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Chapter 27 - Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West

Chapter 27
Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West

  1. I. Introduction
    1. A. Both Russia and Japan reacted differently to Western industrialization
      1. 1. Though behind the West, were able to remain economically autonomous
      2. 2. Unlike China/Middle East, not fully resistant to reform
    2. B. Japanese reforms not expected
      1. 1. Pulled away from the West with limited contacts
      2. 2. Japan pulled away from Asia
      3. 3. Russia continued to interact with eastern Europe/Central Asia
    3. C. Japanese/Russian similarities
      1. 1. Both had prior experience of imitation – Japan < China, Russia < Byzantium/West
      2. 2. Learning from outsiders profitable, doesn’t destroy culture
      3. 3. Both proved political effectiveness
        1. a. State would sponsor changes, not private corporations like in the West
      4. 4. Both expansionist – eventually run into each other
        1. a. Russo-Japanese War – Japan on right course, continue policy
  2. II. Russia’s Reforms and Industrial Advance
    1. A. Russia before Reform
      1. 1. Concerned with isolationism
        1. a. Invasion by Napoleon 1812 – concern with defense
        2. b. Enlightened ideals encourage insurrection
        3. c. Patriarchal comfort provided by feudalism
          1. i. Sponsor Holy Alliance at Congress of Vienna – defend religion/order
      2. 2. Elites sponsor inclusion of the arts
        1. a. But with Decembrist revolt in St. Petersburg 1825
          1. i. Czar Nicholas I represses political opponents – defends conservatism
      3. 3. Unlike West – Russia’s heavy handed approach prevents revolts
      4. 4. More conservative and continues to expand in 19th century
        1. a. Pushed into Poland and the Ottoman Empire
          1. i. Even though Ottoman Empire propped up by Britain and France
            1. a. Keep that “sick man of Europe” alive
    2. B. Economic and Social Problems: The Peasant Question
      1. 1. Expansion not matched by internal improvements
        1. a. Trade deficit lessened by increasing serf output, not improving industry
        2. b. Remained agricultural society based on serfdom
      2. 2. Crimean War 1854-1856
        1. a. Russia fights Ottoman Empire to protect Christianity – how nice of them
        2. b. France/Britain aid Ottoman Empire eventually win
        3. c. Russia learns that
          1. 1. West has industrial advantage in weaponry and logistics
          2. 2. Alexander II – reform essential to survive militarily
      3. 3. Must deal with serfdom
        1. a. Need mobile labor force to encourage industrialization
          1. 1. So…Western humanitarian standards, but also…need for cheap, flexible labor
        2. b. But…initial reforms cause more problems than create solutions – open Pandora
    3. C. The Reform Era and Early Industrialization
      1. 1. Emancipation of serfs more liberal than slaves in Americas
        1. a. Serfs got bulk of land, slaves got zero
        2. b. But…preserved aristocratic power
        3. c. Serfs receive no new political rights – US 13th, 14th, 15th amendments
      2. 2. Serfs tied to villages until they could pay for land
        1. a. Money went to aristocrats
        2. b. This redemption payments increased suffering, maintained aristocracy’s power
      3. 3. Changes from Emancipation
        1. a. Large urban work force
        2. b. More peasant uprisings – want more – life still sucks
        3. c. But…agricultural production doesn’t increase…same tools/methods
      4. 4. New political power
        1. a. Local rulers – zemstvoes regulate roads, schools, regional policies
        2. b. Military – officers based on meritocracy, not birth
          1. i. Recruitment extended
      5. 5. Social behaviors change
        1. a. Increased literacy
        2. b. More loose values sexually – granted, still pretty strict
        3. c. Some upper class women have access to new careers
      6. 6. Industrialization
        1. a. Required state support
        2. b. trans-Siberian railroad – pushed iron/coal sectors
          1. a. More active Asian role
          2. b. Able to send more grain to Europe
        3. c. 1892-1903 – Count Sergei Witte – finance minister
          1. a. High tariffs to protect industry
          2. b. Encouraged Western investors
          3. c. Debtor nation – industrial loans pile up to other countries
        4. d. By 1900 leader – top 5 in world in steel, oil, textiles
          1. a. But…leader due to size/population not efficiency
          2. b. Agricultural still inefficient – illiterate peasants have no desire/ability
