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Rise of Western Dominance

Unit 4
The Modern Era

  1. Rise of Western Dominance
    1. Economic
      1. Technological, economic military rise of the West
      2. Altered the balance of global power
      3. Industrialization replaced agriculture as largest, most important sector of economy
        1. Began in England 18th and 19th century through Europe, later rest of the world
      4. Dominant mode of economic organization – free-market, laissez faire capitalism
        1. Commerce and banking – foundations of money-based economy – not land-based
      5. Transformed class structures
        1. Aristocracy based on land and family prestige faded
        2. Those employed in agriculture shrank
        3. Middle class grew tremendously, gained great wealth, diversified
        4. New lower class – industrial working class was born
      6. Industrialization led to urbanization – cities grew in size, more cities established
      7. First decades of industrialization painful for lower classes
        1. Working conditions poor, wages were low
        2. Over time, industrialization greatly raised the average properity of a society’s population
          1. Even lower classes benefit over time
      8. Non-Western worlds adopt industrialization in varying ways
        1. Some European imperial powers introduced to colonies
        2. Rulers of free non-Western nations tried to impose from above
      9. Slavery still key to 18th/19th century world economy
        1. Africa primary victim of slave trading
        2. East African and Atlantic Slave Trade continued into the 1870s/1880s
      10. Fall of mercantilism, rise of capitalism
        1. Economies more likely to flourish if left alone to function freely
          1. Need competition, free trade, laws of supply and demand create greater wealth
          2. Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations – 1776 – “invisible hand” of supply and demand
      11. “dismal science” – negative view of capitalism
        1. Thomas Malthus – Essay on Population – 1799 –
          1. Population growth led to poverty
          2. War, disease, starvation – necessary to control population
        2. David Ricardo – “iron law of wages”
          1. Employer will pay lowest possible wage to make money
          2. If supply of labor goes up, salaries will drop
      12. Socialism, Marxism and Communism
        1. Socialism – economic competition is inherently unfair and leads to injustice/inequality
          1. Utopian socialists – with good planning and regulation – everyone can be happy
        2. Marxism – more radical socialism – Communist Manifesto
          1. History always driven by class struggle between upper class/lower class
            1. Karl Marx – all history result of class struggle - bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
              1. middle class vs. working class
          2. Workers would overthrow which would lead to communism – revolution necessary
            1. Would eventually revolt and form “dictatorship of the proletariat”
              1. Would ensure social and political freedom
            2. No longer a need for the state – eventually wither away
            3. Result – pure communism – classless society
        3. Communism
          1. Ideally – perfect justice, social equality and plenty
    2. Political
      1. Broad trends
        1. World affairs determined by policy choices in Europe
        2. United States broke away from English rule, went on to dominate Americas
        3. Spanish/Portuguese colonies freed themselves of European rule
        4. Eastern Question – gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire presented Europe with choices
        5. Between 1814 > 1914 – 35% to 85% of European control of habitable territory
        6. Japan only non-Western nation to develop effective, modern colonial empire
        7. New nations of Germany and Italy created
        8. Tensions over diplomacy, nationalism, competition for overseas possessions led to alliances
      2. Political developments
        1. greater popular representation in government and politics
          1. American Revolution and French Revolution were precedents
        2. During 1800s, especially after 1848 – Europe and West politics more representative
          1. Bureaucracies and parliamentary bodies becoming increasingly important
          2. More important than arbitrary will of rulers/monarchs
        3. Other parts of the world slower in moving from traditional monarchies/oligarchies
          1. Japan/Ottoman Empire developed parliamentary monarchies by 20th century
          2. Latin America had parliamentary monarchies in theory
            1. But usually slipped into dictatorship or military rule
        4. Much of the non-Western world spent the 19th century under European colonial domination
      3. Middle class representation
        1. Through revolt and reform were able to gain more political and economic rights
      4. Working class radicalism
        1. Most desperate option – radical forms of agitation – socialism, communism, anarchism
          1. Radicalized workers led by intellectuals
        2. Trade unions
          1. At first, illegal – in danger of arrest, injury – especially if went on strike
          2. Government oftentimes supported corporation
          3. Left leaning, but not as far as socialism, communism
    3. Social
    4. Cultural
      1. Starting in West, scientific, secular worldview became paramount
        1. Technological/scientific advancements of Industrial Revolution accelerated process
        2. Theories of Charles Darwin accelerated process
          1. Evolution is a random process – physical changes that increase survival passed on
