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Environmental Science

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Genetics

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Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMOSOME NUMBER -Human body cells have 46 chromosomes -Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes -Homologous chromosomes- one of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent -Same length -Same centromere position -Carry genes that control the same inherited traits HAPLOID AND DIPLOID CELLS -An organism produces gametes to maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation -Human gametes contain 23 chromosomes -A cell with n chromosomes is a haploid cell -A cell with 2n chromosomes is a diploid cell - MEIOSIS I -The sexual life cycle in animals ivolves meiosis -Meiosis produces gametes -When gametes combine in fertilization, the number of chromosomes is restored MEIOSIS

PCR Flow Chart

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Chapter 11 Notes

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Chapter 11 Notes Trini Soza Feeding the World ? A farm where animals do most of the work. Rapidly growing population needs rapidly produced food. Human nutritional requirements are not always satisfied Humans used to survive on hunting and gathering, but 10,000 years ago agriculture began. Advances in agriculture have improved the human diet Tremendous gains in agriculture productivity and food distribution were in the 20th century. Despite advances, to this day, 24,000 people starve to death each day. 8.8 million each year. Nutritional Requirements Undernutrition: Not consuming enough calories to be healthy Food calories are converted into usable energy for the human body. Not receiving enough calories leads to an energy deficit

Cycles Notes

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Trini Soza Mr. Miguelez APES, 5 10 December 2013 Cycles Questions Water It basically is what keeps an organism alive. The Hydrologic Cycle keeps the water movement going on, above and bellow the surface. There would be more groundwater since the tree roots are not there to absorb the rainfall, as well with a decrease in water evaporation. Logging takes a hit at the Hydrologic Cycle since trees play a crucial role in it. Not only does the fact that we cut down trees affect the cycle, but also one of the biggest effects we have is contamination. The contamination of oceans, rivers, lakes are damaging the quality of the water in the cycle. Carbon Dioxide - Respiration from animals - Organisms - Dissolved CO2 from ocean - Combustion of fossil fuels - Erosion - Volcanic reactions

Chapter 3 Notes

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Chapter 3 Notes Ecosystem Boundaries Biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem provide the boundaries that separates them from one another Some have a well-defined boundaries: Like a cave Scientist might define a terrestrial ecosystem as the range of a particular species of interest Ecosystems occur in a wide range of sizes Ecosystem Process Each ecosystem interacts with surrounding ecosystems Change in ONE ecosystem can affect the global environment Photosynthesis and Respiration Nearly all of the energy that powers ecosystems comes from the sun Plants, algae and other organisms have the ability to convert the suns solar energy to usable from of energy, these are called producers/autotrophs

APES Articles

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APES Articles: China's Acid Rain Control Strategy Offset By Increased Nitrogen Oxide Air Pollution http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091014122054.htm U.N. Says Lag in Confronting Climate Woes Will Be Costly http://www.nytimes.com/pages/science/earth/ Toxic Mercury Pollution May Rise with Arctic Meltdown http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=toxic-mercury-pollution-may-rise-with-arctic-meltdown Undersea Freshwater Reserves Could Quench the World?s Thirst for Decades http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2013/12/06/freshwater-reserves-quench-worlds-thirst-decades/ Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es404474x Puzzling moose deaths hint at climate shock to forests

Ecosystem Services

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Ecosystem Services Definition: Conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life. Some Services: Purification of air and water Mitigations of floods and droughts Detoxification and decomposition of waste products Generation and renewal of soil and soil fertility Pollination of crops and natural vegetation Control of the vast majority of potential agricultural pests Dispersal of seeds and translocation of nutrients Maintenance of biodiversity, from which humanity has derived key elements of its agricultural, medical and industrial enterprise Protection from the sun?s harmful rays Partial stabilization of climate Moderation of temperature extremes and the force of winds and water

Oceans

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Oceans Oceanography Study of the physical ocean Cover 71% of the Earth Contains 97% of its surface water Marine Ecosystems Cover 70% of the Earth?s surface Essential for: Biodiversity, Terrestrial Health, Production of O2, Climate and Food. Estuaries Coastal Partly enclosed One or more rivers flow into them Water is brackish (a mixture of fresh and salt water) Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth Makes lots of biomass Lots of plant growth/m2 A lot of life in the area Nurseries for fish, crustaceans and vertebrates Services Aquatic nurseries Protected harbors Commercial Fishing, Recreational Fishing Habitat for non-aquatic animals, such as bald eagles, shorebirds Threats Many near populated areas May be filled for development Pollutants

ENSO

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ENSO El Nino and La Nina ENSO stands for El Nino Southern Oscillation. The average cycle is 7 years. ENSO occurs in tropical waters (Southern Equatorial Pacific) El Nino means ?The Child? because it usually happens around Christmas so its connected to the baby Jesus Solar Intensity and Latitude At low latitudes (near the equator) the sun?s rays are nearly vertical At high latitudes (near the poles) the sun?s rays are much less intense because the sun remains close to the horizon Tropical latitudes are the warmest Air rises there This causes convection cells (Hadley Cells) that constantly move air throughout the atmosphere Normal conditions in Southern Pacific These surface winds move warmer surface water to the west

Ocean Acidification

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Ocean Acidification What is ocean acidification? (OA) A reduction in ocean pH due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2. The Amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing We are at the highest level of CO2 we?ve had in a millions years Debates about the effects of high CO2 levels and its cause Not open for discussion The Chemistry of the ocean is dependent on the chemistry of the atmosphere Natural process If you increase CO2 in atmosphere by diffusion you increase the CO2 levels in the ocean What we do to the atmosphere, we also do to the ocean OCEAN IS NOT AN ACID Ocean is becoming less basic, not more acidic Chemistry of it: CO2 reacts with H20 HCO3 (bicarbonate) H (hydrogen) CO2 + H2O => HCO3 + H Water becomes more acidic the more CO2 it contains

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