AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more!

Chapter 33 - Invertebrates

AttachmentSize
Chapter 33 Invertebrates101 KB

Chapter 33 Invertebrates
Lecture Outline

Overview: Life Without a Backbone

  • Invertebrates—animals without a backbone—account for 95% of known animal species and all but one of the roughly 35 animal phyla that have been described.
    • More than a million extant species of animals are known, and at least as many more will probably be identified by future biologists.
  • Invertebrates inhabit nearly all environments on Earth, from the scalding water of deep-sea hydrothermal vents to the rocky, frozen ground of Antarctica.

Concept 33.1 Sponges are sessile and have a porous body and choanocytes

  • Sponges (phylum Porifera) are so sedentary that they were mistaken for plants by the early Greeks.
  • Living in freshwater and marine environments, sponges are suspension feeders.
  • The body of a simple sponge resembles a sac perforated with holes.
    • Water is drawn through the pores into a central cavity, the spongocoel, and flows out through a larger opening, the osculum.
    • More complex sponges have folded body walls, and many contain branched water canals and several oscula.
  • Sponges range in height from about a few mm to 2 m and most are marine.
    • About 100 species live in fresh water.
  • Unlike eumetazoa, sponges lack true issues, groups of similar cells that form a functional unit.
  • The germ layers of sponges are loose federations of cells, which are not really tissues because the cells are relatively unspecialized.
    • The sponge body does contain different cell types.
  • Sponges collect food particles from water passing through food-trapping equipment.
    • Flagellated choanocytes, or collar cells, lining the spongocoel (internal water chambers) create a flow of water through the sponge with their flagella and trap food with their collars.
    • Based on both molecular evidence and the morphology of their choanocytes, sponges evolved from a colonial choanoflagellate ancestor.
  • The body of a sponge consists of two cell layers separated by a gelatinous region, the mesohyl.
  • Wandering though the mesohyl are amoebocytes.
    • They take up food from water and from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells.
    • They also secrete tough skeletal fibers within the mesohyl.
      • In some groups of sponges, these fibers are sharp spicules of calcium carbonate or silica.
      • Other sponges produce more flexible fibers from a collagen protein called spongin.
        • ? We use these pliant, honeycombed skeletons as bath sponges.
  • Most sponges are sequential hermaphrodites, with each individual producing both sperm and eggs in sequence.
    • Gametes arise from choanocytes or amoebocytes.
    • The eggs are retained, but sperm are carried out the osculum by the water current.
    • Sperm are drawn into neighboring individuals and fertilize eggs in the mesohyl.
    • The zygotes develop into flagellated, swimming larvae that disperse from the parent.
    • When a larva finds a suitable substratum, it develops into a sessile adult.
  • Sponges produce a variety of antibiotics and other defensive compounds.
    • Researchers are now isolating these compounds, which may be useful in fighting human disease.

Concept 33.2 Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes

  • All animals except sponges belong to the Eumetazoa, the animals with true tissues.
  • The cnidarians (hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and coral animals) have a relatively simple body construction.
    • They are a diverse group with more than 10,000 living species, most of which are marine.
    • They exhibit a relatively simple, diploblastic body plan that arose 570 million years ago.
  • The basic cnidarian body plan is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity.
    • A single opening to this cavity functions as both mouth and anus.
  • This basic body plan has two variations: the sessile polyp and the floating medusa.
  • The cylindrical polyps, such as hydras and sea anemones, adhere to the substratum by the aboral end and extend their tentacles, waiting for prey.
  • Medusas (also called jellies) are flattened, mouth-down versions of polyps that move by drifting passively and by contracting their bell-shaped bodies.
    • The tentacles of a jelly dangle from the oral surface.
  • Some cnidarians exist only as polyps.
    • Others exist only as medusas.
    • Still others pass sequentially through both a medusa stage and a polyp stage in their life cycle.
  • Cnidarians are carnivores that use tentacles arranged in a ring around the mouth to capture prey and push the food into the gastrovascular chamber for digestion.
    • Batteries of cnidocytes on the tentacles defend the animal or capture prey.
      • Organelles called cnidae evert a thread that can inject poison into the prey, or stick to or entangle the target.
    • Cnidae called nematocysts are stinging capsules.
  • Muscles and nerves exist in their simplest forms in cnidarians.
  • Cells of the epidermis and gastrodermis have bundles of microfilaments arranged into contractile fibers.
    • True muscle tissue appears first in triploblastic animals.
    • When the animal closes its mouth, the gastrovascular cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton against which the contractile cells can work.
  • Movements are controlled by a noncentralized nerve net associated with simple sensory receptors that are distributed radially around the body.
  • The phylum Cnidaria is divided into four major classes: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, and Anthozoa.
  • The four cnidarian classes show variations on the same body theme of polyp and medusa.
  • Most hydrozoans alternate polyp and medusa forms, as in the life cycle of Obelia.
    • The polyp stage, often a colony of interconnected polyps, is more conspicuous than the medusa.
  • Hydras, among the few freshwater cnidarians, are unusual members of the class Hydrozoa in that they exist only in the polyp form.
    • When environmental conditions are favorable, a hydra reproduces asexually by budding, the formation of outgrowths that pinch off from the parent to live independently.
    • When environmental conditions deteriorate, hydras form resistant zygotes that remain dormant until conditions improve.
  • The medusa generally prevails in the life cycle of class Scyphozoa.
    • The medusae of most species live among the plankton as jellies.
  • Most coastal scyphozoans go through small polyp stages during their life cycle.
    • Jellies that live in the open ocean generally lack the sessile polyp.
  • Cubozoans have a box-shaped medusa stage.
    • They can be distinguished from scyphozoans in other significant ways, such as having complex eyes in the fringe of the medusae.
  • Cubozoans, which generally live in tropical oceans, are often equipped with highly toxic cnidocytes.
  • Sea anemones and corals belong to the class Anthozoa.
    • They occur only as polyps.
    • Coral animals live as solitary or colonial forms and secrete a hard external skeleton of calcium carbonate.
    • Each polyp generation builds on the skeletal remains of earlier generations to form skeletons that we call coral.
  • In tropical seas, coral reefs provide habitat for a great diversity of invertebrates and fishes.
    • Coral reefs in many parts of the world are currently being destroyed by human activity.
    • Pollution, overfishing, and global warming are contributing to their demise.