        5. e. Different from the West
          1. a. Military officers still seen as aristocracy
          2. b. No growing middle class
            1. i. Can’t increase money/influence because most state-sponsored
  3. III. Protest and Revolution in Russia
    1. A. The Road to Revolution
      1. 1. Effects of Alexander II’s reforms – leads to nationalistic beliefs
        1. a. Economic change
        2. b. Greater population mobility
      2. 2. Factions start wanting change
        1. a. Angry peasants
          1. 1. Frequent famines
          2. 2. Annoyance at having to pay redemption payments
        2. b. Business/professional voice
          1. 1. Want freedom in schools/press/liberal reforms
          2. 2. Not so aggressive
        3. c. Intelligentsia – most radical/articulate
          1. 1. Intellectual radicalism inspired terrorism
            1. a. First modern terrorist movement
              1. i. Bombings and assassinations
            2. b. Leads to more strict tsarist regime
              1. i. censorship press/political meetings
              2. ii. Alexander II assassinated
              3. iii. repression of minority groups
                1. a. Pogroms against Jews - emigration
          2. 2. Want to continue to industrialize, not become materialistic like West
          3. 3. Anarchists – abolish all formal government
          4. 4. Vladimir Lenin
            1. a. Major ideas
              1. i. proletarian revolution w/out middle class
                1. a. Conditions different than Marxist’s ideas
              2. ii. disciplined revolutionary cells
            2. b. Encouraged ironically named “Bolsheviks” – majority party
        4. d. Working class
          1. a. Formed labor unions/strikes
          2. b. Want more political outlets
          3. c. Encouraged by peasants
          4. d. Negative working conditions of industrialization
        5. e. Revolution inevitable, but…
          1. a. Not united
          2. b. Conservative government able to repress harshly
    2. B. The Revolution of 1905
      1. 1. Stilled tried to expand empire
        1. a. Russians don’t focus on domestic problems
        2. b. Tradition of expansion
        3. c. Compete with imperialist powers
        4. d. Pan-Slavic movement
          1. a. Unite Slavs – Slavic protector
            1. i. This would be large cause of WWI
          2. b. Access to Mediterranean – warm water port
        5. e. Expansion comes to abrupt end when embarrassed by Japanese
          1. a. Fleet to slow to mobilize
          2. b. Organization to difficult to move
      2. 2. Loss to Japan became catalyst to protests
        1. a. Peasant revolts and severe police repression
      3. 3. Government begins reforms (don’t last too long)
        1. a. Duma – national parliament
        2. b. Stolypin reforms
          1. a. Freedom from redemption payments
          2. b. Buy and sell land more freely
        3. c. kulaks – minority entrepreneurs – richest landowners increase power
        4. d. But…eventually central gov’t regains power, ignores duma, police brutality
    3. C. Russia and Eastern Europe
      1. 1. Comparison of the two regions
        1. a. Both have monarchies with newly established parliaments – limited power
        2. b. Landlords have extensive power – more so in Eastern Europe
        3. c. Eastern Europe not as industrialized as Russia
          1. 1. Far more dependent on Western markets
        4. 2. But…culturally they go through impressive movement – largest contributions
          1. a. Nationalist pride through dictionaries, histories, folktales, music
          2. b. Composers/authors contribute to Western arts
          3. c. Science – Mendel and some peas, Pavlov and his dog
  4. IV. Japan: Transformation without Revolution
    1. A. The Final Decades of the Shogunate
      1. 1. 19th century – Shogunate falling apart
        1. a. Difficulty combining central bureaucracy with regional alliances
        2. b. Only tax agricultural products
        3. c. Have to pay stipend to samurai – pretty expensive
      2. 2. Japan becomes more secular – prevents religion-based revolution
      3. 3. Japan starts pushing nationalism
        1. a. Terakoya schools – Confucianism, reading, writing – literacy rates 40% - high
      4. 4. Common pattern of traditionalists vs. reformist intellecturals
        1. a. Japanese traditions/Shinto vs. Dutch Studies – let’s learn from the West
      5. 5. Monopolies grow to control new commerce
      6. 6. Rural riots – not political, but aimed at annoying landlords – see pattern
    2. B. The Challenge to Isolation
      1. 1. Commodore Matthew Perry – 1853 – can I introduce you to my big guns?