          2. Common ancestor of humans and apes
          3. Erode faith in traditional religion and encourage more secular view of the world
      2. Greater access to public education increased through 1800s
        1. Literacy rates rose
      3. Tremendous movement of peoples
        1. Massive waves of emigration from Europe and China > N. and S. America
        2. United States preferred destination, but also to Canada, Argentina, Chile
      4. Nationalism became an incredibly powerful cultural attitude in Europe
        1. By end of 1800s nationalist movements more prevalent in non-Western parts of the world
          1. Especially those dominated by Europeans, and educated by Europeans
      5. Modernist thought and culture – late 1800s/early 1900s
        1. Diversity and innovation
        2. Artists broke rules of traditional culture and experimented with variety of styles
          1. Expressionism, Cubism, abstraction
        3. Time of crisis and uncertainty in art
        4. Fridrich Nietzche
          1. “God is Dead”
          2. All systems of morality valueless in the materialistic modern age
        5. Science of psychology to understand human mind
      6. Adopted Western behavior
        1. Japan adopted – fashion, manners, calendar, metric system
    5. Artistic
      1. Non-Western world began to adopt many of the artistic and literary forms of the West
        1. Especially the print culture and writing styles, but also architecture
        2. Styles from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East had influence on West
          1. Especially painting, sculpture, decor
      2. Europe and Americas, pace of cultural change sped up considerably
        1. End of the 1800s, new artistic and literary trends were emerging at rapid rate
        2. New artistic and literary trends were breaking rules and defying conventions
      3. Romanticism
        1. Originated with German authors and French philosopher Rousseau
        2. Backlash/reaction to logic/reason-oriented outlook of Enlightenment
        3. Most important – emotion/passion
          1. Self-realization of the individual, heroism, love of the natural world
      4. Realism
        1. Rejected Romanticism’s idealized dramatic outlook
        2. Focused on sober, critical view of life
        3. Details of everyday existence
          1. Social problems – poverty, social hypocrisy, class injustice
        4. Looked at psychological workings of charaters’ minds
    6. Patterns of Expansion
    7. Imperialism and Colonialism
      1. Causes of Imperialism
        1. Economic - Industrialization gave West the ability and reasons to conquer the world
          1. hungry for raw materials
          2. Markets for goods
            1. Economists today say industrialized nations better markets than colonies
          3. Immense wealth allowed it to afford military, transportation, communication tools
          4. Economic imperialism
            1. Exertion of economic influence rather than political control over a region
              1. America over Hawaii – sugar and pineapple
              2. Latin America dependent on Europe for finished goods
              3. Cuba – American economic imperialism led to territorial gains
              4. Central America and Caribbean – dependent on foreign loans
                1. US protects these regions from European threat - Monroe
        2. Military factors
          1. New weaponry – steam powered ocean fleets, modern rifles, machine guns, artillery
            1. Steamships could travel previously unnavigable rivers – can reach interior
          2. Rarely could native win
            1. Except for instances of overwhelming numbers, miscalculation, good luck
          3. Need to maintain bases and coal stations around the world
            1. Both for navies and civilian fleets
            2. Needed elaborate repair and fueling facilities
            3. Islands and ports around world crucial
        3. Social factors
          1. Rapid population growth
            1. Emigration to Americas – chance to make fortune/improve life
        4. Science and technology
          1. New knowledge – exploration brought better maps/familiarity w/ local environments
          2. Medical advances
            1. Penetrate tropical regions without fear of
              1. sleeping sickness, yellow fever, malaria
            2. These illnesses had worked as natural guard against earlier invasions
        5. Cultural factors
          1. Racial superiority
            1. Entitled to conquer and colonize areas that seemed “backward”/”primitive”
              1. Cecil Rhodes – Britain/Africa – “I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better it is.”
            2. Justified in crude/prejudiced terms
              1. Social Darwinism applied to humanity
              2. ii Those technologically/culturally advanced should conquer others
          2. Duty of Westerners to teach/modernize darker-skinned “primitive” peoples
            1. Rudyard Kipling – “White Man’s Burden”
            2. A bit condescending? Or heartfelt desire to civilize?
          3. Trampled on/eradicated native cultural practices
      2. Western Approaches to Empires
        1. “The sun never sets on the British Empire”
          1. British allow more self rule, introduce positive social reforms, useful knowledge
          2. French similarly subscribed to “la mission civilisatrice”
          3. Portuguese and Belgians especially harsh in Africa
          4. Germany and Italy also harsh – poison gas in North Africa
      3. Europe in India
        1. Long time a destination for European traders – luxuries
          1. tea, sugar, silk, salt, jute (strong fiber for ropes)