Concept 33.3 Most animals have bilateral symmetry

  • The vast majority of animal species belong to the clade Bilateria, which consists of animals with bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development.
  • Most bilaterians are also coelomates.
  • The most recent common ancestor of living bilaterians probably lived in the later Proterozoic.
  • During the Cambrian explosion, most major groups of bilaterians emerged.

    Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms are acoelomates with gastrovascular cavities.

  • Flatworms live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats.
    • They also include many parasitic species, such as the flukes and tapeworms.
  • Flatworms have thin bodies, ranging in size from nearly microscopic to tapeworms more than 20 m long.
  • Flatworms and other bilaterians are triploblastic, with a middle embryonic tissue layer, a mesoderm, which contributes to more complex organs and organ systems and to true muscle tissue.
  • While flatworms are structurally more complex than cnidarians, they are simpler than other bilaterians.
    • Like cnidarians, flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity with only one opening (and tapeworms lack a digestive system entirely and absorb nutrients across their body surface).
    • Unlike other bilaterians, flatworms lack a coelom.
  • The flat shape of a flatworm places all cells close to the surrounding water, enabling gas exchange and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes (ammonia) by diffusion across the body surface.
  • Flatworms have no specialized organs for gas exchange and circulation, and their relatively simple excretory apparatus functions mainly to maintain osmotic balance.
    • This apparatus consists of ciliated cells called flame bulbs that waft fluid through branched ducts that open to the outside.
  • Flatworms are divided into four classes: Turbellaria, Monogenia, Trematoda, and Cestoidea.
  • Turbellarians are nearly all free-living (nonparasitic) and most are marine.
    • Planarians, members of the genus Dugesia, are carnivores or scavengers in unpolluted ponds and streams.
  • Planarians move using cilia on the ventral epidermis, gliding along a film of mucus they secrete.
    • Some turbellarians use muscles for undulatory swimming.
  • A planarian has a head with a pair of eyespots to detect light, and lateral flaps that function mainly for smell.
    • The planarian nervous system is more complex and centralized than the nerve net of cnidarians.
      • Planarians can learn to modify their responses to stimuli.
    • Planarians reproduce asexually through regeneration.
      • The parent constricts in the middle, and each half regenerates the missing end.
    • Planarians can also reproduce sexually.
      • These hermaphrodites cross-fertilize.
    • The monogeneans (class Monogenea) and the trematodes (class Trematoda) live as parasites in or on other animals.
      • Many have suckers for attachment to their host.
      • A tough covering protects the parasites.
      • Reproductive organs nearly fill the interior of these worms.
    • Trematodes parasitize a wide range of hosts, and most species have complex life cycles with alternation of sexual and asexual stages.
      • Many require an intermediate host in which the larvae develop before infecting the final hosts (usually a vertebrate) where the adult worm lives.
      • The blood fluke Schistosoma infects 200 million people, leading to body pains and dysentery.
        • The intermediate host for Schistosoma is a snail.
    • Living within different hosts puts demands on trematodes that free-living animals do not face.
      • A blood fluke must evade the immune systems of two very different hosts.
      • By mimicking their host’s surface proteins, blood flukes create a partial immunological camouflage.
      • They also release molecules that manipulate the host’s immune system.
      • These defenses are so effective that individual flukes can survive in a human host for more than 40 years.
    • Most monogeneans are external parasites of fishes.
    • Their life cycles are simple, with a ciliated, free-living larva that starts an infection on a host.
    • While traditionally aligned with trematodes, some structural and chemical evidence suggests that they are more closely related to tapeworms.
  • Tapeworms (class Cestoidea) are also parasitic.
    • The adults live mostly in vertebrates, including humans.
  • Suckers and hooks on the head, or scolex, anchor the worm in the digestive tract of the host.
    • Tapeworms lack a gastrovascular cavity and absorb food particles from their hosts.
  • A long series of proglottids, sacs of sex organs, lie posterior to the scolex.
    • Mature proglottids, loaded with thousands of eggs, are released from the posterior end of the tapeworm and leave with the host’s feces.
    • In one type of cycle, tapeworm eggs in contaminated food or water are ingested by intermediary hosts, such as pigs or cattle.
    • The eggs develop into larvae that encyst in the muscles of their host.
    • Humans acquire the larvae by eating undercooked meat contaminated with cysts.
    • The larvae develop into mature adults within the human.

