered understanding of astronomy
            5. Led to atomic weaponry/nuclear energy
          2. Rocketry/space science
            1. German scientists initiated research – missiles
            2. Nuclear arms race sped up research
            3. Led to satellite communication
          3. Computer
            1. Most significant postwar invention
            2. Computers and components – microchips altered a ton
            3. How people communicate, transact business, analyze data
            4. Keep records, perform medical procedures
            5. But…with ease of usage…privacy becomes an issue
          4. Internet
            1. Originally – 1960s – method of integrating gov’t, business and academic computers
            2. WWW > “global village”
            3. “digital divide” those with computer technology vs. w/out
          5. Biotechnology and genetic science
            1. DNA – James Watson and Francis Crick – 1953
            2. Unprecedented gains – how human body works
            3. Genetic theory led to medical advances
            4. Power to clone human beings – controversial
        2. Full industrialization – world moved to petroleum/electricity primary energy
        3. Instant network becomes catalyst for international integration
          1. Boundaries of civilization not as clear – easy to surpass
          2. Able to link people with common interests, but geographically separated
    2. Culture
      1. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art
      2. Might make nation-state fade away
      3. Mass media/mass communications transform cultural sphere
        1. Now cinema, radio, television, electronic media make art
        2. Used to make music, literature, art for popular audience
        3. Inexpensive production of mass quantity of books, tv, music, drama
          1. Brought to more people than ever before
        4. But...
          1. Art dumbed down to satisfy taste of the masses
          2. Media used for propaganda, brain-washing
            1. Political or marketing purposes
        5. Westernize the pop culture of entire world
          1. American Jass and Hollywood alluring
          2. Disney, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola – recognizable all over world
        6. Technology made cultural exchange possible
          1. CDs, records, tapes
            1. Teenagers in 1960s could buy music from around world
      4. Bold experimentation
        1. Distortion/abandonment of traditional norms
      5. First 2/3 of century – pessimistic/uncertainty
        1. Optimism of 1800s replaced, especially after WWI
        2. Literature deals w/ dehumanization of industrial world
        3. Stream of consciousness prose – abstract mind
        4. abstract painters distort reality – Picasso anyone
        5. Surrealists – realistic objects in unrealistic situations
        6. Existententialism – you’re on your own – no deity
      6. Today – exuberance/energy of pop culture
      7. Postmodern Art
      8. Computers/Internet lead to information revolution
      9. Ease of travel – jet engines – able to explore other cultures
      10. Art and Literature in the Non-Western world
        1. non-western artists adapt, modify and add native elements to western form
        2. Artists oftentimes speak for the people/illustrate their plight
          1. Digeo Rivera – Mexico – urban poor in paintings
          2. Lu Xun – China – gov’t fails to take care of poor/fight off foreigners
          3. Rabindranath Tagore – Hindu religious concepts
        3. Common themes
          1. Problems of decolonization, resisting US cultural hegemony
          2. Political opposition to oppressive regime
          3. Some even criticize Islamic conservatism – dangerous idea
      11. After WWI
        1. Mass consumerism – especially household appliances, automobiles
          1. Automobile decreased isolation – created teenage years
        2. Women turned to shorter skirts, hairstyles, free behavior expression
        3. Movie industry – artistic expression + entertainment
        4. Art – new style cubism
        5. Architecture – new uses of concrete and glass
        6. New skepticism
      12. After WWII
        1. Women – higher divorce, effective birth control, NOW founded
        2. 1960s – Civil rights US plus anti-war movement
        3. 1970s and 1980s – people questioned welfare state
          1. Programs decreased
          2. Economic/educational opportunities spread
      13. Culture around the world
        1. Soviet Union
          1. Soviet schools taught religion as myth, western style as decadent
          2. Factories made heavy goods, not consumer goods
          3. Spreading industrialization led to increase in movies, sports, TV
          4. 1960s West and Soviets exchange culture
          5. USSR focuses on sports and kills everybody at Olympics
        2. Japan
          1. In 1920s experienced mass consumerism
          2. After WWII, women’s suffrage no more Shintoism national religion
          3. Social security for elderly
          4. After US occupation, gov’t takes over control of student textbooks
          5. Traditions such as tea ceremony, Kabuki, No theater continue
          6. Work schedules – less leisure time than US
            1. But…baseball becomes popular
        3. China
          1. After May Fourth Movement – women get more rights
            1. Footbinding outlawed
            2. Wider educational/career opportunities
          2. Guomindang tries to reduce role of women
          3. Communists give women larger role in revolution
            1. Women can bear arms
            2. Since 1949 – women expected to work outside of home also
        4. Latin America
          1. After Mexican Revolution – murals became big – Diego Rivera
            1. Scenes from revolutions blended with folk culture
          2. Majority Catholic, but Protestant denominations spread
          3. Women retain their traditional role
            1. By end of 20th century, women controlled small businesses
            2. Become active in politics
        5. Africa
          1. Women get suffrage in new constitutions
            1. Some even given political positions – reward for role
          2. Early marriage continued
        6. Global Culture
          1. Western dominated global culture
            1. Produced disapproval in East Asian/Islamic cultures
          2. English language of commerce/Internet
          3. Western appreciation for science spread
          4. Higher emphasis on monetary wealth, education, profession
            1. Not so much on land ownership/inherited position
          5. But…some traditions continue
            1. India still holds to caste restrictions
            2. Women suffrage widespread, patriarchal societies exist
          6. Global culture still has regional traditions/characteristics
    3. Patterns of Resistance
      1. Religious Responses
      2. Huge conflict between forces of traditionalism vs. forces of change
        1. China – 1919
          1. Gov’t wants to revert to traditional Confucian values
          2. Students want democracy, technology, science
          3. Stage protests – Tiananmen Square – Beijing
            1. May Fourth Movement – because Japan annexed China
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