        2. Mughal rule – fighting between Hindus/Muslims gave opening to Europe
          1. Many regions slipped to independent kingdoms/city-states
          2. Increased pressure from European outsiders destabilized power
        3. British East India Company – 1750s conquered Bengal – Bangladesh
          1. Exclusive trade over India
          2. This corporation defeated French
            1. French worked out of Madras and Pondicherry
              1. Portuguese and Dutch still had some coastal settlements
          3. Gradually set up administrative regions throughout empire
          4. Used Mughal jailing of British population in Black Hole of Calcutta
            1. Catalyst for decisive military action - 1757
        4. Why was British East India company successful?
          1. Naval might allowed military superiority
          2. Governed directly or through the authority of local rulers
          3. Some times British conquered regions they didn’t want – put back insurrections
        5. Sepoy Mutiny
          1. British East India Company used Indians – Sepoys – as soldiers
          2. Sepoys start to get frustrated - 1857
            1. Taking up too much of India
            2. Not respecting Muslim/Hindu customs
              1. British trying to undermine Hindu/Muslim religious practices
              2. Bullet cartridges greased with pork/beef fat – both forbidden
              3. Fear of being sent overseas – break Hindu caste
          3. Massacres and atrocities on both sides
            1. Tens of thousands killed – British soldiers, civilians, Indian troops, civilians
          4. Hindus/Muslims failed to cooperate with each other
          5. Reaction
            1. British make India a crown colony
            2. Mughal emperor – Bahudar Shah II – sent into exile
            3. 300 million Indians become British subjects
        6. British Colonialism
          1. India model of British imperialism
            1. Raw materials flowed to Britain, finished materials back to India
              1. Primarily textile industry
            2. Upper castes taught English language/English attitudes
            3. Christianity spread
            4. Railroads and canals built
            5. Urbanization increased dramatically
            6. Educated upper castes dream of freeing India from British rule
          2. 1885 Indian National Congress
            1. Begin path toward independence
            2. Over next 60 years adapt British customs while holding on to traditions
          3. Proverbial “jewel in the crown of the British Empire”
            1. Conquest and ownership of largest/most populous regions on earth
              1. Tiny group of islands 5000 miles away – central/telling fact
            2. Global impact
              1. Affected global economies
              2. movement of navies
              3. international relations
              4. balance of world power
              5. gave Britain immense wealth and prestige
            3. Affected course of Indian history
              1. changing politics, economic development, social practices, language, virtually every aspect of Indian culture
          4. Advantages and disadvantages of rule
            1. Disadvantages – 1700s
              1. Profits generated by raw materials sent back to Britain
              2. Size/efficiency of British mills drove locals out of business
              3. British could confiscate peasant land if didn’t pay taxes
                1. Local zamindars abused system to get more land
                2. Mass famines kill one third of Indian population
              4. Goal economic exploitation through military force
            2. Advantages – 1800s
              1. Motivated by increased efficiency
                1. Selfishness
                2. White Man’s Burden
              2. Modernized country
                1. Infrastructure – roads, railroads, telegraph, postal
                2. Educational system
                  1. Raise scientific/technological advancement
                  2. Create educated pro-Western natives
                  3. “Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect.”