    Phylum Rotifera: Rotifers are pseudocoelomates with jaws, crowns of cilia, and complete digestive tracts.

  • Rotifers are tiny animals (5 µm to 2 mm), most of which live in freshwater.
    • Some live in the sea or in damp soil.
  • Rotifers are smaller than many protists but are truly multicellular, with specialized organ systems.
  • Rotifers have an alimentary canal, a digestive tract with a separate mouth and anus.
  • Internal organs lie in the pseudocoelom, a body cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm.
    • The fluid in the pseudocoelom serves as a hydrostatic skeleton.
    • Through the movements of nutrients and wastes dissolved in the coelomic fluid, the pseudocoelom also functions as a circulatory system.
  • The word rotifer, “wheel-bearer,” refers to the crown of cilia that draws a vortex of water into the mouth.
    • Food particles drawn in by the cilia are captured by the jaws (trophi) in the pharynx and ground up.
  • Some rotifers exist only as females that produce more females from unfertilized eggs, a type of parthenogenesis.
  • Other species produce two types of eggs that develop by parthenogenesis.
    • One type forms females, and the other forms degenerate males that survive just long enough to fertilize eggs.
    • The zygote forms a resistant stage that can withstand environmental extremes until conditions improve.
    • The zygote then begins a new female generation that reproduces by parthenogenesis until conditions become unfavorable again.
  • It is puzzling that so many rotifers survive without males.
    • The vast majority of animals and plants reproduce sexually at least some of the time, and sexual reproduction has certain advantages over asexual reproduction.
    • For example, species that reproduce asexually tend to accumulate harmful mutations in their genomes faster than sexually reproducing species.
    • As a result, asexual species experience higher rates of extinction and lower rates of speciation.
  • A class of asexual rotifers called Bdelloidea consists of 360 species that all reproduce by parthenogenesis without males.
    • Thirty-five-million-year-old bdelloid rotifers have been found preserved in amber.
    • The morphology of these fossils resembles the female form.
    • DNA comparisons of bdelloids with their closest sexually reproducing rotifer relatives suggest that bdelloids have been asexual for far more than 35 million years.
  • Bdelloid rotifers raise interesting questions about the evolution of sex.

    The lophophorate phyla: ectoprocts, phoronids, and brachiopods are coelomates with ciliated tentacles around their mouths.

  • Bilaterians in three phyla—Ectoprocta, Phoronida, and Brachiopoda—are traditionally called lophophorate animals because they all have a lophophore.
    • The lophophore is a horseshoe-shaped or circular fold of the body wall bearing ciliated tentacles that surround and draw water toward the mouth.
    • The tentacles trap suspended food particles.
  • In addition to the lophophore, these three phyla share a U-shaped digestive tract and the absence of a head.
    • These may be adaptations to a sessile existence.
  • In contrast to flatworms, which lack a body cavity, and rotifers, which have a pseudocoelom, lophophorates have true coeloms completely lined with mesoderm.
  • Ectoprocts are colonial animals that superficially resemble plants.
    • In most species, the colony is encased in a hard exoskeleton.
    • The lophophores extend through pores in the exoskeleton.
  • Most ectoprocts are marine, where they are widespread and numerous sessile animals, with several species that can be important reef builders.
    • Ectoprocts also live in lakes and rivers.
  • Phoronids are tube-dwelling marine worms ranging from 1 mm to 50 cm in length.
    • Some live buried in the sand within chitinous tubes.
    • They extend the lophophore from the tube when feeding and pull it back in when threatened.
  • Brachiopods, or lampshells, superficially resemble clams and other bivalve molluscs.
    • However, the two halves of the brachiopod are dorsal and ventral to the animal, rather than lateral as in clams.
  • All brachiopods are marine.
    • Most live attached to the substratum by a stalk, opening their shell slightly to allow water to flow over the lophophore.
  • The living brachiopods are remnants of a richer past.
    • Thirty thousand species of brachiopod fossils have been described from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

    Phylum Nemertea: Proboscis worms are named for their prey-capturing apparatus.

