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12. Westward Expansion

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Westward Expansion Topic Outline25 KB

I.    Gradual Expansion of Frontier – Each addition adds to slavery issue, moves frontier, Indian problems
    A.    Proclamation of 1763 – Colonists not west of Appalachians – annoys colonists
    B.    Treaty of 1783 – Britain gives US land to Mississippi
    C.    1803 - Louisiana Purchase – Napoleon realizes he can’t keep French empire - $15 mil
        i.    Brings up issue of constitutionality of president purchasing land
        ii.    Lewis and Clarke – ecology, Native Americans, surveying, claiming Oregon
            1.    Open up westward movement
    D.    1820s-1830s – Texas – Mexico encourages movement – $.12 per acre – become Catholic
        i.    After Santa Anna – Alamo – country Republic of Texas
        ii.    Not annexed right away – fear it would be broken into many slave states
    E.    1847 – Utah – Mormons – organized voting block/feared for organization – kicked out
    F.    1846 – Polk – 54 40 or Fight! – extend America into Canada above Washington
        i.    America can’t fight Mexico and Britain – agree to make boundary above Wash.
    G.    1946-1848 – Mexican War – looks like land grabbing – Zachary Taylor creates catalyst
        i.    Defeats Mexico City – Guadalupe Hidalgo gives Southwest – 1848 Gold discover

II.    Transportation
    A.    Turnpikes – toll roads – 1812-1825
    B.    Cumberland Road – federal road – 1806-1850 connects Midwest to Virginia
    C.    Canal Building – 1825-1840 – Erie Canal starts
        i.    1 ton of goods now for 1 cent per mile not 20 cents per mile
        ii.    Takes away farming from Northeast – moves to Midwest
        iii.    People can now move to Midwest and get supplies still to Atlantic Ocean
    D.    Steamboat – 1810-1840 – up and down rivers – not mercy of wind
    E.    Railroads – bought by federal government, made privately
        i.    Faulty creation, corruption, accidents of both railroads and steamship building
    F.    Mail – 1896 – finally mailbox delivery – before if rural must go to post office
    G.    Morse/Telegraph – 1844 – “What hath God wrought?” DC > Baltimore – Samuel Morse

III.    Towns – build city infrastructure first, people come later
    A.    Balloon frame + nails – quick building
    B.    Wagons – families come out – Oregon Trail – leave Independence, MO – near St. Louis
    C.    Passing of frontier after Civil War
    D.    Buffalo slaughter – 15 million down to 1 thousand – sport – destroys Native American lives
    E.    Mining towns – boom bust – Northwest territories – become ghost towns – no other source of income – minerals gone, town gone
        i.    Women gain equality here first – state voting first – have power supply/demand
    F. Cattle drives big until fenced in – changes American landscape

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