                3. Civil service exam
                4. Eliminated inhumane cultural practices
                  1. Sati – burning widows alive
                  2. Thuggee – ritual assassination of travelers – Kali
                  3. Harsh treatment of untouchables
                5. Reduced level of sectarian strife
      4. Europe in Southeast Asia
        1. By 1900, only small portion of Southeast Asia not controlled by Europe
        2. National resistance movements beginning to form
          1. For the time being, unable to move foreign masters
          2. Laid foundation for freedom movements that would expel foreigners after WWII
        3. Southeast Asia before 1800
          1. Only major regions controlled by Europe – Philippines and Indonesia
            1. British influence in Malay peninsula
            2. Portuguese controlled part of Timor – Indonesia
            3. Indonesia – controlled by Dutch East India Company
              1. Handed responsibility over to upper-class natives
                1. Western-educated
        4. Malaya and Singapore
          1. Rich in rubber, tin, oil, copper, iron, aluminum ore
          2. Singapore – Stamford Raffles – trading center and fortress, naval base
            1. With India and Hong Kong, one of Britain’s most prized possessions
        5. French Conquest of Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
          1. France needs to stop Britain from having uninterrupted control of Asia
            1. Britain takes over Burma
          2. 1879-1859 – pressured Nguyen dynasty to accept foreign rule
            1. Most profitable natural resources – tin, rubber, chrome, oil, bauxite
          3. Government related to that of British
            1. More religious than British – conversion
              1. Local elite of upper-class, Westernized natives
            2. Exploited economy – a la British
            3. la mission civilisatrice – modern technology and science to the colonies
            4. more willing to resort to repression and violence to maintain order
        6. Thailand
          1. Remained independent due to leadership and good luck
            1. King Mongkut and King Chulalongkorn (The King and I)
              1. Modernized monarchs – introduced industrialization/Western reforms
            2. Geographic setting
              1. lay between British Burma and French Indochina
              2. Mutually agreed informally to let it be buffer zone
        7. US Annexation of the Philippines
          1. In Spanish American War of 1898 – Americans + Natives overthrew Spanish
          2. Debate in Europe over what to do with Philippines
            1. Turn into US colony
              1. Prevent from falling into hands of Japanese
              2. Superb naval base in Pacific
              3. Way station with China
              4. “Moral” obligation to help poor yellow brothers
          3. Pattern of practical selfishness + condescending idealism
          4. Savage war in jungles for US to maintain colony
            1. Emilio Aguinaldo now turns against Americans – bloody battle
      5. Europe in China
        1. Much of Chinese history remained isolationist
          1. Frequently traded, but didn’t make exploring a priority
          2. Napoleon saw China as “sleeping dragon” – untapped population, size, resources
          3. Expanded by conquering neighbors, but didn’t take expansion beyond region
          4. Backwardness – unwillingness to modernize/industrialize left vulnerable
            1. Deluded sense of grandeur/past accomplishments
          5. Allowed European traders to trade only in port city of Canton
            1. Established strict limitations on what could be bought or sold
            2. Eventually British used weapons/warship/industrialization to push in
        2. Why China was weak?
          1. Under Qing, several negative trends occurred simultaneously
            1. Quality of leadership declined – weak, incompetent emperors
            2. Government corruption
            3. Cost of maintaining borders cumbersome
            4. Population growth too rapid
            5. Open revolt on several occasions
            6. Increased economic and diplomatic pressure from the West
              1. Until 1810 – too strong to conquer
                1. Held advantage in trade balance
                2. Could only trade in Macao and selected ports
                3. Vast Western bullion in exchange for tea, porcelain
              2. Europe wants to sell more products to China
                1. In response to Lord Maccartney – “Your country has nothing we need.”
                2. Reaction from tough business sense
                3. Feelings of superiority
                  1. Middle Kingdom
                  2. Center of the universe
                  3. All outsiders barbarians
            7. So…foreigners start refusing embarrassing/unprofitable trade imbalance
        3. Opium Wars
          1. 1773 – British introduced opium
            1. Clever, but unethical way to break into Chinese markets
            2. Prime source Northeast India
            3. 1820s/1830s British flood China with opium
            4. Other countries get involved – France, Portugal, United States
              1. But British have 80% of trade
            5. Trade balance had swung
          2. 1839 – Manchu Emperor edict forbidding sale or use of opium
            1. Chinese government angry for many reasons
              1. China had become a nation of addicts
              2. Silver bullion flowing out and not in
              3. Economic productivity declines – farmers/workers incapacitated
              4. “The foreigners have brought us a disease which will dry up our bones, a worm that gnaws at our hearts, a ruin to our families and persons. It means the destruction of the soul of our nation.”
            2. Chinese seized British opium in Canton in 1839
              1. Arrest dealers, seize supplies, intercept boats
          3. 1839-1842 – British/Chinese war over opium trade
            1. Forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing
              1. Easily defeated
              2. first of the “unequal treaties” – allowed to expand trade to China
                1. Right to create more opium addicts
              3. Forced to open five new ports, lower tariffs
              4. British law prevailed in heavily British population areas
            2. 1843 established Hong Kong as its own crown possession – colony
            3. 1844 Christian missionaries allowed back in
              1. More common for Protestants/Catholic volunteers to travel
                1. Teach Christianity/English language
                2. Interfered with an eroded Chinese culture
              2. Brought scientific/technological knowledge
                1. Treated diseases with modern medicine
              3. Helped eliminate oppressive cultural practices
                1. Footbinding
              4. mixed legacy of positive and negative impact
          4. 1856-1860 Second Opium war
            1. Humiliating defeat
            2. Result – all of China opened to European trade
            3. But…Hong Kong the exception – no desire to fully colonize – just market
            4. Territory along Chinese coast becomes extraterritorial
              1. Controlled by foreigners
              2. Japan, Germany, Italy, Portuguese, French, British, US, Russians
          5. Fall of China
            1. Internal rebellions
              1. White Lotus Rebellions – Buddhist anti taxes/corruption
              2. Taping Rebellion – nationalist Chinese
                1. Second deadliest war in world history
                2. 20-30 million lives lost
                3. “Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace” – taiping
                4. Hong Xiuquan fails civil service
                  1. Thinks he’s Jesus’s brother
                5. Resented taxes, arbitrary rule, foreign rule
                6. Eventually defeated
                  1. Competent Qing generals
                  2. Ever-Victorious Army – run by American
                    1. Then British general
            2. External losses
              1. Korea claims independence – 1876
              2. Vietnam goes to French – 1883 – Sino-French War
              3. 1895 Japan defeats China – Sino-Japanese War
                1. Japan takes Taiwan
                2. Has Europeanesque trading rights
                3. Took over Korean peninsula
            3. European spheres of influence
              1. France, Germany, Russia, Britain
              2. Not colonies – set up – military businesses, invested in
                1. business, transportation, communication
            4. US wants peace of the action – Open Door Policy
              1. China open to all of the world – OK…Europe and US
            5. Attempted reform with the self-strengthening movement
              1. Encouraged Western investment
              2. Modernized the Chinese army
          6. Boxer Rebellion
            1. Boxers – Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
              1. Anti-Manch, anti-European, anti-Christian
              2. “Boxers” – martial arts experts
            2. Goal – drive Europeans and Japanese out of China
              1. Most of anger directed at Beijing
              2. Foreign residents and foreign legations
            3. Tactics – guerilla warfare against Christian missionaries/embassies
            4. Easily defeated once Europeans/Japanese sent in reinforcements
            5. Forced to sign Boxer Protocol – payments to Japanese/Europeans
          7. China starts to fall apart
            1. Foot binding abolished 1901
            2. 1905 – Chinese examination system ended
            3. Attempts at reform
              1. 1905 – Empress Cixi formed a committee to discuss constitution
              2. Last Emperor – Henry Puyi – local assemblies
                1. Election for national assembly planned for 1910
            4. 1911 – Government toppled
      6. Europe in Southeast Asia
        1. Britain takes Burma, Malay peninsula (Singapore), northern Borneo, Australia
        2. Dutch take Indoneseia
        3. Philippines controlled by Spain then US
        4. France took over Indochina – Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam
        5. Germany Pacific islands as naval posts
      7. Europe in Africa
        1. Africa held little interest to Europeans prior to Industrial Revolution
          1. Though North of Sahara – Egypt especially – had interest/historical impact
          2. Vast interior unknown to outside world
          3. 1880-1910 able to take over “Dark Continent” in “Scramble for Africa”