  • The members of the Phylum Nemertea, proboscis worms or ribbon worms, have bodies much like those of flatworms.
    • However, they have a small fluid-filled sac that may be a reduced version of a true coelom.
    • The sac and fluid hydraulics operate an extensible proboscis, which the worm uses to capture prey.
  • Nemerteans range in length from less than 1 mm to several meters.
  • Nearly all nemerteans are marine, but a few species inhabit fresh water or damp soil.
    • Some are active swimmers, and others burrow into the sand.
  • Nemerteans and flatworms have similar excretory, sensory, and nervous systems.
  • However, nemerteans have an alimentary canal and a closed circulatory system in which the blood is contained in vessels.
    • Nemerteans have no heart, and the blood is propelled by muscles squeezing the vessels.

Concept 33.4 Molluscs have a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle

  • The phylum Mollusca includes many diverse forms, including snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids.
  • Most molluscs are marine, though some inhabit fresh water, and some snails and slugs live on land.
  • Molluscs are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell of calcium carbonate.
    • Slugs, squids, and octopuses have reduced or lost their shells completely during their evolution.
  • Despite their apparent differences, all molluscs have a similar body plan with a muscular foot (typically for locomotion), a visceral mass with most of the internal organs, and a mantle.
    • The mantle, which secretes the shell, drapes over the visceral mass and creates a water-filled chamber, the mantle cavity, with gills, anus, and excretory pores.
    • Many molluscs feed by using a straplike rasping organ, a radula, to scrape up food.
  • Most molluscs have separate sexes, with gonads located in the visceral mass.
    • However, many snails are hermaphrodites.
  • The life cycle of many marine molluscs includes a ciliated larva, the trochophore.
    • This larva is also found in marine annelids (segmented worms) and some other lophotrochozoans.
  • The basic molluscan body plan has evolved in various ways in the eight classes of the phylum.
    • The four most prominent are the Polyplacophora (chitons), Gastropoda (snails and slugs), Bivalvia (clams, oysters, and other bivalves), and Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, and chambered nautiluses).
  • Chitons are marine animals with oval shapes and shells divided into eight dorsal plates.
    • The chiton body is unsegmented.
  • Chitons use their muscular foot to grip the rocky substrate tightly and to creep slowly over the rock surface.
  • Chitons are grazers that use their radulas to scrape and ingest algae.
  • Almost three-quarters of all living species of molluscs are gastropods.
    • Most gastropods are marine, but there are also many freshwater species.
    • Garden snails and slugs have adapted to land.
  • During embryonic development, gastropods undergo torsion in which the visceral mass is rotated up to 180 degrees, so the anus and mantle cavity are above the head in adults.
    • After torsion, some of the organs that were bilateral are reduced or lost on one side of the body.
  • Most gastropods are protected by single, spiral shells into which the animals can retreat if threatened.
    • Torsion and formation of the coiled shell are independent developmental processes.
  • While gastropod shells are typically conical, those of abalones and limpets are somewhat flattened.
  • Many gastropods have distinct heads with eyes at the tips of tentacles.
  • They move by a rippling motion of their foot or by means of cilia.
  • Most gastropods use their radula to graze on algae or plant material.
  • Some species are predators.
    • In these species, the radula is modified to bore holes in the shells of other organisms or to tear apart tough animal tissues.
    • In the tropical marine cone snails, teeth on the radula form separate poison darts, which penetrate and stun their prey, including fishes.
  • In place of the gills found in most aquatic gastropods, the lining of the mantle cavity of terrestrial snails functions as a lung.
  • The class Bivalvia includes clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops.
  • Bivalves have shells divided into two halves.
    • The two parts are hinged at the mid-dorsal line, and powerful adductor muscles close the shell tightly to protect the animal.
  • Bivalves have no distinct head, and the radula has been lost.
    • Some bivalves have eyes and sensory tentacles along the outer edge of the mantle.
  • The mantle cavity of a bivalve contains gills that are used for feeding and gas exchange.
  • Most bivalves are suspension feeders, trapping fine particles in mucus that coats the gills.
    • Cilia convey the particles to the mouth.
    • Water flows into the mantle cavity via the incurrent siphon, passes over the gills, and exits via the excurrent siphon.
  • Most bivalves live rather sedentary lives, a characteristic suited to suspension feeding.
    • Sessile mussels secrete strong threads that tether them to rocks, docks, boats, and the shells of other animals.
    • Clams can pull themselves into the sand or mud, using the muscular foot as an anchor.
    • Scallops can swim in short bursts to avoid predators by flapping their shells and jetting water out their mantle cavity.
  • Cephalopods are active predators that use rapid movements to dart toward their prey, which they capture with several long tentacles.
    • Squids and octopuses use beak-like jaws to bite their prey and then inject poison to immobilize the victim.
  • A mantle covers the visceral mass, but the shell is reduced and internal in squids, missing in many octopuses, and exists externally only in chambered nautiluses.
  • Fast movements by a squid occur when it contracts its mantle cavity and fires a stream of water through the excurrent siphon.
    • By pointing the siphon in different directions, the squid can rapidly move in different directions.
  • The foot of a cephalopod has been modified into the muscular siphon and parts of the tentacles and head.
  • Cephalopods are the only molluscs with a closed circulatory system.
    • They also have well-developed sense organs and a complex brain.
  • The ancestors of octopuses and squid were probably shelled molluscs that took up a predatory lifestyle.
  • Shelled cephalopods called ammonites were the dominant invertebrate predators of the seas for hundreds of millions of years until their disappearance in the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period.
  • Most squid are less than 75 cm long.
    • In 2003, a squid with a mantle 2.5 meters long was captured near Antarctica.
      • The specimen was possibly a juvenile, only half the size of an adult.
      • Large squid are thought to feed on large fish in the deep ocean, where sperm whales are their only natural predators.

