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25. Eisenhower and Modern Republicanism

I. Modern Republicanism – keep social/economic programs but push for military build-up
    A. Ike allowed McCarthy because his target was oftentimes previous Democ. Administration
        1. Master of manipulating media – careers ended because he “named” you
        2. Majority of polled Americans approved of McCarthy – made it hard to criticize
        3. Army hearings destroy him in front of 20 million on TV – dies alcohol 3 yrs. Later

II. Civil Rights Movement
    A. The Warren Court – Congress resists change, Ike not interested – go to courts
        1. Brown v. Board of Education reverses Plessy vs. Ferguson - unanimous
        2. Confronted important social issues instead of refusing to hear
        3. Little Rock 9 – high school integrated only after Eisenhower intervenes over gov.
    B. Montgomery Bus Boycott – year long successful boycott after Rosa Parks refuses seat
        1. Martin Luther King – Southern Christian Leadership Conference – gains status
        2. Proved blacks could unite
C. Greensboro sit-in – spontaneous sit-in at Woolworth’s – later fad spread all over South in pools, restaurants, public places

III. John Foster Dulles – churchgoer – push back Communist advances, “liberate captive people”
        1. Also try to balance budget by reducing military spending
    A. Massive retaliation – build-up of Strategic Air Command + nukes to level cities
        1. “More bang for the buck” – turned out to be extremely expensive
            a. Eventually Ike warns against “military-industrial complex”
        2. Problem – can’t use massive nuclear attack threat on minor issues – Hungary
    B. Southeast Asia – Ho Chi Minh wants independence – America can’t let go Communist
        1. French forces fail at Dien Bien Phu – America must support France for help in Eur.
            a. Loss forces compromise – divide country and elect in a year
            b. South Vietnam U.S. backed leader Diem takes money but doesn’t help
            c. America firmly involved backing losing horse
    C. Empires die out – Middle East and Latin America push for independence – democracy
        1. Iranians seen as supporting USSR, so US sponsors coup and puts in dictator – shah
            a. Arab world angered at US intervention
        2. Egyptians not given US money for dam, they end up nationalizing Suez Canal
            a. Britain and France go to war against Egypt without US help
            b. Demonstrates reliance of west on oil – power shifts to Middle East
    D. Khrushchev – tensions only get more fierce after failed attempts at summits
        1. Khrushchev shallowly promises disarmament to UN
        2. Ike looks stupid when U-2 plane crashes after US says we don’t fly spy missions

IV. American people – homogenized society – buys same thing/has same values – keeping up with the Joneses
    A. White collar jobs outnumber blue collar jobs
    B. Women – return to female jobs – domestic – baby boom
        1. Cult of domesticity – later refuted by Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique
        2. Ozzie and Harriet and Leave it to Beaver – TV shows with perfect suburban fams
    C. Consumer culture – Diner’s Club 1st credit card, McDonalds
        1. Rapid TV growth – movie attendance sinks
        2. Cultural and social growth destroyed by consumerism and TV media
        3. Popular music turns to “crossover” Elvis Presley – black, country, British
        4. Americans buy mass-produced, standardized products – where’s the difference
V. Space Race – Sputnik USSR satellite – communism actually key to future – USSR ahead of US
    1. Fear – USSR education stronger, could now attack US from space w/ missile
        a. Education – too easygoing – substitute square roots for square dancing
        b. Authorized loans for college

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