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Chapter 21 - The Muslim Empires

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Chapter 21
The Muslim Empires

  1. I. Introduction
    1. A. Muslim world essentially destroyed by those pesky Mongols
    2. B. But then…out of nowhere…came the return of the Muslims
      1. 1. Ottoman Empire – the biggest
      2. 2. Safavid Empire – Afghanistan and Iran
      3. 3. Mughal – the northern part of India
    3. C. These “gunpowder empires” could be compared with Russia and the West
      1. 1. In fact…they probably will be on a test not far, far away
        1. a. All militarily important
        2. b. Interacted far less with west than Russia
        3. c. Maintained control over how much they wanted to deal w/ West
  2. II. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Turkic-speaking peoples
        1. a. Some fleeing Mongols, some looking for booty
        2. b. Osman leads one of these peoples – the Ottomans
      2. 2. Ottomans attack Byzantine Empire
        1. a. Finally Mehmed II defeats Constantinople
        2. b. Big bad guns too much for big bad walls
      3. 3. Extending the Ottoman Empire
        1. a. Scary naval power in Mediterranean
        2. b. Spread empire down to Egypt and across N. Africa
          1. 1. Looks kind of like what the Roman Empire looked like, w/out Europe
        3. c. Threatened Vienna, but didn’t take
        4. d. But…Europe afraid of Ottomans for centuries…always in back of mind
          1. 1. Near the hypothalamus area
    2. B. A State Geared to Warfare
      1. 1. Economy and social class based on warfare
        1. a. Warrior class goes to top…surprise…guess who got to make the rules
        2. b. Competed for power with religious leaders and administrators
      2. 2. Army of Janissaries
        1. a. aka “Really Good Christian Slave Soldiers that Fight For Us”
          1. 1. Some given by parents, some taken forcibly
          2. 2. Schooled and could become bureaucrats
          3. 3. Hey…this is another type of coerced labor…interesting
        2. b. Became more powerful than cavalry – threatened aristocracy
          1. 1. What’s scarier…Mr. Ed the Horse or a canon and gun?
    3. C. The Sultans and Their Court
      1. 1. Sultans control those beneath and economy
        1. a. Manipulated factions – aristocracy, religious, administrators
        2. b. Commerce given to Christians/Jews – “people of the book”
      2. 2. Sultans grow distant from the masses
        1. a. This will surprise you, but…sultans got richer
        2. b. Spent all their days blowing money on wives, rituals and palaces
        3. c. Viziers ended up taking control – think Prime Minister
      3. 3. Problems with succession
        1. a. Like the rest of the Muslim world (similarity), succession confusing
        2. b. When you have a harem, you have many sons
          1. 1. You die…they fight each other
          2. 2. Losing sons sometimes fled to enemy nations to stage revolt
    4. D. Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture
      1. 1. Changing Constantinople
        1. a. After destroyed/sacked – rebuilt
        2. b. Hagia Sophia converted from cathedral to mosque
        3. c. Aqueducts built, markets reopened, city’s walls repaired
      2. 2. Future sultans try to improve mosques, infrastructure
        1. a. Architecture blends best of Muslim/Byzantine world
          1. a. Mansions, rest houses, schools, hospitals, gardens
        2. b. Fun and exciting markets
        3. c. Coffeehouses became centers of socialization, literary sharing and ingesting of caffeinated beverages
      3. 3. Regulation of merchants and artisans
        1. a. Government inspectors monitored quality of goods/artisans
        2. b. Artisans joined together in guilds – that sounds just like Europe
      4. 4. Language shift to Turkish
        1. a. Ummm…they shifted language to Turkish – literature and official business
    5. E. The Problem of Ottoman Decline
      1. 1. Different perspectives of Ottoman Empire
        1. a. Some talk about how bad decline was
        2. b. Eventually became “sick man” of Europe
          1. 2. Long decline means actually quite strong
            1. a. How many other empires have are around for 600 years
              1. 1. US has been an empire for about 61 years…but we’ve been declining for 28 months
            2. b. By 17th century, they started retreat from Russia, Europe, Arab lands
            3. c. Too large to be maintained – gave regional autonomy
          2. 3. Breakdown of regional administration
            1. a. Officials became corrupt
              1. 1. Locals leaders hold back money from incompetent nincompoops
              2. 2. Some rebellions at the local level
          3. 4. Problems of imperial administration
            1. a. Future leaders not groomed, but hidden away for protection
              1. 1. Monarchs kept alive, but fairly unprepared/naïve
            2. b. Leaders no longer fierce military leaders, but pampered
            3. c. Power of military started to fade
    6. F. Military Reverses and the Ottoman Retreat
