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Chapter 07 - Policy Responses to Demographic Changes


For practical purposes population data are reported by country.  However, demographic variation within countries can be very large as, for example, in India.  During the twentieth century national governments pursued three kinds of population policy: expansive, eugenic, and restrictive.  International agreements on population policies are difficult to reach, in part because religious ideologies and governmental goals may be incompatible.  The most dramatic population-policy reversal in recent decades was carried out by communist China.  Many governments have sought to control immigration through laws limiting the number or type of people who can cross borders and become citizens, but few countries have succeeded in controlling immigration effectively.


1. Population change is a:
a. global issue
b. regional issue
c. local issue
d. useless issue

2. Over the past century, many of the world's governments have instituted policies designed to influence:
a. emigration or per capita income
b. growth rate or ethnic ratios
c. national reform or communist objectives
d. international policies or mortality rate

3. Which is not one of the typical population policies?
a. expansive
b. restrictive
c. contradictive
e. eugenic

4. The Japanese experience with respect to population is a:
a. failure
b. success
c. tragedy
d. mediocre achievement

5. During the American occupation of Japan, medical services and public health:
a. declined
b. improved
c. stayed the same
d. only helped the Americans

6. What reasons did the Japanese Eugenic Protection Act not cite?
a. social
b. medical
c. economic
d. political

7. The growth rate needed to sustain a population is:
a. 1.0
b. 1.5
c. 2.1
d. 3.0

8. What makes India such a difficult country to carry out a coordinated population policy?
a. It is a federation of 28 States
b. It contains 7 Union Territories
c. The will of the federal government is forcibly imposed in the States
d. The individual States vary greatly both culturally and politically

9. What was not one of the ways China enforced the one-child policy.
a. forced abortions
b. fines
c. deportations
d. arrests

10. As the world's population mushrooms, the volume of migrants will:
a. diminish
b. stay the same
c. expand
d. disappear


1.  The Bucharest gathering was the first in a series of UN-sponsored conferences on population  issues (TF)

2. The Soviet Union promoted births after World War II because it had not fully recovered from enormous losses. (TF)

3. The "Cairo Strategy" was a program that combined family planning and eugenic policies. (TF)

4. Communist societies generally used expansive population policies. (TF)

5. The ultimate example of "eugenics" was Nazi Germany. (TF)

6. Restricting the immigration of foreign workers will will do more to age a population than any other policy can. (TF)

7. The Islamic realm has some of the highest growth rates in the world. (TF)

8. Demographers predict that India will overtake China as the world's most populous nation. (TF)

9. Population growth rates are very similar across the country of India. (TF)

10. Few countries have restricted immigration, or have specific requirements. (TF)


1.  Compare and contrast the population policies of Japan, India, and China.  Give at least one example of each of the following population policies: expansive, eugenic, and restrictive.

2. How has the role of the United Nations progressed in terms of population policy?

3. Explain what specific policies have fallen under expansive, eugenic, and restrictive population policies?

Subject X2: 

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