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Changes in Technology

Early Modern Period

  1. Changes in Technology
    1. Navigational Changes
      1. Sternpost rudder – improved steering - Invented in China – Han Dynasty
      2. Lateen sails – sail in any direction regardless of wind
      3. Astrolabe – measured distance of sun/stars above horizon – latitude
      4. Magnetic Compass – Chinese – direction without sight of land
      5. Three-Masted Caravels – larger sails, large cargo rooms w/ more provisions
  2. Global Interactions
    1. European colonization of Americas
      1. Why successful?
        1. Disease
          1. Indigenous people had no resistance – developed independently
        2. Neighboring states hated Aztecs, more than happy to help
        3. Fear of unknown – metal, horseback – seen as God
        4. Motivation – acquire gold and spices
        5. Superior weapons
        6. Individual assistance
          1. Malince (Dona Marina) acted as interpreter – Spanish>Aztec
      2. Early colonization
        1. Cortes – 1519 – Aztecs
          1. Tenochititlan – Mexico City – New Spain
          2. Conquistadors controlled Western USA – California, Arizona, etc…
        2. Pizarro – 1531 – Incas
        3. Goals
          1. Boost home countries’ power and wealth
          2. Exploitation and exploration of raw materials
          3. Spread of Roman Catholicism
          4. Labor system
          5. Attempted to use natives, but failed
            1. Resorted to importing labor from Africa
      3. Differences in empire expansion from earlier empires
        1. Existing populations wiped out not allowed to remain intact
        2. Huge numbers of people moved in
        3. Even Mongols didn’t totally replace population
        4. Previous empires merged with, converted, or were converted by existing population
        5. Americas – Europeans created new continent in own image – two Europes essenentially
      4. Labor/Economic System
        1. Hierarchical system
          1. Peninsulares – Spanish officials
          2. Creoles – born in colonies to Spanish parents
            1. Educated, wealthy
            2. Looked down upon by Spanish aristocracy
            3. Became leaders of resistance movements later
          3. Mestizos – European and Native American ancestry
          4. Mulattos – European and African ancestry
          5. Native Americans – little to no freedom
            1. Worked on estates, in mines
        2. Encomienda System – American Feudalism
          1. Peninsulares get land and # of slaves/native laborers
            1. In exchange, must protect them and convert them
        3. Attempts at reform
          1. Treatment horrific – Christian missionaries appealed for reform
          2. Reduced strain on natives by bringing in Africans
          3. Replaced one oppressed group with another
          4. Both Africans and Natives ended up at bottom of social hierarchy
      5. Difference methods of Colonization
        1. Spanish/Portuguese
          1. Resource extraction #1 priority
          2. Treatment of Native Americans harsh
            1. Until recently known as cruelest of colonizers
            2. Indians first as slaves, then exploited for cheap labor
            3. Kept near bottom of Latin American social scale
          3. Importation of African slaves massive
            1. More brought to Latin America/Caribbean than United States
              1. Primarily brought over males
              2. #s only kept up through importation, not reproduction
          4. Missionaries/priests – conversion to Catholicism a priority
          5. Settled presence of Spanish/Portuguese (large cities) created permanent colonies
        2. French
          1. Focused on economic exploitation
          2. Focused on fur trade
          3. Made little effort to create long-term settlements
            1. Only 11,000 settlers came from 1608-1763
            2. Attacks from British made it difficult to have long-term settlemensts
          4. Hunters, trappers, soldiers – remarkably adept at adapting selves to environment
            1. Knew woods, rivers of North America well
            2. Learned language of Native Americans – made alliances – Huron
        3. English
          1. Most encouraged long-term settlement
            1. viable, long-lasting colonies desirable
            2. Grew rapidly – men, women and children stayed
            3. Cities, communities grew
              1. Strong systems of local government
          2. Colonists went to escape religious persecution
          3. Some colonists were convicts
          4. Greatest number indentured servants
            1. Worked for masters in exchange for payment of voyage over
          5. Used African slaves
            1. Tobacco/cotton growing southern settlements
          6. Initially, relationship with Indians relatively peaceful
            1. Relationship soured during French/Indian Wars
            2. Turned antagonistic violent after
              1. But…violence always existed before too
    2. Columbian Exchange – most rapid and profound ecological transformations in world history
      1. New foods, animals, resources led to massive changes for both regions
      2. From Europe/Africa
        1. horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, sugar cane, sheep
          1. Increased milk and meat supply in Americas
          2. Horse Provided labor and transport – horse
            1. Changed nature of Indians on the Plains
        2. Food – for the most part Americas uninterested in food crops
          1. wheat, olive trees, grapevines, coffee
          2. Coffee – grew well in Americas
        3. Christianity
        4. From Africa – food, cultural practices, religious beliefs
      3. From Americas
        1. Food
          1. Types
            1. squash, beans, corn, potatoes, cacoa (aka chocoloate)
            2. Maize and sweet potatoes to China and parts of Africa
            3. White potatoes to Europe
            4. Manioc to Africa
            5. Sugar cane cultivation transferred to Brazil/Caribbean
          2. Impact
            1. Boost population growth
        2. Dramatically shifted diet – Europe now getting different parts of food pyramid
          1. Vitamin rich tomatoes
          2. Sugar as luxury good
        3. Excellent source of cotton
      4. Diseases
        1. Mostly European diseases that killed Americans
          1. smallpox and measles
        2. Only disease thought to be brought back from natives is syphilis (not proven)
      5. Weapons
      6. People
        1. Forced – coercive – slavery, convicts
        2. By choice – colonists, religious persecution, exploration, indentured servitude
        3. DNA from different regions now mixed
      7. Altered biological and dietary realities for tens of millions of people
    3. European encounter with Americas – totally changed Americas
      1. Greater cultural interaction
      2. Movement of Europeans and Africans – forever altered North/South American ethnicity, religion, language, art, and music
    4. Triangular Trade Route
      1. Slaves from Africa on Middle Passage
        1. Before stolen and then taken to slave factories
        2. 13 > 20% died in route
          1. death from suicide, illness, thrown overboard for lack of supplies
        3. Only 5% went to N. America, most to Caribbean and South America
        4. Most N. American slaves first had spent some time in the West Indies
      2. Rum, sugar to Europe
      3. Manufactured goods – guns - to Africa
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