      1. 1. Ottomans fall further behind Europeans
        1. a. Reliance on super huge cannons
        2. b. Janissaries don’t want military change that threatens their position
          1. 1. Sounds a bit like the samurai…oohh…another connection
        3. 2. Muslim sea power ends in 16th century
          1. a. Battle of Lepanto – Spanish/Venetians wipe them out
          2. b. Fleet rebuilt, but damage done
            1. 1. Portuguese have head start on Africa
            2. 2. Spanish/Venetians control Eastern Mediterranean
          3. 3. Empire changes around world affect Ottoman finances
            1. a. Christian European rivals get rich off of new goods
            2. b. Tax collectors/merchants no longer making money
              1. 1. No need to go through Ottoman Empire
            3. c. Tons of bullion (aka silver) enters market
              1. 1. Too much bullion equals high inflation
          4. 4. Refusal to accept European ideas dooms empire
            1. a. Falling behind in scientific, technological, commercial transformations
            2. b. Also…in trade and warfare
              1. 1. Arab world believed Europe has nothing to offer
                1. a. Ohhh…poor naïve little fellas
              2. 2. Conservative religious groups – nothing new
                1. a. Want to protect position – remember Janissaries
  3. III. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. History of Shi’a/Sunni Conflict
        1. a. Like Ottomans
          1. 1. Rose from Turkic nomadic struggles
          2. 2. Also represent militant Islam
        2. b. However…they are Shi’a – Ali and Muhammad’s ancestors should rule
        3. c. Battle between Safavid Shi’a and Ottoman Sunni still lasts today
          1. 2. Origins of empire
            1. a. Started with Sufi mystic Sail al-Din wanted to purify/reform Islam
              1. 1. This led to a lot of enemies
            2. b. Eventually Isma’il took Tabriz and became emperor
          2. 3. Battle of Chaldiran
            1. a. N. West Persia – Shi’a vs. Sunni – battle for everything
              1. 1. This would be like if the Catholics and Protestants had one big battle to decide who will rule all of Europe
            2. b. Isma’il’s cavalry destroyed by Ottoman firepower
          3. 4. Significance of Chaldiran
            1. a. Ottoman’s couldn’t maintain empire
            2. b. Safavid empire can’t move further west
            3. c. Spread of Shi’a Islam doesn’t go further west
              1. 1. Shi’a mostly Iran and part of Southern Iraq
                1. a. Yes…there are problems today because of that
    2. B. Politics and War Under the Safavid Shahs
      1. 1. Years of turmoil
        1. a. Isma’il depressed due to loss, started years of turmoil
        2. b. Relative piece/height of empire – 1587-1629
      2. 2. Attempts to bring Turkish chiefs under control
        1. a. Given warrior nobility status – like Ottomans
          1. 1. They would threaten Shah for power
        2. b. Turkic nobles balanced by appointed Persians
        3. c. Plus…army of slave boys brought in to be administrators
          1. 1. Yep…kind of like Janissaries
            1. a. And yep…they were part of power struggle
      3. 3. Using outsiders as advisors and warriors
        1. a. These “slave regiments controlled firearms
        2. b. Not reluctant to use technological info from Europeans
          1. 1. Learned about casting of cannons and slave infantry from England
          2. 2. Armed 40,000 troops…attempt to secure domain
    3. C. State and Religion
      1. 1. Relation to Persia
        1. a. Persian replaces Turkish as spoken language
        2. b. Opulent palaces
        3. c. Grand titles – padishah – king of kings
        4. d. claimed descent from Shi’a imams – successors of Ali
      2. 2. Full theocracy
        1. a. Shi’a becomes dominant sect taught
        2. b. Mullahs – religious/prayer leaders supervised by state
          1. 1. Taught must curse first three caliphs
          2. 2. Teaching in mosque schools regulated by government
          3. 3. Forced conversions to Shi’ism
            1. a. Iranian identity – Shi’ism
            2. b. Forced Jews, Sunnis, Sufi, Christians, Zoraster
            3. c. Shi’a Religious festivals
              1. 1. Public flagellation
              2. 2. Passion plays
              3. 3. Pilgrimages to shrine – Karbala in Iraq
    4. D. Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor
      1. 1. Restoring mosques and improving infrastructure
        1. a. 17th century - Abbas I safe roads with rest stops
        2. b. Merchants trade with China/India and Europeans
        3. c. Ishafan mosques proved glory
          1. 1. geometric shapes, floral patterns, verses from Qur’an
          2. 2. Oasis of arches, greenery, colorful designs contrasted land
    5. E. Society and Gender Roles
      1. 1. Similar social issues between Ottomans and Safavids
        1. a. Both led by warrior aristocracy
        2. b. Retreated to estates – put huge financial drain on peasants
        3. c. Peasants hurt by foreign invasions, civil strife, breakdown of services