            1. Almost brought Europe to war
            2. Berlin Conference – 1884-1885 set up rules
            3. By 1910 only Liberia – guaranteed by the US and Ethiopia free
              1. Ethiopia – armed self with modern weapons – drove off Italy
                1. Coptic Christian kingdom – modernized under Theodore II
                2. Arabs drove Portuguese from coast
          4. Though North Africa easier to control – Sub-Saharan inland tougher
            1. Disease – naval superiority inefficient until steam
              1. Better medicines
            2. Lacked geographic knowledge of region
          5. Before 1880 – 10% of Africa controlled, by 1914 – all but 2 countries
          6. During Age of Exploration – coastal regions important for limited trade
            1. Strategic positioning – stopping points for merchant ships to India/China
            2. Became center of slave trade
            3. Resources plundered – gold, ivory, timber
            4. Established outposts, naval bases, small colonies
        2. Imperialist powers improve infrastructure
          1. Railways, roads, public works, hospitals, improved sanitation
          2. Most improvements initially for benefit of European colonists
          3. Improved health care
        3. African reaction
          1. Strong African states resisted foreign domination
            1. Ironically they got the power from Atlantic Slave Trade – weapons
        4. The Slave Trade Ends
          1. Enlightenment principles make people outraged at slavery
            1. 1807-1820 – Most European nations outlaw slavery
            2. Outlawed decades later
            3. So…slave trade ends (at least legally), but slavery continues
              1. Some slaves returned to Africa – emigrated to Liberia
            4. But…within 50 years Africans now subjugated on own homeland
        5. African states during late 1700s and 1800s
          1. Number of states strong enough to resist foreign domination
            1. Others useful, cooperative enough for Europeans to work with
            2. Some Western states remained independent – Muslim theocracies
              1. Fulani Empire, Masina, Tukolor
          2. Ashanti Kingdom
            1. Strongest and most unified of West African states
            2. Used profits from slave trade to buy guns
            3. Power increases as neighbors fight each other/succumb to foreign rule
            4. Fought British, French, American attempts to end slave trade
            5. Next to Zulus, toughest group to subdue
              1. Finally overthrown by British in 1900
        6. South Africa
          1. Prior to discovery of gold/diamonds – S. Africa only important for shipping/military
            1. Dutch arrived first, set up Cape Town as stopping point for ships
            2. 1795 British seized Cape Town
              1. S. African Dutch – Boers/Afrikaners moved Northeast
                1. In Transvaal, they discovered gold/diamonds
            3. British then fought bloody battles for resources
              1. Boer War – 1899-1902
                1. All of S. Africa becomes part of British Empire
                2. Natives have no claims – work mines
            4. Boers came in contact with Zulus – most fearsome African enemy
              1. Shaka Zulu in 1816 seized power and united clans
                1. Black Napoleon
                2. Taught how to fight in organized, efficient fashion
                3. Warlike, conquering tribe
          2. Became significant British colony
            1. Extensive investment in infrastructure
            2. 1910 – colony had its own Constitution
              1. Union of South Africa – self-rule + part of British commonwealth
              2. Only white men could vote
            3. 1912 – African National Congress organized
              1. Opposed to colonialism and specific S. African policies
        7. Discovery of Diamonds
          1. Modern era of African history began w/ discovery of diamond deposits in 1870s
            1. Increased exploitation of African labor
            2. White control sharpened racial attitudes already bigoted
              1. Racial segregation in the mines
              2. Laws that restricted African workers
              3. Set precedent for Apartheid laws
            3. Kimberly, South Africa – peopled by many ethnic groups – annexed by Brit
        8. Egypt
          1. In theory, Ottomans ruled Egypt from 1517-1882, but toward end had little power
            1. Local rulers – byes – had far more influence
              1. Muhammad Ali defeated French/Ottomans – gained control – 1805
                1. Began industrialization of Egypt
                2. Expanded agriculture toward cotton production
                  1. Exported to Britain at a profit
              2. Abbas I slowed westernization
              3. French + Egypt begin construction of Suez Canal
                1. Canal completed in 1869
                2. More valuable to British – connection to India
            2. British take control of canal
              1. Egypt sells stock in canal to pay for substantial gov’t debt
              2. By 1882, controlled canal, plus had a ton of power in Egypt
              3. Became British protectorate – puppet local government
            3. Pushed out of Egypt, France looked elsewhere
        9. The Berlin Conference
          1. 1884 – Otto von Bismarck hosted major European powers
          2. Set up rules for how future colonization and boundaries would be determined