Concept 33.5 Annelids are segmented worms

  • All annelids (“little rings”) have segmented bodies.
  • They range in length from less than 1 mm to 3 m for the giant Australian earthworm.
  • Annelids live in the sea, most freshwater habitats, and damp soil.
  • The phylum Annelida is divided into three classes: Oligochaeta (earthworms), Polychaeta (polychaetes), and Hirudinea (leeches).
  • Oligochaetes are named for their relatively sparse chaetae, or bristles made of chitin.
  • This class of segmented worms includes the earthworms and a variety of aquatic species.
  • Earthworms eat their way through soil, extracting nutrients as the soil passes through the alimentary canal.
    • Undigested material is egested as castings.
    • Earthworms till the soil, enriching it with their castings.
  • Earthworms are cross-fertilizing hermaphrodites.
    • Two earthworms exchange sperm and then separate.
    • The received sperm are stored while a special organ, the clitellum, secretes a mucous cocoon.
    • As the cocoon slides along the body, it picks up eggs and stored sperm and slides off the body into the soil.
  • Some earthworms can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation followed by regeneration.
  • Each segment of a polychaete (“many setae”) has a pair of paddlelike or ridgelike parapodia (“almost feet”) that function in locomotion.
    • Each parapodium has several chitinous setae.
    • In many polychaetes, the rich blood vessels in the parapodia function as gills.
  • Most polychaetes are marine.
    • Many crawl on or burrow in the seafloor, while a few drift and swim in the plankton.
    • Some live in tubes that the worms make by mixing mucus with sand and broken shells. Others construct tubes from their own secretions.
  • The majority of leeches inhabit fresh water, but land leeches move through moist vegetation.
  • Leeches range in size from about 1 to 30 cm.
  • Many leeches feed on other invertebrates, but some blood-sucking parasites feed by attaching temporarily to other animals, including humans.
    • Some parasitic species use blade-like jaws to slit the host’s skin, while others secrete enzymes that digest a hole through the skin.
    • The host is usually unaware of the attack because the leech secretes an anesthetic.
    • The leech also secretes hirudin, an anticoagulant, into the wound, allowing the leech to suck as much blood as it can hold.
  • Until the 20th century, leeches were frequently used by physicians for bloodletting.
    • Leeches are still used to drain blood that accumulates in tissues following injury or surgery.
    • Researchers are also investigating the potential use of hirudin to dissolve unwanted blood clots from surgery or heart disease.
    • A recombinant form of hirudin has been developed and is in clinical trials.

Concept 33.6 Nematodes are nonsegmented pseudocoelomates covered by a tough cuticle

  • Roundworms are found in most aquatic habitats, wet soil, moist tissues of plants, and the body fluids and tissues of animals.
  • They range in size from less than 1 mm to more than a meter.
  • The cylindrical bodies of roundworms are covered with a tough exoskeleton, the cuticle.
    • As the worm grows, it periodically sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one.
  • They have an alimentary tract and use the fluid in their pseudocoelom to transport nutrients since they lack a circulatory system.
  • Their thrashing motion is due to contraction of longitudinal muscles.
  • Nematodes usually reproduce sexually.
    • The sexes are separate in most species, and fertilization is internal.
    • Females may lay 100,000 or more fertilized eggs per day.
    • The zygotes of most nematodes are resistant cells that can survive harsh conditions.
  • Abundant, free-living nematodes live in moist soil and in decomposing organic matter on the bottom of lakes and oceans.
    • There are 25,000 described species, and perhaps ten times that number actually exist.
    • If nothing but nematodes remained, it has been said, they would still preserve the outline of the planet and many of its features.
    • They play a major role in decomposition and nutrient recycling.
      • The soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, has become a model organism in developmental biology.
  • The nematodes include many species that are important agricultural pests that attack plant roots.
  • Other species parasitize animals.
    • More than 50 nematode species, including various pinworms and hookworms, parasitize humans.
    • Trichinella spiralis causes trichinosis when the nematode worms encyst in a variety of human organs, including skeletal muscle.
    • They are acquired by eating undercooked meat that has juvenile worms encysted in the muscle tissue.
  • Parasitic nematodes are able to hijack some of the cellular functions of their hosts.
    • Plant-parasitic nematodes produce molecules that induce the development of root cells that provide nutrients to the parasites.
    • Trichenella in human muscle cells controls the expression of muscle cell genes that code for proteins that make the cell elastic enough to house the nematode.
      • The muscle cell also releases signals to attract blood vessels, supplying the nematode with nutrients.