      2. 2. Role of handicraft
        1. a. Both encouraged handicraft/trade
        2. b. Both encouraged workshops for miniature paintings, rugs
        3. c. Both paid engineers well
        4. d. Both encouraged trade
          1. 1. Ottomans had advantage – Jews/Christians already trading Europe
      3. 3. Role of women – negative
        1. a. Women subordinated to fathers/husbands – surprise/surprise
        2. b. Women kept secluded/veiled – always more strict in cities
      4. 4. Role of women – positive
        1. a. Some women fought restrictions
          1. 1. Colorful robes, refused to be veiled
          2. b. Wives/concubines influenced rulers

          3. c. Protected inheritance laws – divorce possible
    6. 5. Overall status of women
      1. a. Some lived better than India/China
      2. b.Most lived llife with limited contact and had to stay in house
  4. F. The Rapid Demise of the Safavid Empire
    1. 1. Causes of Decline
      1. a. Leaders kept in seclusion – become inept
      2. b. Eventually beat by nomads in 1722
      3. c. Become battleground for nomads/neighbors wanting to take over
  • IV. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Founding of the Mughal Empire
        1. a. Babur – said he was related to Mongols, but mostly Turkish
        2. b. Lost his kingdom in central Asia – Afghanistan
        3. c. Pushed around in Afghanistan – at 16
      2. 2. Babur takes over Northern India
        1. a. Can’t reclaim homeland, settles for ugly green subcontinent
        2. b. Beat Indians rather easily – 12,000 vs. 100,000 Lodi
          1. 1. Superior firepower
          2. 2. Scared the elephants, trampled Indians
          3. 3. Lodi’s men hated him, had no problem changing sides
        3. c. Babur pretty impressive guy
          1. 1. Wrote history
          2. 2. Fine musician, landscaper – gardens for capital
          3. 3. But…didn’t administer…kept old Mongol system in place
      3. 3. After Babur’s death a fight for power
        1. a. Humayan – son inherits kingdom – 18
        2. b. Pushed out and lives with Safavids for awhile
        3. c. Returns fights, back, then dies falling down stairs while carrying books
    2. B. Akbar and the Basis for a Lasting Empire
      1. 1. Successes of Akbar
        1. a. Though only 13, pretty impressive – fought back rivals
        2. b. Long rule, about the same time as Elizabeth
      2. 2. Military conquest and social/economic changes
        1. a. Realized need to administer properly
        2. b. Brilliant, illiterate – but great memory, slept 3 hours a night
      3. 3. Long term religious plan
        1. a. Reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes
          1. 1. Encouraged intermarriage
          2. 2. Abolished head tax - jizya
          3. 3. Promoted Hindus to highest ranks
          4. 4. Muslims must respect cows
        2. b. Tried to invent new religion – Din-I-Ilahi
          1. 1. Would forever end conflict in India
      4. 4. Connection between aristocrats and monarchy
        1. a. Military made nobility, but had to be prepared to fight
        2. b. Local leaders had relative autonomy
    3. C. Social Reform and Social Change
      1. 1. Attempts to alter daily life
        1. a. Improve calendar
        2. b. Living quarters for the poor
        3. c. Regulate consumption of alcohol – son 20 cups of wine a day
      2. 2. Attempts to improve role of women
        1. a. Encouraged widow remarriage
        2. b. Discouraged child marriages
        3. c. Legally prohibited sati
          1. 1. Even though it went against warrior class
        4. d. Relief for women trapped in purdah
    4. D. Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts
      1. 1. Initial European reaction to Indian cities
        1. a. Cities of Delhi, Agra, Lahore impressive
        2. b. Armies dwarfed European armies
        3. c. but…huge poverty and soldiers aren’t trained
      2. 2. Trade with Europe
        1. a. Trade gap – no interest in European products, but huge for textiles
      3. 3. Demand for Indian textiles
        1. a. Cloth fine…wondered in Europe – daughter see through – 3 layers
        2. b. Techniques of weaving and dying – madras, muslin, pajamas
    5. E. Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era
      1. 1. Rulers start living the good life
      2. 2. Jahangir and Shah Jahan patrons of the arts
      3. 3. Mughal Architecture
    6. F. Court Politics and the Position of Elite and Ordinary Women
      1. 1. Elite women gain power in politics
      2. 2. Role of women in rest of society declined
    7. G. The Beginnings of Imperial Decline
      1. 1. Domestic problems
      2. 2. Two ambitions of Aurangzeb
      3. 3. Military conflict drains treasury
      4. 4. Attempts to rid India of Hindu influence
      5. 5. Threats from new groups
  • V. Global Connections
    1. A. Failure to utilize European technology
    2. B. Failure to match European overseas expansion
    3. C. Attempts of Muslim empires to hold their own
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