          3. Europeans left Congress in haste – on your mark, get set, go
            1. Needed to be first to establish possession
            2. Within three decades almost entire continent colonized
              1. Only Ethiopia and Liberia free of European rule
              2. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium
          4. Positives – added substantial infrastructure – railroads, dams, roads
          5. Negatives
            1. Stripped Africa of its resources
            2. Treated natives harshly
            3. Europeans put in positions of authority
            4. Natives adopt European customs
              1. British gave natives a little more autonomy – focused on India
            5. Borders based on European political/economic priorities
              1. Not on African history or culture
                1. Tribal lands cut in half between two colonies
                2. Two rival tribes brought together under one rule
                  1. Better for Europe – can’t organize opposition
            6. Traditional African culture hurt
              1. European schools
              2. Christian missionaries
              3. Western business practices
              4. Like elsewhere in global colonial – native culture breaks apart
        10. Why European conquest so easy?
          1. External reasons
            1. Industrial/military superiority of Europe
            2. Motivation of Europe for nationalistic purposes
            3. Europeans effective medicines – quinine/malaria
          2. Internal reasons
            1. Technological backwardness
            2. Economies based on herding and small-scale agriculture
              1. Failed to develop industrial economies
            3. Frequent intertribal and interkingdom warfare
        11. Individual European control after “Scramble for Africa”
          1. British – “Cape to Cairo” – East Africa dominated
            1. Administrative style similar to in India
              1. “White man’s burden” approach
              2. Took advantage of native elite
              3. Deployed native troops in the Western style
              4. Brought new science and technology to region
          2. French – Primarily Saharan North
            1. Civilizing mission - la mission civilisatrice
              1. Acted reasonably responsibly
          3. Portuguese – Angola
            1. Quite harsh with African colonies
          4. Belgium – Congo
            1. Record among the worst of the Europeans
            2. Overexploited rubber trees and vines
            3. Brutally forced Congolese villagers to meet quotas
              1. Cut off hands of those who did not meet quotas
              2. Massacres of Congolese rubber workers
            4. Population drops from 20 million to 8.5 million
          5. Italy
            1. Poor luck in colonizing
            2. Humiliating loss to Ethiopia at Battle of Adowa
          6. Germany
            1. Recent military prowess allows them to take parts of E. Africa
              1. Colonies that no one else wanted
              2. Actually lost money for Germany
            2. Brutally put down rebellions
              1. Herero Wars – genocidal – 64,000 of 80,000 slaughtered
        12. Effects of European imperialism
          1. Many African families broken up
            1. Men went to work on plantations/mines
              1. Neglected tilling home/village plots
              2. Led to decreased food supply and malnutrition for families
            2. Rise in the level of prostitution/STDs
            3. Women forced to grow food for mere survival
          2. Effects on European diplomacy
            1. Only intensified European conflict
            2. Otto von Bismarck’s Berlin Conference 1885
              1. Artificial boundaries that didn’t take into account local needs
              2. 177 ethnic groups – compromised natural economic/social growth
            3. Germans support Dutch Boers worsened Anglo-German relations
            4. One of the causes of World War I
              1. Which led to the eventual loss of Europe’s empires
      8. Europe in Central Asia
        1. Great Game – Britain vs. Russia for control of the stans
          1. Russia wants warm water port – Indian Ocean
            1. nationalistic pride, resources (cotton), strategic policy – border
          2. British afraid they could then get Middle East/India
          3. Locked in game of espionage/intrigue – put nations on tense relationship
            1. The “Great Game” resulted
      9. Europe in the Middle East
        1. The “Eastern Question” – how to fill in void of failing Ottoman Empire
          1. Ottoman Empire seen as non-threat, predictable, held together volatile area
            1. To destroy might lead to chaos or stronger/more hostile state
          2. European countries didn’t trust each other
            1. Who would step up and take advantage of situation?
          3. Solution – nothing drastic – prop Empire up to keep it in survival
            1. Helped out Greek independence – after lengthy delay
            2. Helped Ottomans put down Muhammad Ali in Egypt
            3. Helped Turks fight Russians in Crimean War – 1856
          4. Growing conflict in Balkans – seeking independence
            1. Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria want autonomy
          5. Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878 – Balkan states get independence