Concept 33.7 Arthropods are segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages

  • The world arthropod population has been estimated at a billion billion (1018) individuals.
  • Nearly a million arthropod species have been described.
    • Two out of every three known species are arthropods.
    • This phylum is represented in nearly all habitats in the biosphere.
  • On the criteria of species diversity, distribution, and sheer numbers, arthropods must be regarded as the most successful animal phylum.
  • The diversity and success of arthropods are largely due to three features: body segmentation, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages.
    • Early arthropods such as the trilobites had pronounced segmentation, but little variation in their appendages.
  • Groups of segments and their appendages have become specialized for a variety of functions, permitting efficient division of labor among regions.
  • The body of an arthropod is completely covered by the cuticle, an exoskeleton constructed from layers of protein and chitin.
    • The exoskeleton protects the animal and provides points of attachment for the muscles that move appendages.
    • It is thick and inflexible in some regions, such as crab claws, and thin and flexible in others, such as joints.
  • The exoskeleton of arthropods is strong and relatively impermeable to water.
    • In order to grow, an arthropod must molt its old exoskeleton and secrete a larger one, a process called ecdysis that leaves the animal temporarily vulnerable to predators and other dangers.
  • The exoskeleton’s relative impermeability to water helped prevent desiccation and provided support on land.
    • Arthropods moved to land after the colonization of land by plants and fungi.
    • In 2004, an amateur fossil hunter found a 428-million-year-old fossil of a millipede. Fossilized arthropod tracks date from 450 million years ago.
  • Arthropods have well-developed sense organs, including eyes for vision, olfactory receptors for smell, and antennae for touch and smell.
    • Most sense organs are located at the anterior end of the animal, which shows extensive cephalization.
  • Arthropods have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph fluid is propelled by a heart through short arteries into sinuses (the hemocoel) surrounding tissues and organs.
    • Hemolymph returns to the heart through valved pores.
    • The hemocoel is not a coelom; the true coelom is much reduced in most arthropods.
    • Open circulatory systems evolved convergently in arthropods and molluscs.
  • Arthropods have evolved a variety of specialized organs for gas exchange.
    • Most aquatic species have gills with thin, feathery extensions that have an extensive surface area in contact with water.
    • Terrestrial arthropods generally have internal surfaces specialized for gas exchange.
      • For example, insects have tracheal systems, branched air ducts leading into the interior from pores in the cuticle.
  • Molecular systematics is suggesting new hypotheses about arthropod relationships.
    • Evidence shows that arthropods diverged early in their history into four main evolutionary lineages: cheliceriformes (sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, spiders), myriapods (centipedes and millipedes), hexapods (insects and their wingless, six-legged relatives), and crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, and many others).
  • Cheliceriformes are named for their clawlike feeding appendages, chelicerae, which serve as pincers or fangs.
    • Cheliceriformes have an anterior cephalothorax and a posterior abdomen.
    • They lack sensory antennae, and most have simple eyes (eyes with a single lens).
    • The earliest cheliceriformes were eurypterids, or water scorpions, marine and freshwater predators that grew up to 3 m long.
    • Modern marine cheliceriformes include the sea spiders (pycnogonids) and the horseshoe crabs.
  • The majority of living cheliceriformes are arachnids, a group that includes scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites.
  • Nearly all ticks are blood-sucking parasites on the body surfaces of reptiles or mammals.
    • Parasitic mites live on or in a wide variety of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants.
  • The arachnid cephalothorax has six pairs of appendages.
    • There are four pairs of walking legs.
    • A pair of pedipalps function in sensing or feeding.
    • The chelicerae usually function in feeding.
  • Spiders inject poison from glands on the chelicerae to immobilize their prey and while chewing their prey, spill digestive juices into the tissues and suck up the liquid meal.
  • In most spiders, gas exchange is carried out by book lungs.
    • These are stacked plates contained in an internal chamber.
    • The plates present an extensive surface area, enhancing exchange of gases between the hemolymph and air.
  • A unique adaptation of many spiders is the ability to catch flying insects in webs of silk.
    • The silk protein is produced as a liquid by abdominal glands and spun by spinnerets into fibers that solidify.
    • Web designs are characteristic of each species.
    • Silk fibers have other functions as egg covers, drop lines for a rapid escape, and “gift wrapping” for nuptial gifts.
  • Millipedes and centipedes belong to the subphylum Myriapoda, the myriapods.
    • All living myriapods are terrestrial.
    • Millipedes (class Diplopoda) have two pairs of walking legs on each of their many trunk segments, formed by two fused segments.
    • They eat decaying leaves and plant matter.
    • They may have been among the earliest land animals.
  • Centipedes (class Chilopoda) are terrestrial carnivores.
    • The head has a pair of antennae and three pairs of appendages modified as mouth parts, including the jawlike mandibles.
    • Each segment in the trunk region has one pair of walking legs.
    • Centipedes have poison claws on the anteriormost trunk segment that paralyze prey and aid in defense.
  • Insects and their relatives (subphylum Hexapoda) are more species-rich than all other forms of life combined.
  • They live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water, and flying insects fill the air.
    • They are rare, but not absent, from the sea, where crustaceans dominate.
  • The oldest insect fossils date back to the Devonian period, about 416 million years ago.
    • When insect flight evolved in the Carboniferous and Permian periods, it sparked an explosion in insect varieties.
    • Diversification of mouthparts for feeding on gymnosperms and other Carboniferous plants also contributed to the adaptive radiation of insects.
