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Roosevelt & Progressivism

Roosevelt & Progressivism
Many intellectuals increasingly challenged the foundations of the social order. Voices of reform thundered over the nation calling for democratic government, better cities, and the curbing of corporate power. This movement, labeled progressivism, found its first national leader in Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt actively pursued many of his goals: labor mediation, consumer protection, conservation, business virtue, and activism abroad. His successor, Taft, continued in Roosevelt’s aims but lacked his political genius.

Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.

Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy:
One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that both the United States and Britain promised not to claim control over any canal built between the oceans that separated their countries. This included the Panama Canal which America later took over anyway.

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. This meant they would be in need of a new treaty. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Sir Julian Pauncefote agreed on a new treaty that would drop England’s claim on the canal.

Panama Revolution:
Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.

The Panama Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced.

Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal.

Goethals and Gorgas: George Goethel was a civil engineer who directed a completion of the Panama Canal. William Gorgas helped to make it possible to construct Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and malaria. Theodore Roosevelt later appointed these men important positions in The Panama Canal Zone.

Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power.

Drago Doctrine: Luis Maria Drago was an Argentine diplomat who formulated a supplement to the Monroe Doctrine known as the Drago Doctrine. In 1902, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy imposed a joint naval blockade on Venezuela in order to coerce that country into paying its debts.

Roosevelt Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed.

U.S. intervention in Haiti:
In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance.

Dominican Republic:
In 1915, after bloody upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Wilson ordered the marines. A Haitian constitution favorable to U.S. commercial interests was ratified in 1918. The marines remained in the Dominican Republic until 1924, and in Haiti until 1934.

Revolution in Nicaragua: In 1911 a US-supported revolution in Nicaragua brought to power Adolfo Díaz, an officer of the American-owned Nicaraguan mining property. American bankers loaned the Díaz government $15 million in exchange for control of most of Nicaragua. When a revolt broke out, Roosevelt ordered in the marines.

Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth:
The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops.

San Francisco School Board Incident: American relations with Japan suffered when the San Francisco school board, in 1906, ordered all Asian children to attend segregated schools. Summoning the school-board members to Washington, Roosevelt persuaded them to reverse this discriminatory policy.

Elihu Root:
As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties.

Taft-Katsura Memo: By the Taft-Katsura Memo of 1905, the United States and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China. Japan recognized American control over the Philippines and the United States granted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.

Gentleman’s Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US.

Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States.

Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine.

Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the Root-Takahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China.

Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917: Robert Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson, negotiated the Lansing-Ishii agreement on November 2, 1917 with Japan, whereby the United States recognized Japan's special interests in China. However, the US still felt they had a right to China.

Jones Act, 1916 (Philippines): In 1916, Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. The government created was based on the Constitutional model. In 1934, a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence.

Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers.

Mexican Revolution, Díaz, Huerta, Carranza: Rebels, led by Francisco Madero in 1911, overthrew Porfirio Díaz. In 1913, Madero was overthrown by a military regime led by Victoriano Huerta. The US refused to recognize Huerta’s government because it had come to power violently. Eventually, this led to Mexican-American hostilities.

Mexican migration to the U.S.: In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. By 1914 more than 100,000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. They filled partly the US need for labor during war.

"watchful waiting": "Watchful waiting" refers to Wilson’s policy towards the events unfolding in Europe. In effect, it was America’s policy of neutrality throughout most of the First World War. This policy was taken although it was clear that the United States had obvious ties to Britain and would likely favor it.

ABC Powers: The ABC powers consisted of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. In 1914, the ABC powers called a conference to prevent a war between the United States and Mexico caused by the Veracruz Incident. When president Carranza rejected the proposal for a new Mexican government, the conference came to an end.

Pancho Villa, General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916, bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans, then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. With the U.S. outraged, General John J. Pershing was sent with 12,000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities.

Archangel expedition: In 1918, Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel, Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. Allied forces later became anti-Bolshevik and seized the port. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia’s civil war. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality.

Democracy, efficiency, pragmatism: Democracy is a form of government in which a substantial proportion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. Pragmatism is a philosophical movement, developed in the United States, which holds that both the meaning and the truth of any idea is a function of its practical outcome.

Wright Brothers, Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane, marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk.

"Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around."

Henry Demarest Lloyd, Wealth Against Commonwealth: A leading opponent of business monopolies, Henry Demarest Lloyd was one of the pioneer muckrakers of the late 19th century. He developed his antimonopoly theme as financial writer and editor at the Chicago Tribune.

Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class:
Thorstein Veblen is best known for his book The Theory of The Leisure Class (1899). Veblen’s book is a classic of social theory that introduced the concept of "conspicuous consumption." Veblen continued to write other books dealing with the same general theories.

Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives:
A journalist, photographer, and reformer, Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. His photographs, articles, and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions.

Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities:
An eminent American reformer and journalist, Joseph Lincoln Steffens, was a leader of the muckrakers. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities, asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen.

Frank Norris, The Octopus: The U.S. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. His best-known works, The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903), attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States.

Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company: As a Pennsylvania journalist, editor, and biographer, Tarbell became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine.

David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate:
Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century, Phillips was also a prominent journalist. His "Treason of the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Woman and Economics: Gilman was a leading American feminist writer known for Woman and Economics (1898), a feminist classic she wrote. It attacked the commonly accepted idea that women should be economically dependent on men while suggesting alternatives such as cooperative kitchens and day-care programs.

John Dewey, The School and Society, "progressive education," "learn by doing": Dewey’s ideas of progressive education, described in The School and Society, greatly affected educational techniques. He founded the Laboratory School, a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner, earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues.

Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts, formed to educate the youth of America, heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities.

Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s, another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior.

Richard Ely: Ely, a progressive economist, was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful.

Initiative, referendum, recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office.

Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. It provided that the members, not the leadership, of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office.

Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government, especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot, begun in Australia, which was much more difficult to rig.

Triangle Shirtwaist Co. fire: An accidental fire at the Traingle Shirtwaist Company killed 141 workers. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers, locked in the factory and unable to escape, were killed by brutal working conditions. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws.

International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU): This union of American needle-trade workers launched drives to improve working conditions, end the practice of workers paying for their own equipment, and raise working rates. It is remembered for the militancy of its early organizational drives and its fight against sweatshops.

Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. As a result, many people united in this league in their fight against saloons. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition.

Square Deal: Roosevelt, on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company, called for a "square deal." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.

Forest Reserve Act, 1891: The Forest Reserve Act, strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot, created a system of national forests, consisting of approximately 200 million acres, which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1,500 people.

Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.

Conservation conference, 1908: As Roosevelt’s conservative trend began to permeate through the public mind, he began to create several groups to raise public awareness of nature and the necessity of conservation. The first meeting was of the White House Conservation Conference, followed by the National Conservation Commission.

Anthracite coal strike, 1902, George F. Baer: The Anthracite coal strike was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages, safety conditions, and union recognition.

Elkins Act, 1903, rebates:
The Interstate Commerce Commission was initially created to regulate the economy for the federal government. It was not originally given enough power to regulate the monopolized railroad system. The Elkins Act strengthened the ICC by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers.

Hepburn Act, 1906: The Hepburn Act, in conjunction with the Elkins Act, granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and, in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry, to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.

Mann-Elkins Act, 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates.

Teddy Roosevelt, deeply conservative at heart, did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. He did, however, believe that they must be held to strict moral standards. He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company, followed by 43 other cases. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone, but he broke up many other large, monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy.

Northern Securities Co. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. The company was dissolved.

Meat Inspection Act:
The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat, began a quality rating system, and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat.

Immunity of Witness Act: The Immunity of Witness Act, passed in 1906, prevented corporate officials from pleading immunity in cases concerning their own corporation’s illegal activities. Previously, many officials used this immunity plea to avoid testifying in any way concerning their actions.

W.E.B. DuBois: For more than 50 years W.E.B. DuBois, a black editor, historian, and sociologist, was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence.

Niagara movement: At a meeting in Niagara Falls, Ont., in 1905, W.E.B. DuBois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement. Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

Springfield Ill riot, 1908: The period of Booker T. Washington represented a period of increasing anti-black violence. The large anti-black riot in Springfield in 1908 was representative of the peak of a period of harsh discrimination, white resentment of black advances, and mass public segregation.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W.E.B. DuBois to safeguard civil, legal, economic, human, and political rights of black Americans. It lobbied for legislation, sponsored educational programs, and engaged in protest actions.

The Crisis:
The Crisis was the magazine of the NAACP. It generally reflected the views of the blacks and whites who headed the NAACP. W.E.B. DuBois was editor of The Crisis from 1910 to 1934. He often wrote that Blacks should develop industry and business separate from the white economy in order prove their non-dependence on white society

Brownsville Incident: Roosevelt, though not as racist a president as those before him, did not have a perfect record. In 1906 he discharged an entire regiment of blacks accused of rioting in Brownsville. This unfair and illegal action was later reversed by Congress once all involved parties had died.