            1. Russians then beat Ottoman Empire
            2. But…forced to give more peaceful terms to Ottomans
              1. Congress of Berlin – 1878 – Europe pressures Russia
          6. Young Turks – pro-Western army officers
            1. Took control of empire in 1908
            2. Deposed Sultan – created parliamentary government
            3. Modernized military, aligned selves with Germany
            4. Social, economic, and political reforms
        2. French/British/Spanish take parts of North Africa
          1. Ottomans unable to make sure N. Africa follows Istanbul mandates
          2. Napoleon in 1798 tries to cut off Europeans from India – attacks Egypt
            1. Creates era of chaos
          3. Egypt – Muhammad Ali revolt 1805 took over Egypt from Ottomans
            1. Western-style military, modernized agricultural production – cotton
            2. Recruited large number of Europeans to teach skills – transform Egypt
            3. But…when he starts to expand empire
              1. France and Britain step in…no one can topple Ottomans
              2. Convinced Ali to be happy with Egypt – still weakened Ottoman
          4. N. Africa now cut off from Ottoman Empire – goes to Europe
            1. French – Algeria – 1830 – most important French colony
              1. Like India to Britain
              2. 150,000 colonists
            2. French – Tunisia
            3. Morocco – French then Spanish
            4. Libya - Italy
        3. Egypt goes under control of British after they paid off debts – got control of Suez Canal
          1. Ali’s grandson Isma’il decides to continue reforms
            1. Build canal across Suez land – link Mediterranean to Red Sea
            2. Built schools and hospitals
          2. Canal not a benefit to Egypt
            1. Built by French engineer, British/French companies
            2. Thousands of Egyptians died in construction
            3. Most shares in canal owned by British/French
            4. Britain owns so much they feel they have say in Egyptian economics
          3. When Britain helps put down 1881 military revolt
            1. They essentially control region – protectorate
              1. Anglo-Egyptian Administration – yeah right…Britain calls shots
          4. Britain expands south to the Sudan
            1. After humiliating defeat by Mahdi and followers
            2. Horatio Kitchener comes in and massacres thousands with machine guns
        4. Persia
          1. Russia and Britain divide up Safavid empire – spheres of influence
            1. Russia gets North, Britain gets South
            2. Britain pour in a ton of money when oil is discovered
      10. Europe in Latin America
        1. Compared to Africa
          1. Boundary lines determined away from the scene
            1. Total disregard for societies that existed before
          2. Multiple countries held claims
          3. Governed by direct rule – except for British – granted a bit more autonomy
            1. Europeans sent in to occupy positions of authority
          4. Native traditions something to overcome, not something to be tolerated
            1. Not something to be developed
          5. Different than in China where priority was making money
            1. Not really concerned about changing entire cultures
          6. Comparing reactions to European imperialism
        2. China vs. India
          1. India – multiple Europeans traded, but British eventually dominate
            1. China – British dominated, gave way to most of Europe
          2. India – British establish colony – running government/improving infrastructure
            1. China – Europe/Japan wanted trade benefits – no government
          3. Independence movements – India targeted British
            1. China targeted Manchu Dynasty
      11. Europe in Europe
        1. “Long Peace” between 1871 and 1914, but tensions getting worse
        2. Destabilizing factors in European balance of power
          1. Nationalism – patriotism turned aggressive
          2. Competition over empire – fewer places to expand
          3. Ambitious nature of German foreign policy
            1. Wanted equal military and imperial status to older nations
            2. Openly aggressive and forceful in pursuing goals
            3. Had industrial/military power to back threats
        3. Alliance system
          1. Didn’t keep peace but guaranteed all out war
          2. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
          3. Triple Entente
            1. Russia no longer friendly with Germany – joins with France
            2. Britain joins – threatened by Germany’s military/industry
          4. All pledged to go to war if two sides quarreled
          5. Only way to win is if you have a knock-out blow
            1. Von Schlieffen Plan – take out France first before Russia mobilizes
            2. Ends up failing
      12. Japanese Imperialism
        1. 17th and 18th centuries Japan successfully kept Europe out
          1. Developed highly ethnocentric, self-involved society
          2. Didn’t allow citizens to travel abroad
        2. 19th century proved too difficult
          1. 1853 –US Commodore Matthew Perry scared the heck out of Japanese
            1. Came on steamship
            2. Showed off big guns
            3. Japan realize isolation led to military/economic disadvantage
          2. Like China, Europe/US set up unfair trade treaties
          3. But…Japanese nationalists – aka samurai – were organized
            1. Put Emperor Meiji into power
        3. Meiji Restoration
          1. Era of Japanese westernization
            1. Japan emerges as world power
            2. 1870s building steamships/railroads
            3. 1876 samurai class abolished – universal military service of all males
          2. 1890s industrial/military power ready to show off
            1. Kept US and Europe checked
              1. Traded on more equal footing
            2. Extremely fast industrial revolution
