I. England’s Imperial Stirring
A. North America
1. North America in 1600 was largely unclaimed, though the Spanish had much control in Central and South America.
2. Spain had only set up Santa Fe, while France had founded Quebec and Britain had founded Jamestown.
3. In the 1500s, Britain didn’t really colonize because of internal conflicts.
a. King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s and launched the English Protestant Reformation.
b. After Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became basically Protestant, and a rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified.
c. In Ireland, the Catholics sought Spain’s help in revolting against England, but the English crushed the uprising with brutal atrocity, and developed an attitude of sneering contempt for natives.
II. Elizabeth Energizes England
1. After Britain basically defeated Spain (i.e. Spanish Armada defeat), British swarmed to America and took over lead in colonization and power.
a. Sparked new literature, like Shakespeare
2. After Drake circumnavigated the globe, Liz I knighted him on his ship.
3. However, English tries at colonization in the New World failed often and embarrassingly.
4. Britain and Spain finally signed a peace treaty in 1604.
III. England on the Eve of the Empire
A. Reasons for Emigration
1. In the 1500s, Britain’s population was mushrooming
2. Farmers were enclosing land for farming.
3. Puritanism took a strong root in the woolen districts of western and eastern England.
4. Younger sons of rich folk (who couldn’t inherit money) tried their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America.
5. By the 1600s, the joint-stock company was perfected, being a forerunner to today’s corporations.
IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
1. In 1606, the Virginia Company received a charter from King James I to make a settlement in the New World
joint-stock companies usually did not exist long, as stockholders hoped
to form the company, make a profit, and then quickly sell for profit a
few years later.
2. The charter of the Virginia Company guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen in Britain.
3. On May 24, 1607, about a 100 English settlers disembarked from their ship and founded Jamestown
a. Forty colonists perished during the voyage.
b. In mosquito-ridden Virginia, disease was rampant. It didn’t help that a supply ship shipwrecked in the Bahamas in 1609 either.
4. Luckily, in 1608, a Captain John Smith took over control and whipped the colonists into discipline.
had been kidnapped by local Indians and forced into a mock execution by
the chief Powhatan and had been “saved” by Pocahantas.
b. The act was meant to show that Powhatan wanted peaceful relations with the colonists.
5. Still, the colonists were reduced to eating cats, dogs, rats, even other people.
6. Finally, in 1610, a relief party headed by Lord De La Warr arrived to alleviate the suffering.
7. By 1625, out of an original overall total of 8000 would-be settlers, only 1200 had survived.
V. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
A. The Indian’s Begin to Lose Power
first, Powhatan possibly considered the new colonists potential allies
and tried to be friendly with them, but as time passed and colonists
raided Indian food supplies, relations deteriorated and eventually, war
2. The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with a peace settlement sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe.
3. Eight years later, in 1622, the Indians struck again with a series of attacks that left 347 settlers, including John Rolfe, dead.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War began in 1644, ended in 1646, and effectively
banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands.
5. After the settlers began to grow their own food, the Indians were useless, and were therefore banished.
VI. Virginia: Child of Tobacco
A. Tobacco Info
1. Tobacco created a greed for land, since it heavily depleted soil and ruined the land.
2. King James I detested tobacco.
3. Representative self-government was born in Virginia, when in 1619, settlers created the House of Burgesses.
4. Slavery in the Americas was also born in 1619.
VII. Maryland: Catholic Heaven
A. Religious Diversity
1. Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, Maryland was the second plantation colony and the fourth overall colony to be formed
2. It was a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge.
Baltimore gave huge estates to his Catholic relatives, but the poorer
people who settled there where mostly Protestant, creating friction.
4. However, Maryland prospered with tobacco.
5. It had a lot of indentured servants.
6. Only in the later years of the 1600s (in Maryland and Virginia) did Black slavery began to become popular.
religious statute guaranteed toleration to all Christians, but decreed
the death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn’t believe in
the divinity of Jesus Christ.
VIII. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
A. Their Use
1. As the British were colonizing Virginia, they were also settling in the West Indies (Spain’s declining power opened the door).
2. By mid-1600s, England had secured claim to several West Indies islands, including Jamaica in 1655.
3. They grew lots of sugar there.
4. Thousands of African slaves were needed to operate sugar plantations, and these weren’t for the poor either.
5. To control so many slaves “codes” were set up that defined the legal status of slaves and the rights of the masters. They were typically strict.
IX. Colonizing the Carolinas
A. Restoration Period
1. In England, King Charles I had been beheaded. Oliver Cromwell had ruled for ten years before tired Englishmen restored Charles II to the throne.
2. The bloody period had interrupted colonization.
3. Carolina was named after Charles II, and was formally created in 1670.
4. Carolina flourished by developing close economic ties with the West Indies.
5. Many original Carolina settlers had come from Barbados.
6. Interestingly, Indians as slaves in Carolina was protested, but to no avail. Slaves were sent to the West Indies to work, as well as New England.
7. Rice emerged as the principle crop in Carolina.
a. African slaves were hired to work on rice fields, due to their immunity to malaria and their familiarity with rice.
8. Despite violence with Spanish and Indians, Carolina proved to be too strong to be wiped out.
X. The Emergence of North Carolina
1. Many newcomers to Carolina were “squatters,” people who owned no land.
2. North Carolinians developed a strong resistant to authority, due to geographic isolation from neighbors.
3. In 1712, North and South Carolina were officially separated.
1711, when Tuscarora Indians attacked North Carolinas, the Carolinians
responded by crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to slavery and
leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the Sixth Nation
of the Iroquois
XI. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony
A. Georgia’s Purpose
was intended to be a buffer between the British colonies and the
hostile Spanish settlements in Florida and the enemy French in
2. Founded in 1733 by a high-minded group of philanthropists, it was the last colony founded.
3. Named after King George II of England, Georgia was also meant to be a haven for wretched souls in debt.
4. James Oglethorpe, the ablest of the founders and a dynamic soldier-statesman, repelled Spanish attacks.
a. He saved “the Charity Colony” by his energetic leadership and by using his own fortune to help with the colony.
5. All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration, and many missionaries came to try to convert the Indians.
a. John Wesley was one of them, and he later returned to England and founded Methodism.
6. Georgia grew very slowly.
XII. The Plantion Colonies
A. Comparisons and Contrasts
1. Slavery was found in all the plantation colonies.
2. Growth of cities was often stunted by forests.
3. Establishment of schools and churches was difficult.
4. In the South, the crops were tobacco and rice.
5. All the plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration.
6. Confrontations with Native Americans was often.
XIII. Makers of America: The Iroquois
- In what is now New York State, the Iroquois once were a great power.
- They were made up of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Deganawidah, and the Hiawatha.
- They vied with neighboring Indians and later French, English, and Dutch for supremacy.
- The longhouse was the building block of Iroquois society.
25 feet wide but over 200 feet long, longhouses were typically occupied
by a few blood-related families (on the mother’s side).
- The Mohawks were middlemen with European traders.
- The Senecas were fur suppliers.
- The Five Nations of the Iroquois’ rivals, the neighboring Hurons, Eries, and Petuns, were vanquished.
- Throughout the 1600s and 1700s, the Iroquois allied with the British and French (whichever more beneficial).
- When the American Revolution broke out, the decision to side with who was split.Most sided with the British, but not all.
- Afterwards, the Iroquois were forced to reservations, which proved to be unbearable to these proud people.
- An Iroquois named Handsome Lake arose to warn his tribespeople to mend their ways.
- His teachings live today in the form of the longhouse religion.
- He died in 1815.