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24. Truman and the Cold War

I. Postwar Domestic Adjustments
    A. Initial faltering economy – inflation rises, GDP down, strikes
        1. Taft-Hartley Act – put limits on labor unions
            a. Outlawed closed shop, labor leaders take non-Communist oath
        2. Sold war factories cheaply to private companies
        3. G.I. Bill – paid for school for soldiers; home, farm, and small business loans
    B. GDP growth lasts next two decades – Americans – 6% of population controlled 40% of earth’s $
        1. Middle class doubles, home ownership increases
        2. Not touched by war – America dominates ruined global landscape
        3. Rising education level, better technology, workforce leaves agriculture
        4. Move to suburbs – massive baby boom

II. Civil Rights - war generated new militancy among blacks, generation of college grads
    A. 1948 – Truman ends segregation in federal civil service, equality of treatment in military
    B. Election of 1948 – Democrats against Truman because of civil rights stance
        1. Form Dixiecrats – States Right – nominated Governor Strom Thurmond of S. Carolina
        2. Vice-President Henry Wallace enters election for Progressive Party – pro-Soviet platform
        3. Harry delivers 300 “give ‘em hell Harry” speeches – Republican Dewey should have won
            a. Chicago Tribune ran newspaper – Dewey Defeats Truman – but…farmers, workers, blacks not interested with Republicans

III. Containment in Europe and the Middle East
    A. Truman Doctrine - $400 million for Greece and Turkey – help fight Communism
        1. Bigger issue – protect any “free peoples” from outside Communist pressure
            a. Problem – any tyrant can claim Communist threat and get help
    B. Marshall Plan – 1) make capitalism attractive, resist Communism 2) help rebuild Europe
        1. $12.5 billion – reverse of Versailles – helps nations rebuild – became economic miracle
    C. Berlin crisis – Berlin divided among four allied powers – France, England, Britain, Russia
        1. Becomes East and West Berlin – Russia wants Eastern Europe as “satellite nation”
        2. 1948 – Soviets cut off train/highway access – Allies respond w/ massive airlift
            a. Symbolic importance – America determined to protect interests
    D. NATO – 12 original say an attack on one is an attack on all – isolationists defeated
1. Officially ended American isolationism, helped unite Europe, militarizes Western Europe for Cold War
    E. 1949 – Truman announces Soviets had tested nuclear bomb
        1. US in 1952 gets Hydrogen bomb, then Soviets get hydrogen bomb next year

IV. Revolution in China
    A. American backed Jiang Jieshi defeated by Communist Mao Zedong and banished to Taiwan
        1. Looks like America “lost” China to Communism – US looks for someone to blame

V. Korean War – Korea divided into Russia and US spheres of influence at 38 degrees
    A. N. Korea invades and then pushed back by MacArthur and UN soldiers, drives to China border
        1. China then attacks and pushes forces back to start – 38 degrees
    B. NSC-68- Truman quadruples defense spending
        1. Belief that American economy can handle any expenditure on defense
    C. MacArthur calls Truman a communist appeaser because he has to fight limited war
        1. Wants to drop nukes and invade China
        2. Truman has to fire MacArthur – returns a hero

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