          3. Expanding empire
            1. 1895 – Sino-Japanese – gain control of Taiwan and Korea
              1. Started as Korean peasant uprising – both took sides
            2. 1904 – Russo-Japanese War – kicked Russia out of Manchuria
              1. Asian power beat European power? Shocking!!!
              2. Japan annoyed with Russia’s expanding Trans-Siberian Railroad
              3. Surprise attack on Russia’s naval base at Port Arthur
              4. Smaller army, but closer – not transported 4000 miles
              5. Japan gets access to Liaotung Peninsula – w. of Korea
                1. And…access to Manchuria
            3. Japan now has its sphere of influence – a world power
            4. Huge precedent
              1. First time in 500 years, non-Western power beat Wester
              2. No longer world’s dominant civilization
              3. Empires would start fading over course of the century
              4. Imperial ambitions spin out of control
        4. Meiji militarism and imperialism
          1. Nationalistic sentiment ran high during late 1800s > increased desire for empire
            1. State-sponsored religion of State Shintoism
              1. modern revival of Japan’s ancient faith
              2. emphasis on Japanese superiority
              3. veneration of emperor as descendant of gods
          2. Expanded due to need for markets – resource poor nation
      13. Ottoman Empire
        1. Began decline in 16th century
        2. Continually fought foreigners at borders
          1. Russians for Balkans, Black Sea, surrounding areas – warm water port
          2. Greece, Egypt, Arabia launched successful independence movements
        3. Britain and France provide military and financial support to prop up Ottoman Empire
          1. Fear their fall could lead to a Russian takeover of region
          2. Crimean War – 1853
          3. Britain gradually gains control of region
        4. Internal factors
          1. Mediocre rulers/governmental corruption
            1. Any sultan that tried to reform had opposition from traditional groups
              1. Armed forces – janissary-led refuse to change
              2. Refuse to lose their privileged position
            2. Attempts at reform
              1. Secularized to a degree
                1. Pursued scientific knowledge in spite of clergy complaint
              2. Tanzimat reforms – 1839-1876
                1. Religious tolerance for non-Muslims
                2. Schools for Western science/technology
                3. National telegraph/postal systems
                4. Possible Constitution
                5. Schools for women
              3. But…reforms alienated conservatives and not far enough liberals
      14. US Empire
        1. Monroe Doctrine - 1823
          1. Ensure Europe wouldn’t recolonize Americas
          2. US idea that used British navy to enforce
            1. British fear Spanish involvement so they’re more than willing to help
        2. Europe makes huge financial investments in Latin America
          1. But avoids territorial claims
        3. Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine – 1804
          1. Would maintain peace between Europe and Latin America over financial issues
            1. Europe goes to Venezuela with warships to collect debt
          2. Gave rise to anger in Latin America – US looks imperialistic
        4. Encourages Panama to revolt from Columbia
          1. US can then buy the rights to a canal – known as the Panama Canal
            1. Construction 1904-1914
        5. Spanish-American War
          1. US sympathizes with Cubans trying to break free from Spain
          2. Few months US defeats Spain in Cuba and Philippines
          3. US becomes world power
            1. Given territories in Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
            2. Two military based on Cuba, plus right to intervene if in trouble
        6. United States global importance
          1. Inspiring freedom – representative government and civil liberties
      15. Overall impact of imperialism
        1. Yes…pretty impressive – military expertise, technological mastery
          1. Brought extreme wealth to Europe and America
        2. But…Inseparable from bloodshed, racial prejudice, slavery and violence
        3. Colonization and influence left deep political scars around globe – still recovering from
        4. European foreign policy more aggressive second half of century
          1. Congress of Vienna fairly successful at keeping peace early on
          2. But…nationalism put premium on patriotic sentiment
          3. Competition over imperial possessions overseas
            1. Amount of desirable territory started to grow smaller
    8. Different cultural and political reactions
      1. Reform
      2. Resistance
      3. Rebellion
      4. Racism
      5. Nationalism
        1. Drove movements in Germany and Italy to unify
          1. Drove movements in Americas to declare independence
          2. Drove resistance to colonialism in India, China and Africa
          3. Drove Europeans to compete with each other to promote national pride by establishing colonies in the first place
          4. Drove Chinese peasant movements against Manch government
            1. Targeted for not being nationalistic enough
          5. Drove French to unite behind Napoleon to take over Europe
          6. Drove the Japanese to industrialize quickly
          7. Drove Egyptians to limit the power of the Ottomans
        2. By 1914, the world had become one where people identify strongly with nation
          1. Or with the dream of creating own nation
        3. Oppressors used nationalistic feelings to justify their superiority
        4. Oppressed used their nationalist feelings to justify their rebellion
        5. Jingoism – belligerent patriotism – British term
    9. Impact of changing European ideologies on colonial administrations
Subject X2: 

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