        1. a. American threat opened Japanese markets
          1. i. West’s military superiority
          2. ii. Need more foreign markets for growing economy
          3. iii. Dutch schools begin to expand
      2. 2. Emperor brought out of religious/ceremonial isolation
      3. 3. Samurai begin attacking foreigners
      4. 4. Crisis stopped when Mutsuhito – Meiji “Enlightened One” – advisor’s push reforms
    3. C. Industrial and Political Change in the Meiji State
      1. 1. Abolish feudalism
        1. a. Abolished samurai class
          1. i. Samurai become poor
          2. ii. Final samurai uprising in 1877 – watch Tom Cruise’s movie
        2. b. Tax expanded past agriculture
      2. 2. Expand state power
        1. a. Expand bureaucracy – welcome back civil service exam
        2. b. Create Diet – upper house, lower house
        3. c. Emperor commands military
        4. d. But…only 5% eligible to vote
        5. e. Meiji advisors pull all the strings – keep Diet under control
        6. f. Unlike Russia…business leaders took leadership role
      3. 3. Expand domestic development
        1. a. State sponsored industrialization
          1. i. need capital
          2. ii. unfamiliarity with new technology
          3. iii. need someone to restrain foreign advisors
        2. b. Private enterprise helps economy
          1. i. Huge industrial corporations – hands in different spheres – zaibatsu
        3. c. Difficult industrialization – Japan resource-poor nation
          1. i. At disadvantage, must import
          2. ii. Women enslaves, still using putting out system, factories not as big
          3. iii. Labor not able to organize like in the West
      4. 4. Prevent conflict with West
    4. D. Japan’s Industrial Revolution
    5. E. Social and Cultural Effects of Industrialization
      1. 1. Increased class tensions
        1. a. Growing population due to health
          1. i. Large cheap labor source
      2. 2. Schooling – science, technical subjects, loyalty to state/emperor
        1. a. Resist individualism teachings of Western advisors
        2. b. Intense government inspection of textbooks
      3. 3. Embraced some of the West
        1. a. Clothing/haircuts/hygiene/medicine
      4. 4. Ignored some of the West
        1. a. Don’t convert in large #s to Christianity
        2. b. Kept manners
        3. c. Encouraged Shintoism
      5. 5. Social changes
        1. a. Divorce rate increases
        2. b. Women kept inferior
      6. 6. New expansive militarization
        1. a. Take minds off domestic issues
        2. b. Job for samurai
        3. c. Resource poor nation
        4. d. Easily defeats China in Sino-Japanese War – 1894
          1. 1. Attacks Russia – how dare you tell me to give pack land
    6. F. The Strain of Modernization
      1. 1. Conflict result
        1. a. Annoyance at acceptance of Western style
        2. b. Traditional old vs. liberal new
        3. c. Diet vs. Emperor for policy control
          1. 1. Led to assassinations
          2. 2. Dissolution of the Diet
        4. d. What was Japan? Western or traditional – how much of both?
      2. 2. Solution – we are unique because of emperor
        1. a. Obedience and harmony that West lacks
        2. b. Preserve independence and dignity in hostile world
        3. c. Tradition of superiority/deference to rulers
      3. 3. Avoided revolutions of the West
        1. a. Meiji reforms
        2. b. Intense repression of dissent
      4. 4. But…tough to follow Japanese model
  5. V. Global Connections
    1. A. Russia extended influence into Asia/Europe
      1. 1. Entered Europe in defeating Napoleon
    2. B. Japan’s economic/military strength gave it a unique position in East
    3. C. Growing competition between Europe, and emerging US, Japan, Russia
      1. 1. New colonial acquisitions scare West
      2. 2. Ahhhh…the “yellow peril” – nations are colonizing and they’re not from Europe…
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