    • In one widely held hypothesis, the radiation of flowering plants triggered the greatest diversification of insects in the Cretaceous and early Tertiary periods.
      • However, new research suggests that insects diversified first and, as pollinators and herbivores, may have caused the angiosperm radiation.
  • Flight is one key to the great success of insects.
    • Flying animals can escape many predators, find food and mates, and disperse to new habitats faster than organisms that must crawl on the ground.
  • Many insects have one or two pairs of wings that emerge from the dorsal side of the thorax.
    • Wings are extensions of the cuticle and are not true appendages.
  • Several hypotheses have been proposed for the evolution of wings.
    • In one hypothesis, wings first evolved as extensions of the cuticle that helped the insect absorb heat and were later modified for flight.
    • A second hypothesis argues that wings allowed animals to glide from vegetation to the ground.
    • Alternatively, wings may have served as gills in aquatic insects.
    • Still another hypothesis proposes that insect wings functioned for swimming before they functioned for flight.
  • Insect wings are also very diverse.
    • Dragonflies, among the first insects to fly, have two similar pairs of wings.
    • The wings of bees and wasps are hooked together and move as a single pair.
    • Butterfly wings operate similarly because the anterior wings overlap the posterior wings.
    • In beetles, the posterior wings function in flight, while the anterior wings act as covers that protect the flight wings when the beetle is on the ground or burrowing.
  • The internal anatomy of an insect includes several complex organ systems.
    • In the complete digestive system, there are regionally specialized organs with discrete functions.
    • Metabolic wastes are removed from the hemolymph by Malpighian tubules, outpockets of the digestive tract.
    • Respiration is accomplished by a branched, chitin-lined tracheal system that carries O2 from the spiracles directly to the cells.
  • The insect nervous system consists of a pair of ventral nerve cords with several segmental ganglia.
    • The two cords meet in the head, where the ganglia from several anterior segments are fused into a cerebral ganglion (brain).
    • This structure is close to the antennae, eyes, and other sense organs concentrated on the head.
  • Metamorphosis is central to insect development.
    • In incomplete metamorphosis (seen in grasshoppers and some other orders), the young resemble adults but are smaller and have different body proportions.
      • Through a series of molts, the young look more and more like adults until they reach full size.
    • In complete metamorphosis, larval stages specialized for eating and growing change morphology completely during the pupal stage and emerge as adults.
  • Reproduction in insects is usually sexual, with separate male and female individuals.
    • Coloration, sound, or odor bring together opposite sexes at the appropriate time.
    • In most species, sperm cells are deposited directly into the female’s vagina at the time of copulation.
      • In a few species, females pick up a sperm packet deposited by a male.
    • The females store sperm in the spermatheca, in some cases holding enough sperm from a single mating to last a lifetime.
    • After mating, females lay their eggs on a food source appropriate for the next generation.
  • Insects affect the lives of all other terrestrial organisms.
    • Insects are important natural and agricultural pollinators.
    • On the other hand, insects are carriers for many diseases, including malaria and African sleeping sickness.
    • Insects compete with humans for food, consuming crops intended to feed and clothe human populations.
      • Billions of dollars each year are spent by farmers on pesticides to minimize losses to insects.
      • In parts of Africa, insects claim about 75% of the crops.
  • While arachnids and insects thrive on land, most crustaceans remain in marine and freshwater environments.
  • Crustaceans typically have biramous (branched) appendages that are extensively specialized.
    • Lobsters and crayfish have 19 pairs of appendages, adapted to a variety of tasks.
    • In addition to two pairs of antennae, crustaceans have three or more pairs of mouthparts, including hard mandibles.
    • Walking legs are present on the thorax and other appendages for swimming or reproduction are found on the abdomen.
    • Crustaceans can regenerate lost appendages during molting.
  • Small crustaceans exchange gases across thin areas of the cuticle, but larger species have gills.
  • The circulatory system is open, with a heart pumping hemolymph into short arteries and then into sinuses that bathe the organs.
  • Nitrogenous wastes are excreted by diffusion through thin areas of the cuticle, but glands regulate the salt balance of the hemolymph.
  • Most crustaceans have separate sexes.
    • In lobsters and crayfish, males use a specialized pair of appendages to transfer sperm to the female’s reproductive pore.
    • Most aquatic species have several larval stages.
  • The isopods, with about 10,000 species, are one of the largest groups of crustaceans.
    • Most are small marine species, and some are abundant at the bottom of deep oceans.
    • Isopods also include the land-dwelling pill bugs, or wood lice, that live underneath moist logs and leaves.
  • Decapods, including lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimp, are among the largest crustaceans.
    • The cuticle is hardened with calcium carbonate.
    • The exoskeleton over the cephalothorax forms a shield called the carapace.
    • While most decapods are marine, crayfish live in fresh water and some tropical crabs are terrestrial as adults.
  • Many small crustaceans are important members of marine and freshwater plankton communities.
    • Planktonic crustaceans include many species of copepods, which are among the most numerous of all animals.
    • Krill are shrimplike planktonic organisms that reach about 3 cm long.
    • A major food source for baleen whales and other ocean predators, they are now harvested extensively by humans for food and agricultural fertilizer.
  • Barnacles are primarily sessile crustaceans with parts of their cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate.
    • They anchor themselves to rocks, boat hulls, and pilings and strain food from the water by extending their appendages.
    • Their adhesive is as strong as any synthetic glue.