Upton Sinclair, The Jungle: Sinclair was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago, eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act.

Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act, enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906, gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items.

Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations, a conservative gold standard, and strict credit policies, eventually leading to the Panic of 1907. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity, finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act.

Election of 1908:
candidates, issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement, conservation, and increased international trade. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. Taft easily won.

Mark Hanna: Hanna was a successful American politician and businessman. He helped manage several campaigns including the Republican presidential nomination of McKinley. Hanna was later selected chairman of the Republican National Committee, an organization he used to collect a large war chest to assist in McKinley’s election.

Scientific management, Frederick W. Taylor:
Taylor was an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company in 1878 and used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity, using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency.

Wisconsin, "laboratory of democracy": La Follette enacted sweeping changes during his governorship of Wisconsin in 1900. He adopted a direct primary system, began to regulate the railroads in his state, increased corporate taxes, and passed other progressive reform legislation. He also created a legislative reference library for lawyers.

Robert M. La Follette: La Follette, initially a Republican in Congress, broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. He took the reform movement, previously only found at the municipal level, to new heights, the state. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems, but as the progressive movement entered the national government, these problems were solved.

Regulatory commissions: As the Progressive Era advanced, regulatory commissions became more prevalent and numerable. The excesses of the monopolistic railroad companies became known to all. In an effort to end the abuses of the rich capitalists regulatory commissions were created to divide the concentrated wealth.

Jane Addams, Hull House: Addams was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago, a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs. Addams also played an important role in the National Progressive party.

Florence Kelley, consumerism: Kelley was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years. In 1899 she was selected general secretary of the National Consumers’ League, which used organized consumer boycotts and strikes to force improved factory conditions.

home rule for cities: Home rule was a new form of city government other than the mayor-council form that emerged in the Progressive Era. Under this form of government the city was run by a committee of three elected commissioners. They locally ran the county rather than allowing the state to handle affairs.

Municipal Reform:
The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. In reforms concerning the commoners, even the political bosses assisted. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level.

Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Whitlock, Hazen Pingree:
These were all progressives who reformed the political process. Johnson reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago. San Jones reformed profit sharing and education in Toledo, Ohio. Pingree reformed taxes, the honesty in government, and beautified his city.

City manager plan, commission plan: This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities. It began in Texas when progressives removed the corrupt mayor and council, replacing them with five elected commissioners. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city, which is what they were elected to do.

Daniel Hudson Burnham, 1909 Chicago Plan: Burnham, in conjunction with John Root, built the first steel-frame buildings that later developed into modern skyscrapers. Burnham was the designer of the famous Chicago Plan, a plan in which many beautiful pre-skyscraper buildings were designed in Chicago.

William Howard Taft: As president, Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trust-busting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. He was unable to reunite the two parties and, as a result, the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections.

Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Corporations also in 1903):
This department was created in 1913 with the intention of assisting the welfare and working conditions of the general worker. It was empowered to investigate and report illegal corporative activities.

Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs, but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels.

Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. Since Taft have given him support, Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans.

Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. This group, including La Follette and Norris, turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group.

Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910, allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate.

Senator George Norris: Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority, a dam building company. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support.

Rule of reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. According to this "rule of reason" principle, only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms.

 "dollar diplomacy":
In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy, President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic, social, and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials.

Secretary of State Knox:
Knox was responsible for the creation of the Latin American Division of the State Department. He planned to promote better relation, but the US kept a portion of the military in the Dominican Republic. This was planned to quiet revolutionary thoughts and to prevent foreign financial problems.

Manchurian railroad scheme:
In an attempt to force Japan and Russia to sell their land in Manchuria for railroad investment, President Taft moved to construct his own competing rail system. China refused to approve Taft’s plan and Japan and Russia began to grow suspicious of the US’s motives.

Roosevelt’s Osawatomie, Kansas speech:
The differences between Taft and Roosevelt were revealed in Roosevelt’s 1910 Osawatomie "New Nationalism" speech. Roosevelt unveiled a plan in which he called for a protection of welfare over property, opposing Taft’s support of numerous tariffs as well as the Old Guard in Congress.

Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election.

Bull Moose Party:
This party, formally known as the Progressive Party, was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party. They advocated primary elections, woman suffrage, and prohibition of child labor. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats.


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