Concept 33.8 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes

  • At first glance, sea stars and other echinoderms would seem to have little in common with the phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates.
  • However, these animals share the deuterostome characteristics of radial cleavage, type of development of the coelom from the archenteron, and formation of the anus from the blastopore.
  • Molecular systematics has reinforced the Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals.

    Phylum Echinodermata: Echinoderms have a water vascular system and secondary radial symmetry.

  • Sea stars and most other echinoderms are sessile or slow-moving marine animals.
  • A thin skin covers an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates.
    • Most echinoderms are prickly from skeletal bumps and spines that have various functions.
  • Unique to echinoderms is the water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions called tube feet.
    • These function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.
  • Sexual reproduction in echinoderms usually involves the release of gametes by separate males and females into the seawater.
  • The internal and external parts of the animal radiate from the center, often as five spokes.
    • However, the radial anatomy of adult echinoderms is a secondary adaptation, as echinoderm larvae have bilateral symmetry.
    • The symmetry of adult echinoderms is not perfectly radial.
  • Living echinoderms are divided into six classes: Asteroidea (sea stars), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars), Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars), Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers), and Concentricycloidea (sea daisies).
  • Sea stars have multiple arms radiating from a central disk.
    • The undersides of the arms have rows of tube feet.
    • Each can act like a suction disk that is controlled by hydraulic and muscular action.
  • Sea stars use the tube feet to grasp the substrate, to creep slowly over the surface, or to capture prey.
    • When feeding on closed bivalves, the sea star grasps the bivalve tightly and everts its stomach through its mouth and into the narrow opening between the shells of the bivalve.
    • Enzymes from the sea star’s digestive organs then begin to digest the soft body of the bivalve inside its own shell.
  • Sea stars and some other echinoderms can regenerate lost arms and, in a few cases, even regrow an entire body from a single arm.
  • Brittle stars have a distinct central disk and long, flexible arms.
    • Their tube feet lack suckers.
    • They move by a serpentine lashing of their arms.
    • Some species are suspension feeders, and others are scavengers or predators.
  • Sea urchins and sand dollars have no arms, but they do have five rows of tube feet that are used for locomotion.
    • Sea urchins can also move by pivoting their long spines.
    • The mouth of an urchin is ringed by complex jawlike structures adapted for eating seaweed and other foods.
    • Sea urchins are roughly spherical, while sand dollars are flattened and disk-shaped.
  • Sea lilies are attached to the substratum by stalks, and feather stars crawl using their long, flexible arms.
    • Both use their arms for suspension feeding.
    • The arms circle the mouth, which is directed upward, away from the substrate.
    • Crinoids are an ancient class with very conservative evolution.
    • Fossilized sea lilies from 500 million years ago could pass for modern members of the class.
  • Sea cucumbers do not look much like other echinoderms.
    • They lack spines, the endoskeleton is much reduced, and the oral-aboral axis is elongated.
  • However, they do have five rows of tube feet, like other echinoderms, and other shared features.
    • Some tube feet around the mouth function as feeding tentacles for suspension feeding or deposit feeding
  • Sea daisies were discovered in 1986, and only two species are known.
    • Their armless bodies are disk-shaped with five-fold symmetry.
    • They are less than a centimeter in diameter.
  • Sea daisies absorb nutrients through the membrane surrounding their body.
    • Some taxonomists consider sea daisies to be highly derived sea stars.

    Phylum Chordata: The chordates include two invertebrate subphyla and all vertebrates.

  • The phylum to which we belong consists of two subphyla of invertebrate animals plus the hagfishes and vertebrates.
  • Both groups of deuterostomes, the echinoderms and chordates, have existed as distinct phyla for at least half a billion years.

Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 33-1

Subject: 
Subject X2: 

Need Help?

We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you.

For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.

If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form.

Need Notes?

While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you!